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Messrs. Triibner & C 


lithsonian Institute, Washington, U.S.A., 
r. Trubner & Co., 57, Ludgatc Hill, London, 
V undertaken to receive and forward parcels 
xd printed matter intended for the Society. 


MB to the Build 


ix«; Fexn of 
South Wale 


as per original list 

during 1880... 

Abbott, J. P. 


Brindley, Thomas 

Brown, H. J. 

Dixon, W. A. 

(total donation, £ 

5 5s.) ... 

De Salis, L. ^ 

(., jun. (total don 

tion, £11 Is.) 

Russell, H. C, B.A. (total donation, £1 
Smitl . Th. Ron J., C.M.G., &c. (tot 

Ward, J. W. (total donation, £11 6s.) 

, 8. (total donation, £7 7s. 
Wri-ht, IF. !,. A.. M.R.C.S.E. (total < 

Makin, G. E 

Moore, Charles, F.L.S. 
Russell, H. C, B.A., F.R.A.S., 
Smith, The Hon. J., C.M.G., &e 
Wilkinson, C. S., F.G.S. 
Wright, H. G. A., M.R.C.S.E. 

Bundock, W. C. 
Hunt, Robt., F.G 

Quaife, Dr 

Russell, H. C, B.A. 
Starkey, J. T. 






"VOL. 2T?\ 

Messrs. Triibner & Co., 57, Ludgate Hill, 

Mo. Sot. Garden, 


London, E.C. 


The Royal Society of New South Wales originated in 1821 
as the " Philosophical Society of Australasia" ; after an interval 
of inactivity, it was resuscitated in 1850, under the name of the 
" Australian Philosophical Society," by which title it was known 
until 1856, when the name was changed to the "Philosophical 
Society of New South Wales"; and finally, in 1866, by the 
sanction of Her Most Gracious Majesty the Queen, it assumed 
its present title. 



Art. I. — List or Officers 

Art. II.— Act of Incorporation 

Art. III.— Rules, and List of Members 

Art. IV.— Anniversary Address. By Hon. Professor Smith, 

C.M.G., &c, &c, President 

Art. V.— The Climate of Mackay. By Hy. Ling Roth, F.M.S., 

Art. VI.— Note* of a Journev on the Darling. By W. E. 

Abbott, Wingen, N.S.W. 

Art. VII.— Astronomv oi rfnes. By the 

Rev. Peter MacPherson, M.A 

Art. VIII. — The Spectrum and Appearance of the recent Comet. 

ByH. C.Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S 

Art. IX.— On Comet II, 1881. By John Tebbutt, F.R.A.S. ... 
Art. X.— New Double Stars, and Measures of some of those 

found by Sir John Herschel. By H. C. Russell, B.A., 

Art. XL— Transit of Mercury, November 8th, 1881. By H. C. 

Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S., Government Astronomer 

Art. XII. — On the Inorganic Constituents of soiv 

Ferns. By W. A. Dixon, F. I. C. , F. C. S . ........ 

[. -Census of the Genera of Plants hitherto known as 

Indigenous to L von Mueller, 

K.C.M.G., M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S 

Art. XIV. —Notes on Wool. By P. N. Trebeck 

Art. XV. On tli : iportance of a Comprehensive Scheme of 

this Colony. By F. B. Gipps, C.E 

Art. X VI. — Proceedings 

Art. XVII. —Additions to the Library 


Proceedings of the Sections 

Papers read before the Sections. 
On the Star Lacaille 2145. By John Tebbutt, F.R. A. S. .. 
On the Variable Star R. Carina}. By John Tebbutt, F.R.A.S 
On some Observations for Longitude at Lambie. By W. J 

The Orbit-Elements of Comet II, 1881. By John Tebbutt 

List of Publications 

% gogal #0oeig of fefo £<mt{j SSates* 

OFHCEES FOE 1881-82. 


. RUSSELL, B.A., F.R.A.S., F.M.S 




An Act to incorporate a Society called " The 
Royal Society of New South Wales." [16 
December, 1881.] 

WHEREAS a Society called (with the sanction of Her p 
Most Gracious M»j. , rv the Queen) "The Royal 
Society of New South Wales " has under certain rules and 
by-laws been formed at Sydney in the Colony of New South 
Wales for the encouragement of studies and inv^ti-ationa 
in Science A hilosopky And whereas 

the Council of the said Society is at the present time 
composed of the following office-bearers and members His 
the Eight Honorable Lord Augustus Loftus P.C. 
G.C.B. Honorary President The Honorable John Smith 
C.M.i;. M.D. LI..D. l\ -i '■• ■ ■„,.[ ri.v.-l. , Moore Esquire 
F.L.S. Director of the Botanic Gardens Sydney and Henry 
ie Russell Esquire B.A. (Sydney) F.R.A.S. 
F.M.S. London Government Astronomer for "New South 
Wales Vice-Presidents and H. G. A. Wriirht Es«,uire 
M.R.C.S. II, ii ( ,rar\ Ti 

Associate of the Royal School of Mines London Fellow of 
the Institute of Chemistry of Great Britain and Ireland and 
Professor of Geology and Mineralogy in the University of 
%dney an .,„. f Philo- 

sophy of the Uniyersity of Heidelberg Fellow of the Insti- 
tute of Chemistry of Great Britain and Ireland Honorary 

of Great Britah Robert Hunt 

Esquire Associate of the Royal School of Mines London 

tesr Sydney Branch Royal Mint Eliezer L. 

Montefiore Esquire Christopher Rolleston Esquire < "'.M.G. 

Charles Smith Wilkinson Esquire Government Geologist 
Members of the Council And whereas it is expedient that 
the said Society should be incorporated and should be invested 
with the powers and authorities hereinafter contained Be 
it therefore enacted by the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty 
by and with the advice and consent of the Legislative Council 
and Legislative Assembly of New South Wales in Parliament 
assembled and by the authority of the same as follows : — 

1. For the purposes of this Act the following words in 
inverted commas shall unless the context otherwise indicate 
bear the meaning set against them respectively — 

" Corporation" the Society hereby incorporated 
" Council" the Members of the Council at any duly con- 
vened meeting thereof at which a quorum according 
to the by-laws at the time being shall be present 
"Secretary" such person or either one of sue! i p. -rsoi ffl 
who shall for the time being be the Secretary or 
Secretaries honorary or otherwise of tin said Society 
(saving and excepting anv Assistant St ret irv of 
the said Society). 

2. The Honorary President the President Vice-Presidents 
Officers and Members of the said Society for the time being 
and all persona who shal i l )y the rules 
and 1 y ! v - for the time I dug of th - dd Society become 
members thereof shall be for the purposes hereinafter 
mentioned a uame or style of "The 
Ptoyal Society of New South Wales" and by that name 
shall ■ nd may have perpetual succession and . 

and shall and may enter into contracts and sue and be sued 
plead and be implead, d answer and be answered unto defend 
and be defended in ail Courts and places wh-iU ever and 

which it may be requisite to serve upon the Corporation 
may be served upon the Secretary or one of the 
as the case may be or if there 'be ,.,, Secretary or if the 
Secretaries or Secretary be absent from the Colony then 
upon the President or either of the Vice-Presidents. 

3 The present rules and by-laws of the said Society shall 
be deemed and considered to be and shall be the rules and 
by-laws of the said Corporation suv, and except in so far as 
any of them are or shall or may be altered varied or repealed 
under the powers for that purpose therein contained or are 

compatible with or repugnant to 
any of the provisions of this Act or any of the laws now or 
hereafter to he in force in the said Colony. 

4. The Corporation shall have power to purchase acquiiv i 
and hold lands and any interest therein and also to sell and jj 
dispose of the said lands or any interest therein and all 
lands tenement- other property of wh&br 
ever nature now belonging to the said Society under the 
said rules and by-laws or vested in Trustees for them shall 
on the passing of this Act be vested in and become the 
property of the sai ject to all charges claims 
and demand* in i\ >■.:->■ aii'. ■ '.ir.g the same. 

5. The ordinary business of the < < ndimry 


not be I-.' ful for individual members + <> interfere in am ( m 
way in the management of the affairs of the Corporation 
except as by the rides and 1a daws for the time being shall 
be specially provided. 

6. The Council shall have the p. m r d management and Powers of 

ing the appointment of Pre '• - V -Presidents and 

other honorary officers who shall be appointed as the bydaws 
of the Society shall from time to time provide the Council 
shall have the appointment of all officers and servants re- 
quired for carrying out I • lety and of 
preservingifaB - . • duties and 
fix the salaries of all officers Provided tl u if a vacai cy 
shall occur in 

Society's proee-i rtul for the Council to 

electa member of the Se ancy for the 

unexpired portion of the then current year The Council 
may also purchase or rent land houses or offices and erect 
building's or other structures for any of the purposes for 
which the Society is hereby incorporated and may borrow 
money for the purposes of the Corporation on mortgages of 
the real and chattel property of the Corporation or any part 
thereof or may borrow money without security provided that 
the amount so borrowed v never exceed 

in the aggregate the amount of the income, of the Corporation 
for the last preceding year and the Council may also settle 
and agree to the covenants powers and authorities to be 
contained in the securities aforesaid. 

7. In the event of the funds and property of the Corpo- utility el 
ration being insufficient to meet its engagements each members. 
member there, A . don for the 

then current year be liable to contribute a sum equal thereto 
towards the payment of such engagements but shall not be 
otherwise individually liable for the same and no member 
vim skd! have commuted his annual subscription shall be so 
liable tor any amount beyond that of one year's su 

8. The Council shall have the custody of the common seal 
of rli, Corporation and have power to use the same in the 
affairs and business of the Corporation and for the execution 
of any of the securities aforesaid and may under such aeaJ 
authorize any person without such seal to execute any deed 
or deeds and do such other matter as may be required to be 
done on behalf of the Corporation but it shall not be neces- 
sary to use fcl iry business 
of the Corporation nor for the appointment of their 
Secretaries Solicitor or other officers. 
of 9. The production of a printed or written copy of the 

to lie a true copy and having the common seal of the 
Corporation affixed thereto shall be conclusive evidence in 
all Courts of such rul< s and b\ laws and of tie same having 
been made under the authority of this Act. 

10. In case any of the elections directed by the rules and 
by-laws for the time being of the Corporation to be made 
shall not be made at the tunes required it seal! nevertheless 
be competent to the Council or to the members as the case 

', Council or at any annual or special general 
me.-ting held subsequently. 

11. The Secretary or either one of the Secretaries may 
represent the Cot ration in ! . ' i 


Annual General Meeting 

Auditors and Audit of Accounts 

Absence from Council Meetings 

Alteration of Kules 

Admission of Visitors 

„ of Members 

Annual Subscription 

„ when due... 

Ballot, election by, of Officers and Council 

A majority of four-fifths necessary 

Business, Order of 

Branch Societies 

Cabinets and Collections 

Contributions to the Society 

Com p nd g Members 

Council, Election of 


Election of new Members 

„ Notification of ... 

Entrance Fee 

Expulsion of Members . . . 

Erasure of Name 

Fees and Subscriptions ... 

Funds, Management of ... 

Governor, Honorary President 

Honorary Members 
Meetings, Ordinary General 

i, Honorary 
Resignation of.. 

Order of Easiness 


„ Honorary 

Property of the Society 

Quorum at the Council Meetings 

„ for the Election of Officers a 

. '<■; lljlW 

Rules, Alteration of 
Scrutineers, Appointment of 
Sections, Membership of ... 
Sections or Committees ... 
Secretaries, Hon., Duties of 

of Sections ... 


(Sevised October 1st, 1879.) 

Object of the Society. 

I. The object of the Society is to receive at its stated meetings 
original papers on Science, Art, Literature, and Philosophy, and 
especially on such subjects as tend to develop the resources of 
Australia, and to illustrate its Natural History and Productions. 

Honorary President. 

II. The Governor of New South Wales shall be ex officio 
Honorary President of the Society. 

Other Officers. 

III. The other Officers of the Society shall consist of a 
President, who shall hold office for one year only, but shall be 
eligible for re-election after the lapse of one year; two Vice- 
Presidents, a Treasurer, and one or more Secretaries', who, with 
six other Members, shall constitute a Council for the management 
of the affairs of the Society. 

Ejection of Officers and Council. 

IV. The President, Vice-Presidents, Secretaries, Treasurer, 
and the six other Members of Council, shall be elected annually 
by ballot at the General Meeting in the month of May. 

V. It shall be the duty of the Council each year to prepare a 
list containing the names of members whom they recommend for 
election to the respective offices of President, Vice-Presidents, 
Hon. Secretaries and Hon. Treasurer, together with the names 
of six other members whom they recommend for election as 
ordinary members of Council. 

The names thus recommended shall be proposed at one meeting 
of the Council, and agreed to at a subsequent meeting 

Such list stall be suspended in the Society's Kooms, and a copy- 
hall be sent to each ordinary member not less than fourteen days 
before the day appointed for the Annual General Meeting. 

YI. Each member present at the Annual General Meeting 
shall have the power to alter the list of names recommended by 
the Council, by adding to it the names of any eligible members 
not already included in it and removing from it an equivalent 
number of names, and he shall use this list with or without such 
alterations as a balloting list at the election of Officers and 

The name of each member voting shall be entered into a book, 
kept for that purpose, by two Scrutineers elected by the members 

No ballot for the election of Members of Council, or of New 
Members, shall be valid unless twenty members at least shall 
record their votes. 

Vacancies in the Council during the year. 
YII. Any vacancies occurring in the Council of Management 
during the year may be filled up by the Council. 

Candidates for admission. 

VIII. Candidates must be at least twenty-one years of age. 

Every candidate for admission as an ordinary member of the 
Society shall be recommended according to a prescribed form of 
certificate by not less than three members, to two of whom the 
candidate must be personally known. 

Such certificate must set forth the names, place of residence, 
and qualifications of the candidate. 

The certificate shall be read at the three Ordinary General 
Meetings of the Society next ensuing after its receipt, and 
during the intervals between those three meetings, it shall be 
suspended in a conspicuous place in one of the rooms of the 

The vote as to admission shall take place by ballot, at the 
Ordinary General Meeting at whieh the certificate is appointed 
to be read the third time, and immediately after such reading. 

At the ballot the assent of at least four-fifths of the members 
voting shall be requisite for the admission of the candidate. 

Entrance Fee and Subscriptions. 
IX. The entrance money paid by members on their admission 
shall be Two Guineas; and the annual subscription shall be 
Two Guineas, payable in advance ; but members elected prior to 
December, 1879, shall be required to pay an annual subscription of 
One Guinea only as heretofore. 

The amount of ten annual payments may be paid at any time 
lie ordinary annual payment. 

Mw Members to he informed of their election. 

X. Every new member shall receive due notification of his 

election, and be supplied with a copy of the obligation (Xo. 3 in 

Appendix), together with a copy of the Eules of the Society, a 

list of members, and a card of the dates of meeting. 

Members s<- ' ■■dmission. 

XL Every member who has complied with the preceding 
Eules shall at the first Ordinary General Meeting at which he 
shall be present sign a duplicate of the aforesaid obligation in a 
book to be kept for that purpose, after which he shall be presented 
by some member to the Chairman, who, addressing him by name, 
shall say -.— " In the name of the Eoyal Society of New South 
"Wales I admit you a member thereof." 

Annual subscriptions, when due. 

XII. Annual subscriptions shall become due on the 1st of 

May for the year then commencing. The entrance fee and first 

year's subscription of a new member shall become due on the 

day of his election. 

Members whos< njoy privileges. 

XIII. An elected member shall not be entitled to attend the 
meetings or to enjoy any privilege of the Society, nor shall his 
name be printed in the list of the Society, until he shall hare 
paid his admission fee and first annual subscription, and have 
returned to the Secretaries the obligation signed by himself. 

Subscriptions in arrears. 

XIV. Members who have not paid their subscriptions for the 
current year, on or before the 31st of May, shall be informed of 
the fact by the Hon. Treasurer. 

No member shall be entitled to vote or hold office while his 
subscription for the previous year remains unpaid. 

The name of any member who shall be two years in arrears 
with his subscriptions shall be erased from the list of members, 
but such member may be re-admitted on giving a satisfactory 
explanation to the Council, and on payment of arrears. 

At the meeting held in July, and at all subsequent meetings 
for the year, a list of the names of all those members who are in 
arrears with their annual subscriptions shall be suspended in the 
Eooms of the Society. Members shall in such cases be informed 
that their names have been thus posted. 

Resignation of Members. 

XV. Members who wish to resign their membership of the 
Society are requested to give notice in writing to the Honorary 
Secretaries, and are required to return all books or other property 
belonging to the Society. 

Expulsion of Members. 
XVT. A majority of members present at any ordinary meet- 
ing shall have power to expel an obnoxious member from the 
Society, provided that a resolution to that effect has been moved 
and seconded at the previous ordinary meeting, and that due 
notice of the same has been sent in writing to the member in 
question, within a week after the meeting at which such resolution 
has been brought forward. 

Honorary Members. 

XVII. The Honorary Members of the Society shall he persons 
who have been eminent benefactors to this or some other of 
the Australian Colonies, and distinguished patrons and promoters 
of the objects of the Society. Every person proposed as an 
Honorary Member must be recommended by the Council and 
elected by the Society. Honorary Members shall be exempted 
from payment of fees and contributions : they may attend the 
meetings of the Society, and they shall be furnished with copies 
of the publications of the Society, but they shall have no right 
to hold office, to vote, or otherwise interfere in the business of 
the Society. 

The number of Honorary Members shall not at any one time 
exceed twenty, and not more than two Honorary Members shall 
be elected in any one year. 

XVIII. Corresponding Members shall be persons, not resident 
in New South "Wales, of eminent scientific attainments, who may 
have furnished papers or otherwise promoted the objects of the 

Corresponding Members shall be recommended by the Council, 
and be balloted for in the same manner as ordinary Members. 

Corresponding Members shall possess the same privileges only 
as Honorary Members. 

The number of Corresponding Members shall not exceed 
twenty-five, and not more than three shall be elected in any one 

Ordinary General Meetings. 
XIX. An Ordinary General Meeting of the Eoyal Society, to 
be convened by public advertisement, shall take place at 8 p.m. r 
on the first Wednesday in every month, during the last eight 
months of the year ; subject to alteration by the Council with 
due notice. 

Order of Business. 

XX. At the Ordinary General Meetings the business shall he 
transacted in the following order, unless the Chairman specially 
decide otherwise : — 

1 — Minutes of the preceding Meeting. 

2 — New Members to enrol their names and he introduced. 

3 — Ballot for the election of new Members. 

4 — Candidates for membership to be proposed. 

5— Business arising out of Minutes. 

6— Communications from the Council. 

7— Communications from the Sections. 

8— Donations to be laid on the Table and acknowledged. 

9— Correspondence to be read. 
10— Motions from last Meeting. 

11— Notices of Motion for the next Meeting to be given in. 
12 — Papers to be read. 
13— Discussion. 
14— Notice of Papers for the next Meeting. 

Annual General Meeting. —Annual Reports. 

XXI. A General Meeting of the Society shall be held annually 
in May, to receive a Report from the Council on the state of 
the Society, and to elect Officers for the ensuing year. The 
Treasurer shall also at this meeting present the annual financial 

Admission of Visitors. 

XXII. Every ordinary member shall have the privilege of 

introducing two friends as visitors to an Ordinary General 

Meeting of the Society or its Sections, on the following con- 

ditions : — 

1. That the name and residence of the visitors, together 
with the name of the member introducing them, he 
entered in a book at the time. 
1>. That they shall not ha 
meetings of the Society c 
current year. 

The Council shall have power to introduce visitors, irrespective 
of the above restrictions. 

Council Meetings. 

XXIII. Meetings of the Council of Management shall take 
place on the last Wednesday in every month, and on such other 
days as the Council may determine. 

Absence from Meetings of Council. — Quorum. 

XXIV. Any member of the Council absenting himself from 
three consecutive meetings of the Council, without giving a satis- 
factory explanai : be considered to have racated 
his office. No business shall be transacted at any meeting of 
the Council unless three members at least are present. 

Duties of Secretaries. 

XXV. The Honorary Secretaries shall perform, or shall cause 
the Assistant Secretary to perform, the following duties : — 

1. Conduct the correspondence of the Society and Council. 

2. Attend the General Meetings of the Society and the 

meetings of the Council, to take minutes of the pro- 
ceedings of such meetings, and at the commencement 
of such to read aloud the minutes of the preceding 

3. At the Ordinary Meetings of the members, to announce 

the presents made to the Society since their last meeting ; 
to read the certificates of candidates for admission to 
the Society, and such original papers communicated to 
the Society as are not read by their respective authors, 
and the letters addressed to it. 

4. To make abstracts of the papers read at the Ordinary 

General Meetings, to be inserted in the Minutes and 
printed in the Proceedings. 

5. To edit the Transactions of the Society, and to superintend 

the making of an Index for the same. 
G. To be responsible for the arrangement and safe custody 
of the books, maps, plans, specimens, and other property 
of the Society. 

Do make an entry of all books, maps, plans, [ 
&c, in the Library Catalogue, and of all presentations 
to the Society in the Donation Book. 

Vo keep an account of the issue and return of books, 
&c, borrowed by members of the Society, and to see 
that the borrower, in every case, signs for the same in 
the Library Book. 

' every person elected into the Society 

printed copy of the Forms Nos. 2 and 3 (in 
Appendix), together with a list of the members, a copy 
of the Kules, and a card of the dates of meeting; and 
to acknowledge all donations made to the Society, by 
Form JN r o. 6. 

10. To cause due notice to be given of all Meetings of the 

Society and Council. 

11. To be in attendance at 4 p.m. on the afternoon of 
Wednesday in each week during the session. 

12. To keep a list of the attendances of the members of the 
Council at the Council Meetings and at the ordinary 
General Meetings, in order that the same may be laid 
before the Society at the Annual General Meeting held 
in the month of May. 

The Honorary Secretaries shall, by mutual agreement, divide 
the performance of the duties above enumerated. 

The Honorary Secretaries shall, by virtue of their office, be 
members of aU Committees appointed by the Council. 

Contributions to the Society. 
XXTI. Contributions to the Society, of whatever character, 
must be sent to one of the Secretaries, to be laid before the 
Council of Management. It will be the duty of the Council to 
arrange for promulgation and discussion at an Ordinary Meeting 
such communications as are suitable for that purpose, as well as 
to dispose of the whole in the manner best adapted to promote 
the objects of the Society. 

Management of Funds. 

XXVII. The funds of the Society shall be lodged at a Bank 
named by the Council of Management. Claims against the 
Society, when approved by the Council, shall be paid by the 

All cheques shall be countersigned by a member of the Council. 

Money Grants. 

XXVIII. Grants of money in aid of scientific purposes from the 
funds of the Society — to Sections or to members— shall expire on 
the 1st of November in each year. Such grants, if not expended, 
may be re-voted. 

XXIX. Such grants of money to Committees and individual 
members shall not be used to defray any personal expenses which 
a member may incur. 

Audit of Accounts. 

XXX. Two Auditors shall be appointed annually, at an 
Ordinary Meeting, to audit the Treasurer's Accounts. The 
accounts as audited to be laid before the Annual Meeting in 

Property of the Society to le vested in tie President, Sfc. 

XXXI. All property whatever belonging to the Society shall 
be vested in the President, Vice-Presidents, Hon. Treasurer, and 
Hon. Secretaries for the time being, in trust for the use of the 
Society ; but the Council shall have control over the disburse- 
ments of the funds and the management of the property of the 


XXXII. To allow those members of the Society who devote 
attention to particular branches of science fuller opportunities 
and facilities of meeting and working together with fewer formal 

restrictions than are ne 
of the Society,— Sectio] 
the following branches of science : — 

Section A.— Astronomy, Meteorology, Physics, Mathematics, 

and Mechanics. 
Section J?.— Chemistry and Mineralogy, and their application 

to the Arts and Agriculture. 
Section 0. — Geology and Palaeontology. 
Section B.— Biology, i.e., Botany and Zoology, including 

Section E. — Microscopical Science. 
Section F. — Geography and Ethnology. 
Section Q.~ Literature and the Pine Arts, including 

Section IT.— Medical. 
Section I. — Sanitary and Social Science and Statistics. 

Section Committees — Card of Meetings. 

XXXIII. The first meeting of each Section shall be appointed 
by the Council. At that meeting the members shall elect their 
own Chairman, Secretary, and a Committee of four ; and arrange 
the days and hours of their future meetings. A card showing 
the dates of each meeting for the current year Bhall be printed 
for distribution amongst the members of the Society. 

Membership of Sections. 

XXXIV. Only members of the Society shall have the privilege 
of joining any of the Sections. 

Meports from Sections. 

XXXV. There shall be for each Section a Chairman to preside 
at the meetings, and a Secretary to keep minutes of the pro- 
ceedings, who shall jointly prepare and forward to the Hon. 
Secretaries of the Society, on or before the 7th of December in 
each year, a report of the proceedings of the Section during 
that year, in order that the same may be transmitted to the 

XXXVI. It shall be the duty of the President, Vice-Presidents, 
and Honorary Secretaries to annually examine into and report to 
the Council upon the state of — 

1. The Society's house and effects. 

2. The keeping of the official hooks and correspondence. 

3. The library, including maps and drawings. 
4.'. The Society's cabinets and collections. 

Cabinets and Collections. 

XXXVII. The keepers of the Society's cabinets and collec- 
tions shall give a list of the contents, and report upon the 
condition of the same to the Council annually. 


XXXVIII. The Honorary Secretaries and Honorary Treasurer 
shall see that all documents relating to the Society's property, 
the obligations given by members, the policies of insurance, aud 
other securities shall be lodged in the Society's iron chest, the 
contents of which shall be inspected by the Council once in every 
year; a list of such contents shall be kept, and such list shall be 
signed by the President or one of the Vice-Presidents at the 

Branch Societies. 

XXXIX. The Society shall have power to form Branch So- 
cieties in other parts of the Colony. 

XL. The members of the Society shall have access to, and 
shall be entitled to borrow books from the Library, under such 
regulations as the Council may think necessary. 
Alteration of Rules. 

XLI. Xo alteration of, or addition to, the Rules of the Society 
shall be made unless carried at two successive General Meetings, 
at each of which, twenty-five members at least must be present. 


1. During the Session, the Library shall be open for consul- 
tation and for the issue and return of books between 4 and 6 
p.m. on the afternoon of eacb "Wednesday, and between 7 and 10 
p.m. on the evenings of Monday, "Wednesday, and Friday, and 
during the recess (January to end of April) on Wednesdays, 
from 4 to 6 and 7 to 10 p.m. 

2. No book shall be issued without being signed for in the 
Library Book. 

3. Members are not allowed to have more than two volumes 
at a time from ft pedal permission from one 
of the Honorary Secretaries, nor to retain a book for a longer 
period than fourteen days ; but wben a book is returned by a 
member it may be borrowed by him again, provided it bas not 
been bespoken by any other member. Books which have been 
bespoken shall circulate in rotation, according to priority of 

4. Scientific Periodicals and Journals will not be lent until 
the volumes are completed and bound. 

5. Members retaining books longer than the time specified 
shall be subject to a fine of sixpence per week for eacb volume. 

6. The books which have been issued shall be called in by the 
Secretaries twice a year ; and in the event of any book not being 
returned on those occasions, the member to whom it was issued 
shall be answerable for it, and shall be required to defray the 
cost of replacing the same. 

Form No. 1. 

New South Waxes. 
didate for Election. 

the Royal Society of New South Wales, we, 

Dated this day of 18 . 

Feom Personal Knowledge. I From General Knowledge. 

The Society's House, 
Sir, Sydney, 18 . 

member of the Royal Society of New South Wales, and I beg to forward to 
you a copy of the Rules of the Society, a printed copy of an obligation, a list 

According to the Regulations of the Society (vide Rule No. 9), you are 
required to pay your admission fee of two guineas, and annual subscription 
of two guineas for the current year, before admission. . You are also requested 
to sign and return the enclosed form of obligation at your earliest convenience. 

Hon. Secretary. 

Form No. 3. 

Royal Society of New South Wales. 
the undersigned, do hereby engage that I will endeavour to promote 
interests and welfare of the Royal Society of New South Wales, and to 
rre its Rules and By-laws, as long as I shall remain a member thereof. 

for the current year became due to the Royal Society of New South 
Wales on the 1st of May last. 

It is requested that payment may be made by cheque or Post Office order 

Form No. 5. 

Royal Society of New Sotrrn Wales. 

The Society's House, 
*"> Sydney, 18 . 

I am desired by the Eoyal Society of New South Wales to forward to 

I am further requested to mention that the Society will be thankful to 
receive such of the very valuable publications issued by your Society as it 

Form No. 6. 
Eoyal Society of New South Wales. 

The Society - - f[uiiM\ 

■ Eoyal Society of New South Wales, I beg tc 
and I am directed to convey t 

Tour most obedient servant, 
Hon. Secretary. 

Form No. 7. 

[ -'for the Election of the Officers and Coum 
Eotal Society of Few South Wales. 

Balloting List 

for the election of the Officers and Council. 

Present Councn. 

Names proposed as Meters of the new Counei, 



Hon. Treasurer. 


Members of Council. 

JfjBpl Stains of f*fo ^mttj Kales* 

2 Abbott, W. E., Glengarry, Wingen. 
Adams, Francis, A.J.S. Bank, Sydney. 
Adams, P. I ■'.. ;; p^t, St. Lconai 

Alexander, George Iff., 48, Margaret-streel. 
Alger, John, Maoquftrie-sl red . 
Allen, The Hon. Sir George Wigram, M.P., Speaker of 

Legislative Assembly, 124, Elizabeth-street North. 
Allerding, F., Hunt,,--! ;v,r. 

AhVood, Key. Da , haneellor, UmVersi 

of Sydney, Woollahra. 
I Aht ™> ^n Wilson, 11.13. Edin., Mast. Surg. ^», 455, P. 
I Amos, Eobert, 213, Macquarie-slrect 
| Anderson, H. C. I. . .M A . - . . ,mar School. 

An.ior. \,F.I.\,A Il -t , 1 -,l 1 .;,<] ll l. 
: Armstrong, \. kl > 8 ffi C e. 

. North Shore. 

Austen, Henry, Hunter- -freer. 

Members are particularly requested to communicate any c 
of address to the Hon. Secretaries, for which purpose this i 

The Koyal Society of N. 

Campbell, The Hon. Alexander, M.L.C., Woollahra. 
Campbell, The Hon. -, South Kingston. 

Cameron, Johr 4 Bourke. 

Campbell, Revd. Joseph, B.A., " Edgarville," Botany-street, 

Surry Hills. 
}ane, Alfred, 110, Victoria-street. 
Capo, Alfred J., " Torfrida," Elizabeth Bay. 
Chandler, Alfred, 185, Pitt-street. 

, Edwin, M.D., M.R.C.S., I.S.A.. &e., A>hnel 1. 

Fellow of Si 

Codrington, John Fredk., 

b Col., North S 
L, Lie. J 
!, College-street. 

Lie. R.C. Phy 

I .vet, Newtown. 
-■ Bay. 

Colquhoun, George, 3, 

Cox, M.A., tnnton, .Liverpool 
Colyer, John Ussher Cox, A.S.N. Company, ! 

. Surrey Office, Sydney. 
Cottee, Wm. Alfred, Spring-street. 
Cox, The Hon. George Henry, M.L.C., Mudaee. and Unio 

Club, Sydney. ^ 

Cox, James, M.D. Edin. C.M.Z.S., F.L.S., Hunter-street. 
Craeknell, E. C, Superintendent of Telegraph - 

M.R.C.S. Eng., Seone. 

Croudace, Thomas, Lambton. 

Crummer, II, : linghursfc. 

Cunningham, Andrew, Lanyon, Queanbevan. 

Dansey, George Frederick, .M.R.C.3. Lorn 

Dangar, Frederick H, care of Dangar, Gedye, & Co., Mac- 

arley, Cecil West, Newcastle. 
Darley, F. M., M.A, Union Club Svdnev 
■•■■■>■-'' . i^tmlia 

Dean, Alexander, J.P., Elizabeth-street 
Deck, John Field, M.D., 251, MacquariVstreet, 

1, George U. !: ..; Hunter's Hill. 

'sa. S., 3, Barrack-street. 

is, The Hon. Leopold Fane, M.L.C., Cuppcreumbalong, 

is, L. W., junr., Strathmore, Eowcn, Queensland. 

son, W. A.^F.C.S, Fellow and Member Inst, of Ch 


rai ory, School of Arts, Sydney 
v-, n. c'..-ui_-. M.i:.. CM.. /■:./.«.", M.R.C.S., 


sson, Thomas, M.B., CM., Edi.i., 2 Kenihvorth 
"*-"*- — -^ Woollahra. 

, Carhulh- 

Docker, Ernest ^., ** 
Docker, Wilfred L. Ch 
Douglas, James, L.K.C 

Glebe Boad. 

of Bankers, Lond., 
, Lands Office. 

I Myles, M.R.C.S. Eng., 2, Hyde Park Terrace, Liverpool- 
Eichler, Charles F., M.D. Heidelberg, M.R.C.S. Eng., Bridge- 

Ellis, Thomas Augustus, C.E., City Engineer, Newcastle. 

'ana, George, Como, Darling Poi 

, Darling-street, Balmain. 
race, Bridge-street, 
ace, Wynyard Square. 


Fairfax, I-Mwanl R., 177, Maequarie-street. 
Fairfax, James R., Herald Office, Hunter-street. 
Ferguson, James W., 70, Parlin<:hur>t Road. 

, Windsor. 

Fiulivsou, Pavid. Marker, Union Bank. 


: L.R C.P., 
F.G.S.: KI.S : F.R.M.S 
Zoological Society, Yienna ; 

- - irveyor General's Office. 
Flavelle. John, George-street. 

Fortescue. G.. M.B - . Lyons' Terrace. 

Foreman, Joseph. M ' #*«*•, Litbgow. 

Foster, The Hon. W. J., M.L.A., Temple Court, King-street. 
Fraser, Robert, 12, Barrack-street. 
Fmzer. Hon. J,-hn, M.L.C., York-street. 

Fuller, Francis John, Harbours and Hirers Office, Fitzroy Dock- 
Furber, T. P., Surveyor General's Office. 

i, Andrew, LL.D., Sydney Mommy Berald Office, Hui 

i. J. P., East St. Leonards. 

' ' . i 1 - u : . . > *, ' ' - ■/ ->I» r.i ■»:! Herald Office. 
\\ . R 36 i George-street. 
^"' '' , Vincent V, k Bank, Sydney. 

Goddard, William C, The Exchange, New Pitt- 


viere College, Woollahi 

(>oo,il< 1. John il., < 1 

Goode, Georg •. MjL, M.D., M. Ch., Trin. Coll., Bid., Enfield 

Graham, Hon. Wm„ M.L.C., Stmthetun ilou-e, Waverley. 

: I'in- 

Haege, Hermann, 127, Pit 

. Quodhng, Esq., Public 

President of the Le 

Heaton, J. H, Town, a, 

I Ph. D., 

. H -at'on, Horn 
Herborn, E. W. L., euro < -f Mr. 1! 

Office, Pitt-street. 

, Clapton, Forbes-street- 

i": •■.'«■ '■'.:'- k' ■■ ;: ' ' ':'• v • ..-'..'.'w. ' ,, , 

. i . ■«- n ■. •>.. i ',()■-,■ , 




Jnn. Ja 

., L.R.C.P.E 




in- 1 

ns, Edw 

1. 1 . 

nj Florence, Yic 



.... I.MV. 


change Buildings, Pitt-st 


(.!.. -). I) 

l - ,(J - 

': 1, Rv\ 



M.A. Oxoh,, 

S.C.L, T 


Warden o 

Holt, The Hon. Thomas, 

Holroyd, Arther Todd, ] 

!, J. K., Oooma I 


Iredale, Lancelot, . 

146, Phil] 
I Jarvie, Per. A. Millie, [ 

■i '.m l;.v 

rones, John Trey 
losephson, Joshu 

Road, Newto 
r,w,nhMm. J. P., 


. Inst. C.E., 23" 

Kennedy, Hugh, B.A. 

King, Philip G., Willi 
Kinloch, John, M.A., 

lie Bay. 
■■'. ■ 

Saml. J., M.D., Newcastle. 
G. H., Mem. Inst, of Surveyors, Surveyor General's 

Knox, Edward W., " Fiona," Double Bay. 
LYlegraph Department. 


CM., Aberdeen, North Shore. 

Langley, W. E., Herald Office, Sydney. 
Latta, G. J., Hawthorne, Cn 

Pari*, 138, Cast 

*T --.• 

Bridge Koad. 

Branch o 
Lenehan, Henry 


"Terra Bella," 
, M.A., E.C.S. ; 

.i A,:-!i 

Mauritius ; Hon. Fel. 
u Min. Soc. of France; Professor of C 

sralogy in the Univnvitv of Sydney, Ik 
University, Glebe. 

, the Sydney 

is,Lond.; F.C.S.; 
r.(;.S. ; F.L.3.; 
cm. Mineralogical 
v. S-. Ta,. ; Cor. 
; Cor. Mem. Soc 
HiBt. Soc- Londj 

■ T, kellett- 

I. t. l.a: 
I. i:.... Hi 

, A. II., iun., 121, I 

• n. John Warner, A* 

MaeDonnell, San 
MK:iy. Dr.. Church Hill. 
M'Kinner, Hugh G., Assoc. Mem. 

Piper'Koad, Paddington. 

MacLaurin, Henrv Norman, ATA.. 

LV!LS, ir .£/;,;..Xo. 155. Macqu 

JMacPherson, Rer. Peter, M.A.. 187 

, F.G.S., Examiner 

o the Sydney Branch o 


The Exchange Corner. 
1 "B..C.M., ~ 

26, Alberto Terraoe, Dirin-imr-t. 

Edgeeliffe Road, Woollal 

Wallerc, . o 
ion's Point, North Shore. 
Norton, M.D. Univ. SI. 
oc. Apoth. Load., Gladesville. 

,L.R.C.S., Ire!., L.R.C. Phys., 

Martin, Rer. George, J 

Masters, Edward, Lurlei, MarrickTille. 

R. Coll. S.Editt., 

il.. Singleton, 
Matthews, Bobert, Tumut-street, Adelong. 

[arin de la, Surveyor General's Office. 

Milford, F., M.D. Heidelberg, M.K.O.S. JEng., 3, Clarendon 

Terrace, Hyde Park. 
Millard, Rev. Henry Shaw, Newcastle Grammar School. 

Montefiore, Octavius L., Belgian Consul, Gresham-street. 

■Moore. Charles, F.L.S., Director of the Botanic Gardens, 

Moore, Fred. H., Exchange Buildings. 

Morehead, E. A. A., 30, O'Connell-street. 

Morgan, Allan Bradley, M.R.C.S. Eng., Lie. Mid. Lie. E. Coll. 

Phys. Edin., Ashenhurst, Burwood. 
Morgan, T. C, L.E.C.S. Edin., M.K. & Q. Coll. Phys. Ireland, 

Morrell, G. A., C.E., Fit t-sf root. 

Mottm, WiEiam, F.F.P.S. #Z<w. & F.E.M.S.L., 5, Carlton Terrace, 
Wynyard Square, Sydney. 

l uwn Hall. 
JMuUens, Josiah, F.E.G.S., 34, Hunter-street. 

Mullins, John, F.I. . M. V.. 211, \bx uiarie-street. 

Murnin, M. E., Eisenfels, Nattai. 

Murray, W. G., 93, Pitt-street. 

Myles, Chas. Henry, Wymela, Burwood. 

C'itv Bank, Pitt-street. 
N..;ii. \\ . .1. Wa !,-. Loi .1 .i H. -• ii ■' Whitecliapel, London, E. 

, Bros. & Co., Pitt-s 

'. MI..C. 

Nott, Thomas, :.i 

Mowlam John, Union Club and West Maitland. 

' - . ■ ' - . : 

Wentworth Court, Elizi 

98 A., Union Bank, Pitt-street. 
Paterson, Alexander, M.D., M.A., " Hillcrest," 
I ,il E.,jl8, Wynyard Square. 

. L.Iv. : 

. Pit;-- 

['ucifi? L 
mm, M.D. Aberdeen, CL M., M.R.C.S. Ens 
Pittman, Edwd. Fisher, L.S., Department of Mines. 

. Summer Hill. 
Pockley, Thos. F. Or., Comm 
Poolman, F., Colonial Sugar Refining Co.. > 
Poolman, Fredl a-street, Woollah 

Potts, J. H., Want-street, Burwood. 
Prince, Henry, Greorge-street. 

Harrison, M.D., Mast. Surg. Urn 

Quirk, Rev. Dr. ; 

Quirk, Rer. D. Placid, M.A. Syc 

Quodling, W. H., 

t Office, Cook's River. 

say, Edward, F.L.S., Curator of the Australian 

I . Sydney. 
., Begin; C . Coogee. 

Reading, E., Mem. Odont. Soc. Lond., Ca - 
;, J. D., Surveyor General's Office. 

ick, Artlmr, The Hon., M.D. Edin., B.A. Sydn., 

" Potts's Point. 

Roberts, Willia 
Robertson, Thomas, solicitor, 91, Pitt-street. 
tRolleston, i liri.-t ..pli.-r. CM. CI., Auditor General, Castlereagh- 

ton Club. 

W., Union Club. 
. Carl, M.D, 52, College-street. 
J. Grafton, O'Coimell-street. 
Henry Ling, F.S.S., F.M.S., Eoulden Estate, Mackay, 

•, Sydney Observatory, 

Consul, Consulate of the < 

Sahl, Charles L., 

Samuel, The Hon. ! 
~mdy, James, " Ec 
Iiuctte. Rud .If, } 

10, College-street. 
:otfc, Rev. William, M.A. Cantab., Hon. Mem. Roy. Soc. 19 
The Parsonage, Bungendore. 

Robert, Berlin Cottage, Fotheringham-street, 

Vm. Gillett, M.R.C.S., Eng., Newtown. 

Selfe, Norman. < - .. Balmain. 

.,(1, Yass. 
Sharp, Henry, Green Hills, Adelong. 

Sharp, Revd. W. Hey, M.A. Oxon., Warden of St. M 8 
College, University, 
lepard, A.D., Adelong. 

lepherd, T. W., "Norwood," Milson's Point, St. Leonards 
Sheppard, Rev. G., B.A., Berrima. 

f, J^ H., B.A. Oxon., Grammar School, Sydney. 

Sloper, Fredk. Evans, 360, Liverpool-street. 

Ml, John, The Hon., C.M.G., M.D., LL. D., Aberdeen 
F.C.S., Hon. Mem. Koy. Soc. Vic, Professor of 

L.R.C.S., Eng., Lrrer- 


mdon, Upper William Street South. 
A., Cangoura, Bathurst. 

;, Alexander, M.L.A., Syc 

Tebbutt, John, F.R.A.S.. Observatory, Winds 
Dugald, 20, Charlotte Place. 
, H. A., Adelaide, S.A. 
, , Joseph, Bellevue Hill, Double Ba] 
Thompson, Thos. James, 1'itt-street, Sydney. 
. Arding, Narellan. 
J Hunter F ^ 

liter Hugh, IV 
Toohey, J. T., " Moira," 

Trebeck, Prosper N., George-street. 

~ " tree and Margaret Streets. 
l.N.Com] ' ' 

Trebeck, P. C, G 
Trouton, F. H., A.8.JN. Company's 
JTucker, G. A., Ph. D., Superintende 

r;. ! • ; ; . 

B., Telegraph Office, George-Btr 
; ■-'- 
ard, R. D., M.R.C.S. Eng., North Shore, 
arren, William Edward, M.D., M.E.C.S., 

Leo, B.A. Cantab., M.A. Syd., 

J., M.A Sgd., "Waima, 

Watson, C. Russell, M.R.C.S., Eng., Morevale, Newtown. 
Watt, Alfred Joseph, Hastings, Moore Park Road. 

"- - ment Analyst, Xew Pitt-street. 
CO., T.C.D., Parramatta. 
Webster, . 

, Albert 

e Sydney Gran 

, College-street. 

Wilshire, F. R., P.M., Berrima. 
Wilson, F. A. A., Mercantile Bank Sydney. 
Windeyer.W. ('.. . , Syd., King-street. 

Wise, George Fosi i I vde Park. 

. t Wilkinson, C. S., F.G.S., Government Geologist, Department 01 

Wilkinson, Henry Toller, Department of Mines. , . ' 

WWW- -on, R,y. S in „ .!, 5, Ar<ryle Terrace, Pitt-street, Redfem 
r. Bliss, 12, Spring-street. 

Wilshire, James Thompson, C.P.S., Scone. 
j Williams, Percy Edward, Treasury. 

Wise, Henry, Savings' Bank, Barrack-street. 

Wood, Harrie, Under Secretary for Mines, Department of Mines 
■ Woodhouse, E. B., Mount Gilead, CampbeUtown. 


Woods, T. A. Tenison, Phillip-street, Sydney. 
Woolrych, F. B. W., WiNon -tmf X, it^ui. 

I K A., M.K.C.S., A',,/.. Wynyard Square, J 

"Wright, Rev. Edwin H., St. Stephen's, Bourke. 
£ Wesley, W. BL, «, Cornwall. 

Wood, W. H. O'M., Surveyor General's Office. 

Young, John, Town Hall, George-street. 

IIonokaey Membi 

Agnew, Dr., Hon. 9 Tasmania, Hobart 

, Ealing, London. 

Bernays, Lewi , . 

Cockle, His Honor Sir 

M.A, F.R.S., Ealing, 
Darwin, Dr. Charles, F. 

Beckenham, Kent. 
' : ■ '.." ■'•. .:''"■; ';_-:'. 

F.G.S., F.L.S., &c., &c, 


;, C.M.G.. F.R. 
i. D., F.R.S., 

of the Canterbury- 

Hooker, Sir "Joseph* Dalton, K.C.8.] 

. ■ Royal Gardens, E 

Huxley, Pr< feasor, F.R.S., LL.D., F 

. Y.Z< 

the Royal School of 
Mines, South Kensington, London. 

Professor of Natural Science in the Melboar 
GoTernment Palaeontologist, and Director of the National 
, Melbourne. 

Mueller, Baron Ferdinand tod 

r R., C.B., 

V.P.Z.S., &c, &c, The British Museum, London, W.C. 
Schomburgh, Dr., Director of the Botanic Gardens, Adelaide, 

, Ph.D., F.R.S., 
."lL.D., F.L.S.,F.G.S., 

Limited to Twenty-five. 
Clarke, Hyde, V.P. Ethnological Institution, London. 

Ward, Sir Edward, K.C.M.G., Major-General, E.E., Cai 


Australia, t 

sidentfrom 18 

Professor Richard Owen, C.B., F.R.S., The British Museum. 
Mr. George Bentham, C.M.G.,F.R.S., The Royal Gardens, Kew. 
Professor Huxley, F.R.S., The Royal School of Mines, London. 
Professor F. M'Coy, F.R.S, F.G.S., The University of Melbourne. 
Professor James Dwight Dana, LL.D., Yale Colleee, New HaTen, 
Conn., United States of America. 


r the Hon. Professor Smith, C.M.G., &c, <fcc., President. 

At this the close of my Piv>i<h-ntial year— the first year, I 
may remind you, in \\ hich the ( 'hair has heen occupied by an elected 
President — it becomes my duty to go through the form of an 
Annual Address, before proceeding to the more pleasing ceremony 
of laying down office and introducing my successor. It is a wise 
provision in our by-laws that the President can hold office for 
only one year ; but in spite of that, I fear that this annual address- 
will tend to become more and more irksome, and may on some 
occasions stand in the way of desirable members taking office,— 
membeis who may not have much leisure nor much fluency, and 
who might look upon the task of composing an address as more 
than counterbalancing the honor of the position, and the gratify- 
ing sense of enjoying the confidence of their fellow-members. I 
now throw out the suggestion for the benefit of my successors, 
that while the Society is comparatively young, and its forms and 
routine yet in the plastic condition, it might be well to accept as 
an annual address a mere statement of the condition of the 
Society and its work of the preceding year. Occasionally, no 
doubt, the President might be glad to embrace the opportunity 
of stating his views on some questions of general interest, 
not perhaps well suited for a paper of the usual character at a 
monthly meeting, and not intended for discussion ; and in such a 
case as that, when the President has really sdmething to say, 
the members will doubtless be pleased to listen, but in ordinary 

cases I believe the members would be glad to let tlie President off 
■with a brief formal statement of the character indicated. I am 
unwilling however to be the first to break in abruptly upon an 
established custom, and in looking about for some appropriate 
subject on which to found ai a red to me that 

now we have completed a quarter of a century of continuous and 
active existence, a brief review of the work accomplished might 
not be uninteresting — the more so as the Royal Society is 
occasionally twitted with indolence, and even the members them- 
selves probably do not realise that on a fair view of the case, and 
making due allowance for unfavourable circumstances, the Society 
has been the means of giving publicity to a large amount of 
intellectual effort, and of persevering and laborious scientific 

Review op past History op the Society. 
I have said that we have had a continuous active life of five- 
and-twenty years ; that estimate includes of course the Philo- 
sophical Society that preceded us ; but as there was a mere change j 
of name effected in 1866, without any interruption of business, 
we have a right to go back to 1856, when the Philosophical Society 
began its work. It would not be unfair indeed to claim an 
existence of sixty years, for unduiibt -dly tin' first beginning of 
this scientific organisation is to be traced back to 1821, when the 
Philosophical Society of Australasia was constituted, with ten 
members, under the presidency of Sir Thomas Brisbane. But 
that original Society did not long survive. It is mentioned 
among the Institutions of Sydney in the Australasian Almanac for 
1825, and not afterwards. The only record known of papers read 
before it is in the Geographical Memoirs of New South Wales, 
by Mr. Justice Field, published in 1825. In that volume four 
papers are reprinted in full, the titles of which are given in the 
Inaugural Address of the Rev. W. B. Clarke, in 1867. Besides 
the reading of papers, that Society engaged in another pubUc 
act which has better served to perpetuate its name. In March, 
1822, it caused a tablet to be affixed to the rocks on the South 

Head of Botany Bay, 
Cook. The inscription 


rcES or British 5 




■e ffiveu 

i in 1850 of 

the old Societ 

y. and 

cr the i 

iamc nt 

ilosophical Sc 

>ciety j but th 

«re mi 

List hav 

al at an earli 
!, I find mc 

er date, for in 

of an 

w !?'"!!. 

i Wales 

>ting colonial 

prudm t.- rtn<l 




Mr. Samuel 

Terry. I c; 



r, 6nd 

) to it. The 

1850 Society 




with influenti 

ial leaders ; bx 

it the 

-old f. 

jver of 

i;s vitality, ai 

id for 

two 01 

r three 

and resolved to make a fresh start, under the name of the 
Philosophical Society of New South Wales. It seems that twenty- 
two Members passed over from the old Society to the new, and 
fcey brought with them .£88 to start the funds of the new 

Association. Under the active presidency of the Governor- 
General, Sir W. T. Denison, the Philosophical Society speedily 
attained a considerable amount of popularity. It held its first 
meeting in the School of Arts, on 9th May, 1856, and at the next 
meeting ninety-one new Members were elected. About forty 
more were added r of the year; and fourteen 

papers were read, two being by the President. The place of 
meeting was speedily changed to the hall of the Australian 
Library, now the Free Public Library, where it remained, with 
occasional migrations to the Exchange, till the formation of the 
Royal Society, which also continued its meetings at the Library 
till 18G9, when it moved to the Exchange, and continued there 
till May, 1875, when it occupied the present building, first as 
tenant of the Academy of Art, and finally as proprietor in 1878. 

The early prosperity of the Philosophical Society yielded after 
a few years to the usual reaction that we arc only too familiar 
with in all new organisations attempted in Sydney. Perhaps 
also it suffered from the partial withdrawal of vice-regal patronage, 
if that, however, was not rather an effect than a cause of waning 
popularity. Sir W. Denison was not only largely instrumental in 
starting the Society, but he continued during his term of office to 
attend the meetings and to take a lively interest in the proceedings. 
On his leaving the Colony at the close of 1860, the Society 
presented him with an address, in which the following words 
occur:—" We desire to express our warm acknowledgments for the 
services you have rendered to the Society, and to the cause of science 
generally. * * * * To your successful exertions at an early 
period after your arrival in the Colony we are indebted for the 
reorganisation of the Society on a satisfactory basis, &c" His 
successor, Sir John Young, afterwards Lord Lisgar, frequently 
presided over the monthly meetings, but as the attendance 
dwindled away he came to the conclusion that his presence was 
not beneficial. In his remarks at the close of the Rev. Mr. 
Clarke's inaugural address to the Royal Society, in July, 1867, 
ne is reported to have spoken as follows:— "His Excellency 

expressed his sincere hope that the Society would be more 
successful under its new name than it had been under its former 
designation. He had regularly attended the monthly meetings of 
the Society for some time after his arrival in the Colony. He 
observed, however, as time went on that the attendance became 
'small by degrees and beautifully less,' until on one occasion that 
he had come there to preside, he found himself the only person 
present to hear a paper which some gentleman was there to read. 
He believed that Professor Smith was sent for, and formed with him 
the sole audience. After that he had rather held back, being under 
the impression that vice-regal patronage was not quite so beneficial 
to the Society as could be wished." 

Sir John Young was succeeded in the presidency by the Earl 
of Belmore, who took the Chair two or three times at monthly 
meetings, and since then we have not been favoured with the 

I have stated that in the first year of the Philosophical Society 
about 130 new members were admitted. In the second year there 
were only thirty-nine; while in the third the number dwindled down 
to seven. After that there was some improvement for two years, but 
in 1861 the number again dropped to six, and in 1863 only one new 
member joined. In each of the following years nine joined, and 
lastly in 1866 (the transitional year) only one. 

Not only did new members fail to come in, but the old dropped 
steadily off, as shown by the decreasing amounts paid as annual 
subscriptions. In the first year the income of the Society was 
£316, in addition to the .£88 brought over from the old Society. 
In the second year the income was £205 ; in the third, £106 ; 
after which it kept higher for a few years, till in 1863 it dropped 
to £88, and in the last year of the Society (1866) it reached its 
lowest depth at £43. If the expenditure of the early years had 
not been very moderate, so that a surplus was preserved for bad 
times, the Society must have died of inanition. Indeed, it fre- 
quently became a question whether it was worth while continuing 

what seemed a hopeless struggle ; and it was sometimes 
suggested that the Society should i>e devolved, and the remaining 
assets used up in a picnic or a dinner. 

For several years th- r.^-iA'nnv, although rigorously kept 
down, was considerably over the iu< ome, and the Society lived on 
its early savings. In such a state of the finances, it was of course 
impossible to un<! Transactions. In 

the first years the Society was entirely dependent on the news- 
papers for giving publicity to its proceedings j but these were 
frequently of too abstruse a character for f ;uch a mode of publica- 
tion. Afterwards, when Mr. James Vvaugh smarted the Magazine 
of Science and Art, the papers of the Society were regularly pub- 
lished in it ; but that magazine lasted only a few years, and then 
the Society published one volume of Transactions, containing a 
selection of papers read from 18G2 to 1865. A complete list of 
the papers read before the Philosophical Society has never hitherto 
been made public, and I have thought it worth while to make 
such a list from the minutes and put it here on record. It will 
be seen that, in spite of failing membership and income, a large 
amount of useful scientific work was accomplished. 

Ma, 9. 

"Development of the Railway 

? System in England.^ with 
n. i Jovemnr-General. 


His Excellency Sir \V." i\ i •, ... 
• on "Steam Con 
Hon. E. Deas-Tl- 

i!!iuiu..-;ttioii «ith England." 

July 1] 

;,'; ;'■ ^ • "Ai'pii. ti 

Pell. y q 

.-. nsi.lered."' 

m of ( urt 

ion of Railways." Professor 


X S • 'u° n .! he action " f Sydney V\ 
Mr. Thomas. 11 ° ron ' makn, S 

ater upon Lead." Professor 

resources of N. S. Wales." 

ftp*. l( 

\ "p Ltt ^ T^.._ia..Ls ...l It n. IV , 1, t «een Sydney and 
General "^a?" '' tepU ^ Sm "" ve >' or ' 

N . - 

"On the Parrar,. 

'." K i».' ll M 1 oriarty. 

Dec 10. 


On a new Grate for burning 

June 10. "On Pavements." Lieut. Vigors. " On the Sanitary con- 
dition of Sydney." C. Rolleston. 
July 8. "OntL iaon. "On a new 

Sun-gauge." W. S. Jevons. " On Sanitary Reform. " Dr. 
Aug. 12. "On Railways." Sir W. T. Deni-on. "On Railways, 
with reference chiefly to the motive power." F. S. Pepper- 
Sept. 9. "On th, ' .i mkv." F. Haes. 
Oct. 14. "On t 

Roberts. "On the Meteor, 1,,-x ,,f X. <. \V : ..l, -." Rev. W. 
Nov. 11. "On! ikmcastle. 

May 12. "On the strength :■■ to of N. S. Wales 

Ward, R.E. 

June 9. "Abridgment of a 1 '' history and 

practice of Vaccination. " Dr. Greenup. 

Jidy 14. "On U Snakes, with ■ 

description of some of the species fotu 

Aug. 11. "On the Meteorohvx .: X. <. \\ il. >. Rev. Win. Scott. 
"On the i : - it '-'Gold 

Deposits of Victoria." H. A. Thompson. "Outline of apian 
for the foi n any to open 

out the Quartz-iiel. - oi X. S. Wales." H. A. Thompson. 
" On the Mortality of Sydney." C. Rolleston. 

,'. V,;,,,,lv 

i of Water through 
Oct. 13. "on : ■ . :: 

June 8. " On the oonstru * on of ^> • ula for Reflecting Te 
H.A.Severn. " On Atmotic Navigation." Dr. I'l. 

July 13. " On the means of deodorizing and utilizing the g 
Towns." C. Rolleston. " On a new inode of usin 
Balsam, &e., in mounting microscopic objects." 
•■ - ' 


Oct. 19. 'St 
Nov. 16. "Ont 

n Telegraphic Comn 

e Sydney Observatory." Rev. W. 

rerpool." E. 0. Moriarty. " On the detection of spurious 
id." F. B. Miller. 

A. I J. .11-." L'n.f. smith. 
"On Bridge" 

June 19. "On the Census of 1S61." C. Rolleston. 

July 17. " On the Sydney Observatory, &c." Rev. W. Scott. 

Aug. 14. "On a new species 11 from Ovalau, 

Fiji." Alfred Roberts. " On the improvements in the navi- 
gation of the Hunter River." 1". 0. Moriarty. 

Sept. 11. "Abri .... scrub timbers 

of the Colony." Charles Moore. "On a new mode of con- 
structing timber Bridges." Tl;<>>. Wow. "On a new 

Oct. 9. "A short description of the new works now being carried out 
of Wollongong Harbour." E. 0. 

Nov. 20. " On 

" On some recent geologies 
the correlation 

" Geometrical Researches, in four papers, comprising nun 
s and complete solutions to c 

iia." Dr. Berncastle. 

';,;,!- to * 

'On the Wambeyai 

search for, ai 
in the Southern Hemisphere 

Tebbutt. " On the performance of the s 

between - .. Seymour. 

Sept. 10. "0 b of the Lower Murray and 

Barling: | 

bution." Gerard Krefft. b ° ' 

Oct. 8. " On the Comet of Sept., 1862." John Tebbutt. 
Nov. 12. Second paper on the same subject, by John Tebbutt. 

May 27. "On Snakes observed in the neighbourhood of Sydney." 
June 17. "On Snake-bites and their Antidotes" Br. Berncastle. 

"A complete solution of a celebrated problem." Martin Gar- 

Aug. 12. "On the correct scientific method of forming Railway Curves, 

&c. Martin Gardiner. 
Sept. 17, " On the Vertebrated Animals of the Lower Murray" (second 

paper). Gerard Krefft. 

Nov. 11. -On ancient flint Implements found near Abbeville." Prof. 
Smitiu Hawkesbury. 

< ierard Krefft. 

r\ probal L it to the adopti( 

. "On Australian Storms." John Tebtmtt. "Remarl 
W. B. Clarke. 

•iiu IV .:<-l>. aring Plants indigenous to the Colony." < 

"On Osmium and Iridium obtained from N. S. Wales G 
Dr. Leibius. 

.. - 


May 10. " On the Transmutation of Rocks v 
B. ( 

July 5. "On the Oology of Australia." Ed. Ramsay. 

Aug. 2. "On the theory of Encke's Comet." G. R. Smalley. "On 
the Mam 
and Darling. " Gerard Krefft. 

Sept. 6. "On th " 

geological leum Coal." Wm. Keene. 

Oct. 11. "On certain possible relations ; 

Nov. 8. " On the Geology and capabilities of the Cape York Penin- 
sula." Dr. Rattray. 

Dec. 6. "On the present state of Astronomical, Magnetical, and Me- 
teorological Science." G. R. Smalley. 

July 4. " On the Ornithology of Lake George." Ed. Ramsay. 

Aug. 1. ' • p ; I Survey of N . S. 

Wales " ion of Thylacoleo 

earnifi-x." Gerard Krefft. _ r -,»■■, 

Sept. P2. •■ i 

Oct. 3. " On the genus Trigonia." Dr. J. C. Cox. 

Nov. 7. < ' Remarks concerning a new species of Fagus. " Charles Moore. 

"On the Classification of the small 
_ Gerard Krefft. , _ _ _ _, 

Dec. 12. "On the condition and resources of the Colony." C. Rolles- 


In the eleven years of the Philosophical Society's existence it 
held eighty-three meetings, at which 107 papers were read by 
forty-three members. The largest number (eight) was read by the 
Revd. W. Scott, who long held office in the Society. Mr. Krefft, 
at that time Curator of the Museum, read seven ; Sir William 
Denison and Mr. Rolleston, each read six ; I read five ; Revd. 
W. B. Clarke, Mr. Smalley, Mr. Alfred Roberts, Mr. Moriarty, 

Besides the reading of } apers, other means were tried to keep 
up the interest of the members. A Microscopical Committee was 
formed, and lent House, 

with fair aitci dance, hut it soon collapsed. Conversaziones were 
frequently held, at first on a modest scale, ii ih - Australian Library, 
but soon expanding so as to requir - ih ■ « h uuber of Commerce, 
whh-li uhim-i ■';, In 'came overcrowded with the numerous objects 
of interest and with visitors. The Royal Society has carried on 
these gatherings with great success. This branch of our operations 
has indeed always been very popular. It furnishes the only 
opportunity we have as a Society of enjoying the presence of 
ladies, but at the same time it is increasingly troublesome and 
expensive. We were driven from the Chamber of Commerce to 
the Masonic Hall, and from that to the great Hall of the Univer- 
sity, and even there we were seriously cramped for room, the 
striking display of scientific and artistic objects requiring a great 
deal of space, and the visitors numbering over 800. Last year 

an extended scale, but they invited the members to a similar 
gathering, although without ladies, in the Society's rooms, and 
they have reason to believe that a pleasant evening was spent. It 
is hoped that during the present year, probably in September, we 
may have the pleasure of again meeting the members Avith the 
ladies of their families, at a conversazione of the former character, 
in some capacious and central building. 

But to return for a little to the old Philosophical Society. In 
1865, when the income had dropped to £58, which was £30 less 
than the expenditure, the necessity for some change of organiza- 
tion became apparent, if the Society was to be saved from total 
extinction. The Co an c matter, appointed a 

sub-committee, consisting of Mr. Smalley and Mr. Bedford, to 
draw up a report for submission to the general body of members. 


This report having been first agreed to by the Council, was brought 
up at the monthly meeting on 11th October, and there discussed 
and adopted. Its preamble states : — 

" Considering the languishing condition of this Society, we are of 
opinion that some effort should be made to restore its vitality and 
raise it to the important and useful position that it ought to occupy." 
The report goes on to say that it is not easy to account for the 
decline of the Society, but that it may be partly owing to its name, 
which conveys the impression that the subjects discussed are of an 
abstruse and exclusive character. The Report recommends that 
the name should be changed to " Royal Society," and an outline is 
given of a proposed c 

A Committee was tkn appointed to draw up rules, and appli- 
cation was made to the Governor for sanction to the change of 
name, but the answer received was that the application must be 
forwarded to the Secretary of State for the Colonies. It was not 
till the last meeting of 1866 (December 12) that a copy of Lord 
Carnarvon's despatch, dated 24th September, was laid before the 
Society. It contained these words— " Her Majesty has been 
graciously pleased* * *to sanction and approve of the Philosophical 
Society in future assuming the title of the Royal Society of New 
South Wales." Thus the change was finally completed, and the 
name Philosophical, which had been considered inappropriate, was 

Prosperity however did not come with a rush to the new organi- 
sation. Still there was a decided improvement, for in 1867 the 
new accessions were twenty, and the income got up to about £80. 
If we compare tk - ih e 1 list of members for 1 867, 

which contains 108 names, we are obliged to infer that nearly half 
the members had not paid their subscriptions. In 1868 the new 
members were thirty-seven j in 1869 only fourteen ; in 1870 they 
rose again to twenty-one, and the income was £112 ; but in the 
following year only five new members joined, and the income fell 
to £80, while the expenditure was £111. 

The printing of the Transactions was a great burden in those 
years, and the want of means prevented some of the papers being 
properly illustrated ; but in 1872 the Government liberally con- 
sented to have the annual volume brought out at the Government 
Printing Office, without cost to the Society, except in the matter 
of certain illustrations. 

The tide of prosperity in the affairs of the Society which we still 
enjoy first set in when we took possession of this building in 1875, 
and appointed Professor Liversidge and Dr. Leibius to act as our 
Secretaries. To the enlightened zeal and indefatigable labours of 
these gentlemen we owe much of our present position. In 1875 
the income rose suddenly to £222, and in the following year to 
£413. In that year (1876) amended By-laws were passed ; Sec- 
tions were organized to represent such branches of scientific study 
as were thought likely to bring members together for quiet con- 
ference and mutual aid ; and arrangements were completed for 
exchange of scientific publications with kindred Societies in dif- 
ferent parts of the world. Last year we sent out 1,013 copies of 
our Transactions and certain Colonial reports to 281 In 
and representative persons in 1 1 6 different places throughout the civil- 
ized world ; and from 167 of these Institutions we received publi- 
cations in return to the number of 749, some of them of great value. 
In addition to these gifts we have been in regular receipt of a con- 
siderable number of leading periodicals, and we have "been buying 
scientific works as our funds would permit ; so that our library is 
now fairly stocked with standard books and periodicals in science, 
literature and art. 

In 1877 we began to collect funds for the purchase of our 
present building, obtaining also the promise of the Government 
to grant £1 for every £2 subscribed. The Government at the 
same time liberally agreed to augment at the same rate our ordinary 
subscriptions, to meet current expenses. 

In 1878 the accounts show for the first time a Government 
grant of £200, in addition to the ordinary subscriptions of £433. 
The special subscription for the building amounted to £1,000, which 


enabled us to claim £500 from Government. We then completed 
thepurchase for £3,525, paying down £1,525, andborrowing£2,000 
on mortgage. It is highly desirable that this debt should be paid 
off, and I trust the members will make an effort towards that end 
during the present year. Were that accomplished, there would be 
£120 additional for promoting the proper objects of the Society. 
It is the more necessary to get rid of this annual charge for interest, 
inasmuch as, without the Government sul.sidy which we now enjoy, 
it would be necessary to economise to such an extent as to endanger 
the efficiency of our operations. Now the Government subsidy is 

of the Legislature ; and should bad times come, so as to diminish 
materially the public revenue, we must expect to be among the 
first to suffer from the inevitable cutting down of expenditure. 

There is still another reason why something should be done this 
year to add to the building fund. Hitherto a vacant space has 
adjoined the Society's house on the south side ; it is probable that 
this will now be built upon, and it may be expedient for the 
Society to buy a few feet of the frontage in order to preserve the 
light and ventilation of this hall in which we meet. But without 
additional subscriptions such a purchase could not be made. 
Might I Aenture to sucro-est that the old members who pay only 
one guinea per annum should for at least this year double their sub- 
scription to help us in reducing our debt. 

To conclude now what I have to say on the financial progress 
of the Society, I will state the ordinary income and expenditure 
(omitting building fund) for each of the past six years, being 
the time that we have occupied the present building ; and to that 
I will add the number of ordinary members elected each year. I 
" ' ■•' ■"•" ' ■ - 

The falling off in now mem bers last year may partly be 
accounted for by the fact that the entrance fee and annual 
subscription had been doubled by a resolution adopted towards 
the close of the previous year ; but that this was not the only 
reason, or even the chief reason, is made probable when we com- 
pare 1879 with 1878, the falling off between these two years 
having been greater than between 1879 and 1880. The accession 
of new members fluctuates very considerably year by year, and no 
special reason can be adduced. In September last the Society 
adopted a resolution to limit the number of members to 500, and 
as the number on the roll is now about 460, this resolution may 
become operative before long. It is difficult, however, to 
state exactly the effective membership, as names are kept on the 
roll for one year after a subscription lias been pa 
definitely known that a member has retired. 

Work . 

st year I 

■icity in 

In regard to the proper work of the Society 
find that ten meetings were held (including two adjoun 
besides a special meeting to hear a lecture from ] 
Carpenter on recent practical applications of Elecl 
America ; and a social meeting or Eeception by the Cou_._. 
fewer than twenty-eight papers were read by thirteen members, of 
w iici our Hon. Sec, Professor Liversidge, contributed nine, and 
our Vice-President, Mr. Russell, contributed five. The year is re- 
markable not only f or the number of papers but for their quality, 
many of them involving much hard work and troublesome 

C'urraut. 55 K. H. R 0!mic . .." ()i] 

remarks mi .several Binaries." F 

: Plants collected 

\ mi .Mueller. 

Tebbutt. '« On RingWkh. an, 

4 Aug. • V u , , u a < ollccti . of F.-mIs f, the Palaeozoic Rocks 
of*. &. Walt's.' R. I •'.!■■:_,.. jun. "On Geological 
Obsenati. n i, .. n Is?., „ ,. , , m , \ s \\ 
Victona and Tasmania." Dr. \ 
of Printing Barometric and other Curves." II. C. Russell, 

1 Sept. "On Hot-spring Waters from New Britain and Fiji." Prof. 

Liversidge. "On the Composition of Cast Iron acted on by 

sea-water." Professor Liversidge. "On a new Barometer 

Table." H. C. Russell, Vice-President. 
6 Oct. "On the Composition of Coral-linn «* »m-." Profwor l.iv. -r- 

sidge. "0 

\\ales." W. A. DL 

Prospect and Kenny Hill schemes 

Sydney." F. B. Gipps. 1X * 

3 Nov. "On some N. S. Wales Minerals." Professor Liversidge. 

"On Pit 

Native Fodder Plants." W. A. Dixon. "On W 

Liverpool Plains." T. K. Abbott. 
1 Dec. "On some recent changes on the surface of Jupiter." 

Russell. "On Thunder and Hail Storms." 

"Remarks on the Colours of Jupiter's I " 

observed thereon during the opposit 

Bai tta and Bingera Meteorit 

At the same meeting of 8th December, it ma 
that a draft Act of Incorporation was submitted and adopted. 
Circumstances have hitherto prevented this being presented to the 
Legislature, but the Council will endeavour to get it passed in the 
next session of Parliament. 

Since the commencement of the Royal Society there have been 
102 general monthly meetings, besides numerous adjournments. 
We have had 166 papers at the general meetings, and about 40 
more at the Sections. These papers represent a very fair amount 
of scientific labour, quite as much as could reasonably be expected, 
considering our circumstances and the busy lives that most of us 
lead. At all events our existence as a Society, and our claims to 
public support, are sufficiently justified by these results. I have 
not considered it necessary to bring together a complete list of the 
papers, as I did for the Philosophical Society, as they are all to 
be found in the successive volumes < 


The Clarke Memorial. 
The steps that were taken in 1878-9 t 
Vice-President, the Eev. W. B. Clarke, must be fresh in your 
recollection. It was determined that a bronze medal should be 
struck, and presented from time to time to men of science, who 
have made valuable contributions to our knowledge of the Geology, 
Mineralogy, or Natural History of Australasia. The execution of 
the medal was entrusted to Messrs Wyon, of London, and we 
have lately got from them tin- tirst sp.eimon, which is now 
exhibited. It is a creditable work of art, and will, we trust, be 
esteemed by its recipients. Through the kindness of Mr. Hunt, 
copies will hereafter be struck at the Sydney Mint as required. 
The Council has now made four awards of this medal as follows: 
—For 1878, to Professor Owen, for his long-continued researches 
on the Palaeontology of Australia, especially for his series of 
papers to the Royal Society of London, on the Fossil Mammals of 
Australia. For 1879, to Mr. George Ben1 ham, for his splendid 
work in conjunction with Baron Von Mueller, on the Botany of 
Australia. For 1 880, to Professor Huxley, for his contributions to 
the Natural History of this country ever since he visited our 
shores in the "Rattlesnake"; and, for the present year, to 
Professor M'Coy, of Melbourne, for his numerous contributions to 
the Palaeontology ami Natural History of Australia. We have 
not yet been able to actually present the medal to any of these 
gentlemen, but trust this will he accomplished very soon. 

Biological Laboratory for Sydney. 

I have now to request your kind attention a few minutes 
longer, while I bring before you a matter for which I wish to 
enlist your sympathy, in the hope that then: may be a practical 
outcome of that sympathy in the shape of pecuniary contributions. 

I have already placed before you our need of further contri- 
butions in aid of the Building Fund, and I feel some reluctance in 
pressing the claims of any other scheme, even although it is one 
very closely connected with, and directly intended to further the 
objects of this Society. It is probably within your knowledge 

that the well-kno list, Baron Maclay, has for 

two or three years been endeavouring to establish a Zoological 
Station in the neighs .urhood <>f Sydney. He has so far succeeded 
in his efforts that an eligible site at Watson's Bay has been 
obtained from the Government, and considerable progress has 
been made with the building upon that Elite. The Government 
has also liberally engaged to double the subscriptions up to £300; 
but the necessary sum of £300 has not yet been made up, and 
what I have to ask of you to-night is to help to make it up, so 
that the corresponding sum may be claimed from the Treasury. 1 
am assured by Baron Maclay, that for £600 the building can be 
fitted for use— not well fitted certainly— and more would have to 
be done afterwards ; but it is thought that when the public utility 
of the establishment is proved, there may be less difficulty in 
getting further contributions towards perfecting the arrangements. 
I must, however, say at once that it is my hope and expectation 
that the Boyal Society will not only assist in completing the 
building in the first instance, but that they will agree to devote a 
fixed sum annually towards its future support. 

It may, however, be asked by those not familiar with the idea 
of a zoological station, what claims it has on a Society like ours. 
An answer to that will involve some account of the purpose of 
such stations, and what has been done in them in other parts of the 
world. In a paper read before the Linnaean Society of New South 
Wales, by Baron Maclay, in 1*7S. he dclhu .-, a zoological station 
as "a laboratory established for conducting investigations in 
Anatomy, Embryology, Histology, and if possible, Physiology as 
well." As plants as v,-, I ! investigated, the 

Baron would prefer the name "Biological Laboratory" to that 
hitherto in use. He points out that " most scientific travellers 
have hitherto devoted their time and energies to collecting, and 
that often in the field of several sciences," and thinks that " the 
time has arrived when this method should be abandoned, and that 
in place of mere collecting, the great aim of travel should be 
observation and investigation, exercised immediately and upon the 
ifferent parts of the 

v be lost through 
tlie want of a suitable place for undisturbed work. It was, indeed, 
from the personal experience of Baron Maclay and Dr. Dohrn, while 
working together at Messina in 1868, that the idea of establishing 
zoological stations first arose. In the following year the question re- 
ceived a further impulse at a Congress of Naturalists at Moscow; and 
under the care of Dr. Dohrn, and chiefly at his own expense, the 
first practical realization of the idea was obtained at Naples, 
where a zoological station was opened in 1875. Other stations 
followed in Europe and America, but even yet there are only about 
half a dozen in all The success of the station at Naples has been'| 
most marked. It is now a large establishment with a very com- 
plete equipment, not only in the building bul in out-door appli- 
ances as well, such as bouts (including a steamer), dredges, diving 
apparatus, &c., and in the early part of this year, as 1 learn from a 
letter addressed to Baron Mad ay by Dr. Dohrn, (here were twenty- 
assistants to the number of thirty-four. Three .scientific periodicals 
are kept up by contributions from that station. The expense* 
of such an establishment are necessarily large, and are met partly 
by payments for tables used, and partly by liberal donations from 
the German Government. The charge for a table is £'75 per 
annum. Several of these tables are subscribed for by scientific 
bodies, who then acquire the right of nominating a worker. The 

British A-oei; 

txme to time naturalist, who have to report i 
results of their labours. A committee of t 
an annual report on the subject and summi 

done during the year. In the report pr« 
stated that the establishment had been plae,, 


voted £100 last year for the same purpose, making altogether 
£2,350 from Germany alone — " a truly noble support," remarks 
this report, " when it is borne in mind that the nation lias no 
greater direct participation in the advantages of the station than 
any other country or association that may hire a table." 

The report far! gementa were being made for 

the establishment of a small station at Messina as a dependency 
of the one at Naples, and that for this additional advantage several 
lessors of tables have agreed to raise- their contributions from £75 
to £90, and the Committee recommend the British Association to 
follow this example. 

As many working naturalists have very little money to spare 
for travelling, Dr. Dohrn has set on foot a scheme for the founda- 
tion of a travelling fund for the benefit of naturalists who may be 
nominated for the tables, and in his recent letter to Baron 
Maclay, he expresses a hope that something of the same kind will 
be done for the proposed station at Sydney. The report to the 
British Association concludes with a list of eighteen papers that had 
been published during the year by workers at the Naples station, 
together with a long list of naturalists to whom specimens and 
microscopic pivparati ns had 1 en sent from the station. 

From this brief notice of the zoological station at Naples 
— the first and best of these modern institutions for the 
practical study of living organisms — I turn again to the 
more modest establishment that Baron Maclay has initiated 
here. He has pointed out in his paper to the Linnsean Society 
that Australia is a tempting field for a zoological station. He 
says — " Next after the tropics (which are the richest in animal 
life) the widest field offered to the investigator of nature, and 
consequently the most suitable region for the establishment of 
zoological stations is Australia, with a fauna so interesting, so 
important, and so very far from sufficiently known, especially as 
regards anatomy and embryology. Such a country would be the 
place for a zoological station, or to speak more correctly, for several 
such stations." And for beginning the work in Australia, the 

most central and suitable place he considers is Sydney. The site 
granted by the Government is in a pleasant and convenient situa- 
tion at Watson's Bay. The build;, completion, 
is a neat cottage providing five work-rooms and two bed-rooms, 
besides store-room and bath-room in the basement. It is not in 
tended to make a charge for each table or work-room, as at Naples, 
but every naturalist making use of the building will be expected 
to contribute a small sum, say 5s. a week, towards paying a care- 
taker. It is not supposed that this will meet current expenses, 
and T have ventured to express the hope that this Society will not 
only contribute at present to the cost of building, but will here- 
at an annual sum for maintenance. The first should be 
done by individual members, the second by the Council on behalf 
of the Society generally. The Royal Society of Victoria, in con- 
junction with members of other three Societies there, have agreed 
to give a subscription for the building, and an annual sum for 
maintenance, and the Royal Society of K S. Wales will not, I 
trust, be behindhand in this scientific enterprise, especially as our 
metropolis will have the honor of setting agoing the first zoological 
station or biological laboratory in the southern hemisphere. 

With this some to an end ; and as 

soon as I have read to you the report of the scrutineers on the ballot 
just taken I will cede the Chair to my successor. I will simply 
in conclusion express the pleasure I have had in presiding over 
your meetings, and my hope that your newly elected President 
will have an equally pleasant year of office, and have as much 
solid work to pass in review as has been accomplished in the past 

The Climate of Mackay. 
By Hy. Ling Roth, F.M.S., &c 

[Bead be/ore tlie Royal Society of N.S. W., 1 June, 1881.] 

Mackay is a port on the east coast of Australia, in the Colony of 
Queensland, on the Pioneer River, the centre of a rich and 

±he landing-place at Flat-top Island, at the mouth of the river, 
« situated m lat. 21° 9' 19" south, and long. 149° 14' 11" east 
Z™ kl S^e as the position of the centre of the town, lat. 
-I 10 _.. south, and long. 149° 10' 35" east. 
Hl h " (ll r i tric ', t %vas Covered in 1861 by Mr. John Mackay, and 
R N^ 1862 1G Pi ° neer River was surye y ed b J Capt. Heath, 

Meteorological Obserw 

C. C. <L- E. S. Em-„..,. 
of "J he i Hollow " Ls ^ itu;ltl ' ; al out 20 miles due west of the town 
900^+?' ° n th ° right baiak of the Pione ^ River, and about 
-sUO teet above sea-level. 

r»h,V\\" aU, ,' M " W ' ,€ h '- {ir,,r " d;lt Hirsi.^.-.ionof the late Mr. 
John W aterhouse, F.E.S.. F.M.S A^ *<. n f w^ii tt~.a tt„k*«„ 

ifl< "The II 

Observations are taken dailv at 8 a.m., and are confined to 

mi ^T Et WaS contem P lafced th at observations of max. sun and 
+,'^' 8 1 ? 88 , tem peratures, as well as those of barometric varia- 
tions, should be taken, bur rere broken, and 

ment was a matter of difficult ■.-. 
honl w tLe 1 returns ™ re regularly forwarded to Mr. Water- 
we, but on the death of that gentleman no further reductions 
. mad,,, and although the observations were always carefuUy 
ti ~ t V ' ! ? Vt r l ' ••'- , a-i.<ns (J b -nations were omitted, hence 
- istenee of breaks in the records. These breaks are :— 
187? " oo r0 P 17 to 30 June ( incI -), - 11 records. 
,',' ]■- 'therm. 

," 1879 " ^f^- » shade temp, (therm, broken). 

'' ,, '" 6 u i " "* bulb therm - 

I'l&O;-}! "'and wet bulb therm. 

On a cattle-station such breaks are almost -unavoidable, as it is 
not possible always to be at home at a stated time daily. Matters 
have, however, been so arranged now that in future such breaks 
will not occur. 

Since the beginning of the present year max. sun and min, 
grass temperature -■'■-■!>. ■'!■■!.-. ,is well as wind observations, 
have been taken. 

Barometric observations being only recorded once daily, have 
not been reduced. 

I have, however, now arranged with Mr. C. C. Rawson to 
gradually increase the number of instruments. One of Mr. Russell's 
barographs is bei bed for "The Hollow" and 

an anemone- this vear. 

At "The Alexandra" (J. Ewen Davidson, Esq.), the Rainfall for 
the past thirteen years (from 1868 up to date) has been recorded; 
otherwise only exceptional phenomena have been observed. The 
mean shade temperature taken at "Alexandra" during 1868 is as 
follows : — 


July 7.V.1 

August 77-6 


Wherever authentic notes concerning the climate have beea 
obtainable I have made use of them, but I am more particularly 
indebted to the Messrs. Rawson and Davidson for the long list of 
figures and facts placed at my disposal. 

The Climate of Mackay. 

The points in which the Mackay climate differs from the climates 
of other districts on the coast are due, beyond the actual situation 
of the district in latitude and longitude, to the peculiar position 
the coast range of hills occupies. 

From Cape Palmerston the coast range takes an almost due 
westerly direction until at about 35 miles from the coast it changes 
its course and runs to the north, diverging slightly to the west, 
and approaching the coast again at Mount Dryander, near Cape 
Conway. That part of the district lying to the south of the 
Pioneer River, and betw^-n tl>. .-east and tin- ranee, consists of a 
• - ■■■ - timbered plain. On the 

north side of the river the country is more undulating and m« cti 
broken by isolated mounts and spurs, between which again there 
are small plains r par t Q f this portion of tn« 

country was heavily timbered. 

The country, whilst thus exposed fully from the N.E. to the 
S.E., is sheltered to a great extent on the S., W. and N. by the 


range and isolated mounts, and accordingly as easterly or westerly 
winds prevail so does the temperature rise and fall. Often when 
the rains are heavy on the coast below the range, over the range 
there is no fall at all ; and whilst the country over the range is 
fully exposed to the westerly winds, Mackay only feels them when 
they blow strongly (chiefly at night) ; again, the broken nature of 
the country on the north side of the river causes a wide difference 
in the annual amount of the rainfalls there (Tables X and XI). 

At the present moment there are eight rain-gauges in the 
district, as follows : at Homebush, the Alexandra, the Hollow, 
Nebo Telegraph Station, St. Helen's (started this year), Bloomsbury 
Telegraph Station, the Cedars, and at the Telegraph Station in 

The Alexandra rain-gauge gives probably the fairest idea of the 
mean annual rainfall, that gauge being situated almost in the 
middle of the disl registered daily since 1868. 

The rainy season usually commences about the end of December, 
and continues, with alternate two or three weeks dry and wet, 
until April, and occasionally into May. In June and July there 
is usually a small amount of rain; the fall in the latter month last 
year (1880) was | B-55 in. at the Alexandra 

and 8-26 inches at the Hollow, and over 10 inches in town, at 
the Cedars, and Homebush. August is least supplied with rain ; 
in September there is a slich- -rcase. continues 

in October, when thm l.-i-st-.n - - t in, until December brings the 
rainy season on again. During the last three years the rainy 
season has been a month or more late. The greatest rainfall 
recorded in fcwei • of the rain-gauges was in 

town, on 10th March, 1878, when 16-81 inches fell ; at the same 
time 15-85 inches fell at the Cedars and 14-07 at the Alexandra. 

In December, 1874, there occurred at Foulden Plantation (about 
4 miles from town on the north side of the river) an extraordinary 
local fall of rain, 15 inches falling in twenty-four hours :— 
On December 4, at 9 a.m., 0"70 inches were recorded. 

4, at 6 p.m., 950 „ „ .. \ 15 inches m *^ ent y- 

At Alexandra, at the sane follows :— 

On December 4, at 8 a.m., 2-70 inches were recorded. 

During this time it rained throughout the district, but only locally 
heavily at Fouhb-: " he creek was as swollen as 

in flood-times, •• Rainfall tables 

I, VII, IX, X, XI). 

There have been five hurricanes recorded in 2> 

Feb. 9, 1864. 

Mar. 2, 1867, at Town > n's notes). 

Jan. 22, 1874, at Broadsound ,, ,, „ ,, 

Feb. 22, 1875, at Bowen ,, „ „ „ 

The floods in the river, on record, are those of 1864, 1867, 1874, 
and 1875, synchronous with the hurricanes and heavy rainfalls. 
In March, 1878, tue river rose up to within 4 feet of the 1875 
flood-marks. The ooze deposited by the floods is great ; after the 
flood of March, 1881, this year, I measured cakes of ooze varying 
from f to L£ in. in thickness. 

In July, 1S< Q 0. records of which taken at 

the Alexandra are as follows : — 

July 11. Velocir. nilu.s; mil ' U 1 26 inches. 

>. 12. „ „ „ 54-3 „ „ 3-73 „ 

i» 13. „ „ „ 30 „ „ 114 „ 

The climate is very humid ; the Hollow observations, reduced, 
give the humidity as 83-1 (that of Sydney 1869-1875 is 73d)- 
r lh< hu! lity d p< nds 1 g on tl > iud is v II as naturallyon 
the rains; it ri a -, n id i - u , J t i . i t., dune, falls rather 
more rapidly, an. | ^ , ( Vli j i in November, then 

rises slightly in Jn- . ih. r u i i ; i 1 i .J ..n. m. When the 
atmosphere is highly . ••■.!■■•■■!. U...U-.:.* clothes, furniture, &c, are 
covered with mildew, ami r [uisite to prevent 

their destruction ; lightly bound books must at such times be care- 
fully handled, otherwise their backs come off; in dry weather, on 
the contrary, book-covers will curl up. Extreme dry atmosphere 
is exceptional, seldom lasting above a few days, but extremely 
saturated atmosphere lasts for three weeks or more occasionally- 

The mean shade temperature for the four years 1876, 1877, 
1879, and 1880. reduced from the maximum and minimum daily 
observations at the Hollow, is 73-1° F.; that of Sydney, 1856 to 
1875, is 62-5. The mean minimum is G2~, and the mean 
maximum for five years is 81-6. The mean temperature for 
April (four years) being 73-4, Lsthe nearest approach to the annual 
mean. Previous to 1876 the only temperature observations on 
record are those of the year 1868, taken by Mr. Davidson at the 

December is the hottest month, the mean temperature decreasing 
slowly until March, when the drcivasc is at the rate of four degrees 
per month, until the lowest mean (60-6) is reached in July, when 
the rise is at the rate of five decrees per month until the mean of 
October is attained ; the rise is n pid in November, whose mean* 
only 1-2 degrees less than that of December. 

Light frosts are < - observatwnB 

•ith grass thermometer have been made at' the Hollow. At the 
dexandra, however, the days on which the minimum thermometer 
n grass registered freezing-point, or under, are as follow : — 

1872. July 29 31° I 1875. July 29 29° 

1876. „ 22 29° 

1873. July 15.. 
1875. June 27.. 

The mean diurnal range, as reduced from observations taken at 
the Hollow, is tolerably great for the locality ; it is 21'8 degrees ; 
it is greatest in September ; during August, October, and Novem- 
ber it is also great. In March the nit ■ '.• i: al range amounts 
to 14-5 degrees only; the raj g month fluctuates 

very little, and i: - the heaviest rainfall- are 

annually recorded. Tiiere appears to be, throughout, a certain 
connection betwe \ .nd moisture (and 

rainfall); with further observations this may &how itself more 

The extreme range of temperature recorded at the Hollow, from 
114-5° in the shade on 31st December, 1877, to 35° in the shade 
on 11th June, 1878, is 79-5° 

It is much to be regretted that the winds has.- not been recorded, 
as so very much depends on them. 

The climate is healthy : the less In ahhy j i iods are towards the 
end of the year, before the wet weather sets in, and daring and 
after the wet seasons. From August to the middle of November 
the climate is genial. 

Condensed notes on the climate previous to 1876 (when the con- 
tinuous met- : m were instituted), extracted 
from the di.<rn~> -•*' M»-w-. 0. and E. Rawson : — 

. Rain and thunderstor 
. Two thunderstorms. 


iy. On 4th flood 
y down, but still hig 

^ 2S to 3l'inci.'.".' „ 
April 1 to 6 „ ... Rain more or less d 

. Slight rain. 

„ 20 to Sept. 16. No records. 
Sept. 17 Rain. 

„ 24 Heavy rain. Rhvv ros, 1 .". tVet by 12 o'clock. 

Oct. 12 Ml i U ,U mi - > k list with fever. 

Dec. 4 Thunderstorm. 

„ 5, 1867, to 31 Jan., 1871, no records. 

April 1 Rain. 

„ 19 Too 

May 23 Rain. 

Sept. 20 „ oi 

Oct. 4 to6 inci.'.'" " 

„ 18 „ 

„ 22to23inel... „ h. 

Nov. 3 Heavy 

» 18 Raink._ 

„ 19 to Dec. 11.. No records. 

Dec. 12 Eclipse of sun. 

1872. Jan. ^iV^" Rain more or less dail y- 

" 22 toFebVi " 

On 23rd January ti 
-: shade during nun 

Rain. On 1 

Sept. 3 and 4 

Nov. 10 ... Heavy thunderstorm. 

., 11 and 12 Rain, heavy. 

ily— it was much needed 


X ov 13 Rain, heavy, and thunderstorm. 

' ' 14 and 15 „ , 

" 19to Dec. Sine. „ more or less dady. 
Jan'lfincl ... „ for twenty-three days continuously. 

J up on 13th January, and very h 

Kith -January. 
Jan. 21to31incl . ,, occasionally very hard. 
Feb. ~1 Showery. 

^ 6 ™tt. '.'.'.'.'.'. Showery. 

„ 13 to 17 inch . . Rain more or less dady. 

„ 19 to 22 „ ... „ » » m 

„ 24 to 26 „ ... „ ^ » » 

Mar. 1 to 3 inch ... " 

„ 9 and 10 „ 

„ 13 to 20 inch. . „ 

April 3 to 7 .. 

July 5 „ 

'.'. 30 and 31 "!'.!'. " 
Aug. 1 Showery. 

Oct. 15 Light showers. 

- V /;- ,1 t ;> M ;;; Ji^. thunderstorm at night. 

. Thunderstorm. 

" t in afternoon. 

. Heavy'thunderstorm as usua 

Usual thunderstorm. 
Thunderstorm in evening. 

river pretty high c 
hard on 25th. 

Feb. 10 to 13 incl... Rain. 

" 23 """""""! ',', 

Mar. 3 to 5 incl... „ 

„ 23 to 25 „ ... „ 

„ 28 to 31 „ ... „ 

April 8 to 12 „ ... „ 

„ 18 to 20 „ ... „ 

II heavily. 

„ 26 „ very hard. 

„ 5 to 'Sinci!.'! \\ 

\\ 20 ...,.....'.'...'.'. ,',' heavily at 5 a 

July 3 and "4 .'.'.".'.'.' Rain hard. 

',', 22' "...'.'.'.'.'.'. Showers. 

,, 28 to 30 incl... Rain hard. 

Dec. 2to8mcl... ,, orm on 7th. 

1875. Jan. 19 "...'..'. Rain steadily 'all day. _ 

,, 28 to 31 inel , j vor pretty high. 

Feb. land 2 „ hard. 

;; 2o t and 1( 2i nc1 ::: ;; ;> rivcrver y hi g lihuiee,L 

" 22 Very high wind and rain. 

" 2i Weather broke for a couple of hours; rain 

harder than ever. 

>> 25 Rain ■ ■ -.- 

"Tinonee" seven days coming from Boweu 

.. " Showers. 

„ 10 Rail, 

„ 11 to May 18.. No records. 

f thunderstoi-m. 

Sept. 25 " 

^° v - ^ Thunderston 

8 Heavy rain. 

distinct shocks were felt, the second imme- 
diately succeeding the first. At Branscombe, 
8 miles from "The Hermitage," and 3 from 

river. One shock continuous was felt and 
heard at '"The Hollow," hut at the "Nvth," 

(south) side, nothing wa« noticed, whilst at 

Hamilton" Statioif 

■ ■ 

The Hollow 

" the s 

were distinctly 

the Manager ot 

ves the 

utos to 



Heavy shower at 4 

ing surface 
i the ground, and a 








inches. [Day, 


Inches. jDays 





11-63 21 9 066 

l.-ls 14 

2.V96 20 12-370 


:m 14 

ls-0." 27 

-V: , 


10<»7 21 r.(i32 





3-02 11 

0-99 10 3494 






S-2t; 14 2-660 




*ept . 
0, t. 




l-7<» 10 

l'-% ,i 

0-20 3 • T4O0 
1-64 9 1-822 




:i '"- 


10-7-2 1.3 

1-22 4 



1 average rainfall, 68-138 inches. 

number of rainy days, 130. 
1 fall on each rainy day, 0'519 inches 

-t average monthly fall of rain was in 

Greatest monthly fall of rain 

34-70 inches, in Mai 

inches on 22 Mara 

The rainy s 

a of Glaisher's Tables. 

Month. | m 




18 so. 



82 9 



83 9 
70 9 



93 -5(') 



73 4 



64 6 

79 6 














82-7 | 83-1 

Th g e month i, 

t humidity is.liiiii-,t 

wiucuinereisin- ,-• 

- Wiis h 

That .rainfall wa«, ; 

d;iys only ,li,l tj,',. 
t descended to was 

The moisture in May, June, July 

the dryness in September, ( ictobcr, . v 

3 have not been r 

) on 27th November, 

March, 1876; once in Februai 

l.Octol.. !■■ "•" ■• tlui •. in March, L'i-ht 

imes in June, and once in September, 1878 ; on> . u I u ir\ ml August, 

Humidity f< 11 1 elowl of saturate 11 30 times in 1876. 



18 , 




70 -2 



65 3 

7I , 

09 "7 

02 -n 


47 1 


59 2 


65 9 




07 •<; 

73 4 






O t 1 

62 9 

December ... 



62 61-2 









S6 2 

S3 -9 




S3 -9 



69 1 

75 9 

78 -5 




SO 4 

Xeptember ... 

SI -6 


97 -o 

91 -5 

90 2 

92 1 








Mean Shade Tempera-tube (reduced from tl 
daily temperatures) for foi 


um and minimum 


18T6. | 187, 


1880; Meaa 




« 4 ■:■■: 




73 3 

64 5 




67 5 




5 80-5 

6 734 

May.. .:::;:::::::::::::::::::::::::: 

2 631 
9 60-6 
8 650 


4 82-6 


73 8 




' Temperature i 


» m. 




16 2 







22 5 

23 9 




.2-5 | m 

109 J*| 

March ' 

May 1 





239 196 

September ' ' 

21 "3 





25 2 


__ - 

1 range for four years is 21 -8 degrees. 

12 5 M 

ax. 19 




, 24-0 

, 29th 


, 315 

, 5th 


, 300 

, 27th 


, 29-5 

, 17th 

19 6 

, 33 

, 25th 


, 37-5 

, 11th 


, 36-5 



, 38-0 
, 28-0 



, 26-0 

, 15th 



ti Temperature in Shade ^ 





>« | W* 
























November.. . 





























T- P p p «p 9 p 


iSSPJ^*; : ; 1 : 

M | 


1 : b. - v. -; 7 yfizi 



I | 








»9999?* = 9 l " 9 >r- 











9 T- = - ? 5© p © 10 p 10 



¥iUc-k>.Ui>-j 1 
















u\ mmmmt 



U K8EH llllll 




SS2 |S??K^SSSlqSS 



= r.?-f--|?g???|?f; 








„.-_ ^• s «^--s[a 





£• i---^V:D^I 







Diameter of rec gauge, 8 inches. 

Height of receiving-surface of the gauge above ground, 
Appr<->xunati- height of ground above the level of the se 
Approximate distance from town, 6 miles, in a due west* 
The greatest fall of rain occurred c 

11 in twenty -four hours. 

g are some of t 
1868. May 15 . 


r falls of r 

.. 4"57 inches. 

1872! „ ' 12 .' 

.. 3-55 „ 

1873. Jan. 14 4-74 . 

1874. Jan. 22 . 

Feb. 16 . 

.. 4-50 „ 

Apl. 18 . 

.. 10-25 „ 

„ 27 . 

1876. Jan. 27 . 
Mar. 16 . 

1877. Feb. 20 . 


5-00 „ 

were fourteen days on whicl 
h days above four inches fell. 

„ Mar. 14 . 

„ 10 . 

.. 1407 „ 

1879. Jan. 14 . 

„ Feb. 1 . 
„ Mar. 9 . 

.. 3-68 „ 

„ 10 . 

1880. Jan. 23 

.. 356 „ 

», Feb. 5 

July 12 3-73 „ 

** For Table IX, see Plan attach* 


, Mackay District, for March, 1878. 




Rai.viai.l, Maekay District, for February, 

































5 63 






5 24 

5 35 

































































4 20 





2 29 


























































































Rainfall, Mackay District, for the year 1880. 



H. lw , 



a CT 


Neb o. 


-inly '..''.['. 



10 08 
3 05 

10 61 




21 -71 


1 -02 
















3 95 






73-11 81-10 





uge at Telegraph Office, 

- - 

;e(M. Hume Black, E- ,., M. L. A. 

- - - . ■ : . 

. tiirection, and a' el of the sea. 

jy, within abouf 6 n - ■ .lerable elevation. 


Cueves of the Rainfall at Alexandra Plantation (J. Ewen Davidson, Esq.), Mackay. 












b all feU; these are April, 1872, July, 1871, mi 

Ihe country from Murrurundi to Walgett is perbap* as n< 

any part of the Colony, or even -t A 

plains and low timber, there being a noticed I • 

might be called, in the ordinary sense, forest country. 

The trees are of a tolerable size for about ! 
Liverpool Range, and after that all the timberseem> dwarfed. V 
is called forest land in Australia gets its name on the feail I 
lucendo principle, becavise there is an absence of anything ii 
shape of genuine forest timber. The massive trees running 
some hundreds of feet and shutting out the bght of day with I 
leaves and branches are altogether wanting in what the a 
describe as "open forest country," and instead we have stum*** 
trees from 20 to 40 feet high,* thinly scattered over the face of 
the country. There are some places bet 

and the Darling when- timber of valu. i- found, chiefly pine and 
some ironbark, and along the banks of the rivers th-re is a narrow 
fringe of good-sized gum trees, but though the country ii by no 


The traveller going westward from the main range on any of 
the rivers, from the Gwydir in the north, to the Lachlan in the 
south, will notice as he goes a gradual stunting of the timber and 
also the gradual disappearance of many of the trees most common 
in the vicinity of the Great Dividing Range until, before reaching 
the Darling, he will find that, with the exception of the red gum, 
all the trees so familiar to the dwellers on the East Coast and on 
the western slopes of the Eange have disappeared, and been re- 
placed by a low, stunted growth of timber, and the gums, instead 
of being scattered over the face of the country, are confined, with 
a few exceptions, to the land within 100 yards of the river banks. 
After travelling over a very large extent of the country, at dif- 
ferent times, from the Queensland border in the north to the 
Lachlan River in the south, on both sides of the Darling and also 
on the Moonie, Narran, Bokira, Culgoa, Warn-... 15. .'-an, Mao 
quarie, Namoi, and Castlereagh Rivers, I am inclined to think that 
not more than one-fiftieth of the Colony west of the Main Range 
is timberless country, or quite clear of trees. 

The number of trees per acre on timbered laud in the interior 
is about the same, on an average, as in the old settled districts, 
but the great difference is in the size of the trees. 

After crossing the Darling on the western side, except along the 
water's edge, I saw nothing d— r\i-- tin- n. one of a tree. The 
coolabar, a kind of box, which grows only on flooded land, and 
the river gums, which grow only within about 100 vards of the 
water, are the only trees of any size to be found, and they are very 
poor specimens of timber trees. Pine trees, I believe, are found 
on some of the sand-ridges from 1 foot to 18 inches in diameter, 
but they must be very scarce, as I came across but few of them to 
my journey. The greater part of the remainder of the country is 
covered with trees or shrubs of various kinds seldom rising to 
more than 20 or 30 feet in height. And this'brings me to the 
first of the difficulties which I would like to see explained. 

Why, if the ra , ' T , , wt ], of trees 

20 or 30 feet high, ,]„ Ullt til ,. ; ,,.._,. ,. ki ', ,, .',',,• ,;,.,],,.,. tree s gro* 

^The soil we know is rich almost beyond belief and the rainfall 

in many places not Lens thai r the coast where 

large trees are found [t , that if th*«$ 

sufficient moisture ].< m, - ; i fV.-t hi id 1 the 
larger trees wo. 

Can it be that the mineral coi^titn, . * , ♦' '• ; ■ . "il at n short dis- 
tance from the surface ar, - ; ! rooting tret 3 
from growing in it ? 


Supposing the soil to contain a large quantity of salt, which, to 
judge by the salt nature of the vegetation and the numher of salt 
wells, seems very probable, would not the effect of the rainfall be 
to wash fche salt out of the surface soil and carry it down to the 
subsoil, and then the surface-rooting plants might flourish and 
deep-rooting plants which could not bear a salt soil would parish ? 
Of course in sandy country, where the water could percolate freely, 
the salt would be carried to a greater depth than in clay soils, 
and so we find the salt-bushes almost without exception growing 
on clay soils that are not subject to inundation. This would 
account for the fact of the rivers having a fringe of gum and 
coolabar trees along the banks, where the water frequently rising 
and retiring again within the banks would soon wash out all the 
salt that may have been in the soil originally, and also for the 
existence of pine forests in the sandy country or on the sand 
ridges as they are called, although in many cases there seems to be 
no ridge but only a change from clay to sand, and in the only 
place in which I saw a section of the strata the clay was overlying 

After leaving Walgett I went up the Darling (or Barwon) to 
the Queensland boundary, and noticed that in all the country on 
the lower Namoi, and all up the Barwon to Queensland, there is a 
remarkable absence of stones or rocks of any kind. There is a 
kind of rock showing in the Barwon River in one or two places, 
more particularly at Bundinbarrina Falls, but the appearance is 
rather that of burnt clay than of what one might call a genuine 
rock. I brought a specimen from Bundinbarrina Falls, and after- 
wards, on exam i I at Brewarrina, 
which is about 160 miles lower down the Darling, I saw that the 
rock which there forms a bar across the river is very similar to 
that at Bundinbarrina, and the fall caused in the river is almost 
exactly the same in both pla & Mr not in a single 
fall but in a series of rapids by which in about 100 yards it falls 

The most rem I noticed in the northern 

part of the Darling watershed was the wide distribution of a con- 
glomerate composed chiefly of waterworn quartz pebbles, called on 
the Barwon and Narran murrillo, but not known by this name in 
other parts of the countrv where the conglomerate is found. On 
making inquiries among the blacks I found that in their language 
murrillo means ant-hill — that is, the red cone-shaped ant-hill that 
w found in all the northern and western parts of New South 
vvales. These ant-hills are nearly always built on the highest 
ground in that part of the Colony, to avoid floods, and as the 
highest ground h is composed of the quartz 

conglomerate it is easy to understand how the word which first 
meant ant-hill came also to mean the ridges on which the ant-hills 

tunity of exam 
Darling and as 
Bourke, and np 

In looking at th 
with white wat.-i 
fall of snow, I oi 

This Cohar country 

That the current, when it does run, is from oast to west there 
can be no doubt, from the drift of stones which has been carried 
out on to the western plain ; but the thing which strikes one at 
first as difficult of « xplan ti.m i how in a countn so level, where 
one would think there could not possibly be any head ot water, a 

60 yards in width and 20 or 25 feet deep. 

On examining the country round and making inquiries, ] found 
that there was a very large area of countn (of winch taw an a 
Plain is the lowest part) surrounded by ridges, and only open to 

the north toward 1 N K d i ms ] U that 

this used in times of flood to be tilled from the Narran, and that 
the point in which ( irawin Water is now found was the lowest 
place whore the water broke over the ridge and escaped from the 
lake which mud h ^ Of course 

if this theory is correct it is easy to understand how the water, 
after rising to the top of the ridge, with a fall of about 20 feet in 
about half a mile, would have force to cut a channel for itself and 
ultimately to empty the lake. It is impossible to be quite sure 
without getting the relative levels of the Xarran and tawarra 
Plain, but I am confirmed in the truth of this explanation by 
information I roceiv. iron M J. K. Doy 1 ' of Tamworth, who 
was there in 186 I - : that tmi^aa 

immense lake, w i ■ P erfect *? J* 6 ?* 

flowing through the ( h iw hi wat- i -course. It was impossible in 
the then flooded state of the country, to mid out where the water 
came from, but r I » was the overflow of the 


The murrillo conglomerate shows in tin banks ,.r the < -raw in. 

boiindaryTfot'a kbo ?* ^iJfTt 

are known to 1 ..-..rate ; s0 • V 

nuonwhich I ^d^ty^n 
: shows in the P "™* 1 * .* 
the Colony, is , fj t^^LSS* I 

■■■■■'. '. - • - - ■..■..--■ 

a sort of bar which obstructs the flow of the underground water to tnesc 

flowing alon<^ t er ^ e J?jlZ. 

deposit of sandV : a ^S,Twi 

If the geological history of this conglomerate could be ' 

t of Australia would be v 


After leaving the Queensland border I followed the Narran | 
River down to the lake, which terminates its course, and which, 
when I visited it, was almost full for the second time, as I was 
informed, since its discovery. The first time that Narran Lake 
was full, and the only time it overflowed, so that the water reached 
the Darling, was in the great flood of 1864. The Narran Biver 
is one of the branches into which the Ballonne divides before 
emptying into the I > u-liu- as d il ■• < nly one which does not react 
that river, but after a course of about 100 miles in New South 
"Wales falls into a depression in the country and forms a lake, j 

The Narran Lake has, I believe, been dry more than once since 
it was first discovered, and as I was inf< rm< d by some of the old 
hands in that part of the country, will not last much more than a 
year after the Narran ceases to flow into it. The lake, or rather 
the two lakes together, are about 15 miles long, and in one place 
about 8 miles wide, and cover, as nearly as I could estimate it, an 
area of about 35,000 acres. 

The two lakes are connected by an opening of about 200 
yards in width, through which the water flows from the northed 
lake which receives the Narran River into the southern laM 
which has no apparent outlet, but from which I was informed t» 
water flowed into the Darling in 18G4 but never before or since, 
* * d from the lakel ■ 
in the deepest part of the lake 
stated at from 8 to 12 feet, and though the spleD id she* 
water which opens on the traveller's view— the most magnificent 
and refreshing sight that one could see in a dry country— g 1 ™ ^ 
idea of much greater depth, I have no reason to suppose 
estimate is very far wrong, as the men from whom I obtained 
information had seen it full and empty, and the estimates 
several only varied to a small amount. The Narran River fio 
through a very level count rv, with a tall of somewhat less 
a foot to the mile, to the south-west, and in 
channel is very small, the water spreading back for^« 

both sides at every flood ; but f,„- ,■ distance before entenjj 

the lake the channel is well defined and capable of carrv ^ 
a considerable body of water, being about -10 yards ^ 
with steep banks. My estimate of the fall is obtained j| 
the distn nee to which dams throw back the water, * 
I found in most cases was about a mile for ..very foot o _ 
dams. At the time of my visit to Narran Lake, or Jw , 
Water as it is more commonh called, the river had j'-,. 
running for about six weeks ami the lake had begun tc ► sj ^ 
showing a . ible stretch of land round ih • !- ; wll ,,„^ 
been recently covered, and I noticed in the c ham 
the two lakes that there was a current Mowing at the i-a* 6 . ** ^ 
half-a-mile per hour from the northern lake which receiv 


river into the southern lake, which has no apparent outlet. The 
strange thing aWit this lake is the enormous quantity of water 
which flows into it without finding any apparent escape, and still 
the lake does not fill, except in rare instances, when a very wet 
season in Queensland keeps the river in flood for many months, or 
even more than a year, as was recently the case. To judge by the 
quantity of water which comes down the Narran, and the an ft Mad 
depth of the lake, one would think a week would be ample time to 
it lowing. 
Mr. Simpson, the manager of the Boorooma run, on which 
Narran Water is situated, told me that the river had been running 
into the lake for thirteen months before my visit, and for acon- 
siderable part of that time the river was several miles in width, 
and as the station where Mr. Simpson resides is situated on the 
Narran River, about 8 miles above the lake, he would of course 
have a good opportunity of observing it. I endeavoured to form 
an estimate of the rate at which the Narran flows into the lake 
when the channel is full by exami where the 

station hands swim their horses across, and getting them to show 
me where the horses come out on the opposite side. I foi 
in swimming, a horse was carried down about a yard and a half for 
every yard of progress made towards the opposite bai 

e by my estimate a rate of current of about 5 miles an 
hour. Everything about this Narran Lake would lead one to the 
conclusion that there is an underground outlet, but whether con- 
nected with the Darling or some subterranean river it is impossible 
to say with r. -miintv. T\w. latter seems the more likely con- 
clusion, as if it were connected with the Darling it is scarcely 
possible but that the place where the Narran water reached the 
Darling would be noticed, as the Narran often comes down in flood 
when the Darling is quite low, and at such a time any oon 

of water in the Darling such as the Narran would give 
would not fail to be noticed. I could not find that any careful 
examination had ever been made of the bottom of the lake when it 
was dry, but one stockman who had been on the run for some years 
rge holes. The fact that after the 
river had ceased to run for six weeks there was still a current 
flowing from the northern to the southern lake would go to 
show that the water was escaping more rapidly in the sou ; 
in the northern portion. Narran Water seems to be a perfect 
paradise for water-fowl of all kinds, as they are to be found there 
I may say in millions. On one occasion last year I rode along the 
water's edge for about 10 miles, and for the whole distal 
covered for some hundreds of yards from the shore with ducks of 
all kinds and wild geese, and a little further out were vast flocks of 
stately swa ns and pelicans gliding over the shining water, while 
along the shore I sometimes started little lots of wild turkeys, and 

on each side near the lake, lias ... L takei si --ion of for about 5 

miles upwards as a breeding place for the cormorants, and at the time 
s young birds were just fledged and still in the e" 1 " 

in tens of thousand-, and the > hi 

[ ones were fishing in the channel in 

such numbers that the water wa 

s almost black with them in places, 
a pleasant part of the lake to 

This is not by any means 

approach, as it is scarcely p<>— il 

.le to bear the effluvium from the 

fragments of fish that are lying 

under the trees, and which pollute 

the air for a considerable dis 

tance round, while Hocks of the 

common carrion crows are actin 

nder ev.-rv hvr' one would be safe 

in coming to the conclusion' liai 

the scavenger stair was altogether 

inadequate to the work which w 

horse and approaching the trees 

young birds would immediately 

rln-..v. iheiiiM-ivesou to the ground 

in this lake would seem to contradict the >toric- of the water ever 
drying up completely, and yet the fact is ailirmed by so many 
different people I ' reason to duubtit 

I left the Narran Water on the 1:5th of August, 1880, and 
reached the Darling the same dav, and afterwards followed it 
down to Brewarrina, or the KMrni-v. us it is called in that part ot 
the country. Brewarrina gets the name of the Fishery from the 
fact that it is situated on a part of the Darling where there is J 
rocky bar which forms a fall, or rather a rapid in the river, and 
which has been utilized by the aboriginals to construct a gre* 
number of little vards < trap . , which tin fish are led throng* 
winding lane,. f which they are 

unable to return. All the work is done with stones Vmilt loosely 

yet to obtain th 
there before the 
the Darling at I 

as one goes up the Mara from the Darling, 
hush plains, interspersed with belts and clumps of low timber, but 
is very badly watered, as Mara Creek has no natural drainage — 
no creeks running into it — and is only filled when the Macquarie 
rises above a certain height in flood, being, in fact, dependent on 
the rainfall of the western slopes of the great Dividing Range, and 
on these slopes a considerable flood rain must fall before any 
water reaches the lower part of Mara Creek. Mr. Yeomans, of 
Gilgoin, showed me a well, which is situated about 10 miles east 
of Mara Creek and 15 miles south of the Darling, which there 
flows east and west. The well or spring is called in that part of 
the country " the cuddie," which I was informed means, in the 
language of the aboriginals, " bad water" ; but as I have heard of 
two or three {.laces about ther. called hv different names, all of 
which were said to mean " bad water," I am somewhat doubtful of 
the meaning, and not havii 
of the blacks, I merely giv 

It may be that there has always been such a variety of baa 
water about there that the almriu-inaU invented many words to 
describe it Just as we find in the Latin language more words 
for killing a man than in any other, the Romans being more 
addicted to that amusement than any other nation, and in the 
English we have I believe more words for getting drunk than in 
any ancient or modern language, showing, I suppose, that we have 
always been given to strong drinks. 

The well is situated in a country, as far as I could judge, per- 
fectly level, consisting of salt-bush plains and thinly-timbered land, 
and the soil a red clay of great depth, as a well has been sunk a 
few miles from the one I am about to describe, in the same sort of 

weal depression, which gradually slopes to the well or spring from 
every side, and is something over a quarter of a mile in diameter. 
This depressi. • k ter in wet seasons, and from 

the marks left on the trunks of the trees by the water I should 
^y the centre was about 5 feet deep. The slope from all sides is 
so gradual that, if it were not for the water flowing in and filling 
U P the hollow, it would be impossible without levelling instru- 
ments to tell that there was any depression at all ; but after the 
.vater h as retired, the trunks of the trees, to the height at which 
« stood, are discoloured, so there is a permanent record of the 
levels. When the country was first taken up, the cuddie was 
simply a bog-hole, which never dried up— always, even in the 
greatest droughts, affording water to the aboriginals when they 
scooped it out, but forming a dangerous trap for cattle, as, in dry 
times, they were sure to be tempted in looking for water, and, 

Mo. i3ot. Garden, 


boggy ground in, and sank a well to the depth of 28 feet in the 
centre of it, and, as he went down, found the water rising up from 
the bottom all the way at the rate of 2,500 gallons per day, or 
about 100 gallons an hour. When the well had readied the depth 
of 28 feet, of course there was an embankment formed by the day 
excavated some 2 or 3 feet high, and it was found that the water 
rose over the top of this, so that it was possible to convey it to 
the outside of the enclosure and so water stock on the firm ground 
But the most remarkable thin-- was that from the surface to the 
full depth to which the well was sunk the earth was found to be 
full of fossil bones in a splendid state of preservation, many of 
them being beautifully enamel],.! a, if with some deposit from the 

sunk into the i 

fragments of jaws and tee, 

that lady ha, done sometl 
whom one of the teeth wa 
of crocodile. 
The remaining fossils w 
down for the purpose of s 
The most of them, I behV 

which is quite el. bottom of the well can be 

seen through 28 feet of it, seems to have a preservative effect 
which would have kept them in a good state. The fact of the 
animals having sit haying been dis- 

turbed or rolled about by flowing water, would lead one to expect 
that very complete . '.lily excavating. 

The water of the cuddie is rather sweet-tasted and good for 
stock, but has a strong purgative effect on human beings. It is 
rather hard to an als so large and heavy as the 

diprotodons and gigantic kangaroos could have existed there when 
the country was i rhich it is now, or, if they 

were capable of existing in a country like that about Mara Creek, 
v! -;y they should have disappeared at all. 

The fact of so many bones place would go 

to show that the country must have been, when diprotodons 
roamed over it, subject to drought, and water at times very scarce, 
so that these extinct animals were tempted to their destruction 
just in the same way that cattle are entrapped now ; and yet one 
would suppose that to supp. ttd heavy a much 

more luxuriant veg. r .,i n would be requii d than that we see at 
present. The depression of whk-h the cuddie is the centre is also 
rather puzzling, as if the water had at any time brought with it 
anything i an ible of b< ing deposited one would expect to find the 
ground just roun i rest of the country. The 

explanation of this is, I think, that as the water rose to the sur- 
face and convert - ■'■ -- 
in and going back again (when they were not entrapped by getting 
mto the centre, which is the only place where the bog is deep), 
would take with them some portion of the very tenacious clay on 
their feet, and this going on for long ages would be sufficient to 
form a depression in the plain which would increase gradually in 
depth until the slope would be such that the soil carried into it by 
ram water would ken out, after which it would 
continue at the same depth. 

This question 1 -.-rest in reference to what 

are called gilgies. In all the country about the Darling, but 
more especially in that str. "ing between the 

Lachlan and the Darling and the Bogan Rivers," which is in most 
places very level and without, any defined water-courses, at 
intervals scattered ■ \ < r the cuntry, sometimes in groups and 
sometimes alone, are small holes which contain water for a con- 
siderable time after rain. They are of all sizes, from 30 or 
40 to a few yards in diameter, always approach a circular form, 
and are never, as far as I saw, more than about 5 feet deep. All 
the gilgies that I saw, a -,\ n.; ti ivels extended over about 4,000 
miles, were situ . ..arly level that the water 

flowing into them had not sufficient force to cut ehannels of any 

kind, and also I noticed that they were larger and deeper tfo 
: water. Of coura 

there must be some way of accounting for this, and there must h 

gilgics bein^ 
they have ] ' 

absolutely c 

water, as even after they are formed the wa 

arr.u _• (1 in •! a :> wa\ as to iudi. ate a water 
has not seen the Western Plains of Austral 
how nearly they approach a 'lead level. I 1 

dry country if then- ha' 

for the formation of small natural depressions a few feet or yards in 
diameter, as we see them made almost every season. When the 
ground cracks, and afterwai \ i «e up the cracks, 

the surface does not return to a perfect level, hut every place where 
a crack was situated forms a hollow by the falling in of the sides, 
and any of I a a dry country and capable 

uld be sufficient to start a gilgie. 
that is by means of openings 
communicating with some more porous strata underneath or with 
■ ' 

In most parts of the Darling watershed where I have been, but 
more particularly on Messrs. Cross and Featherstonhaugh's run, 
which is situated between the Culgoa and Warrego Rivers, there 
are to be seen depressions of 2 or 3 feet in depth and sometimes 4 
or 5 yards in diameter, with one or more holes in the bottom, 
through which the surface water escapes downwards. These de- 
pressions have evidently beer. : • water carrying 
down with it some portion of the clay soil, and of course must 
communicate with some much more open strata to allow of the 
clay being carried down. One can easily understand that after a 

- " " >n of this kind was formed, if the holes in the bottom got 
up by any means so that water would stand in the hollow, 
ilgie would be the result. 

[ could not hear of any one having attempted to sink a well in 
one of these depressions, although it seems to me they would be 
most likely places in which to search for water. The well-known 
fact that any wel I raising its water-level, a 

quantity of watei ■ which may be 

taken out of it, coupled with the fact that enormous quantities of 
water rush down through these openings for days after heavy rain, 
would lead to the belief that thev communicate, in many cases, 
with supplies of w •■ : and one might 

also infer, generally, from the fact of the surface water having 
found its way through the clay at these places, that there the clay 
is of least thickness and the water-bearing strata nearest to the 

After inspecting the runs on Mara Creek, I had to go out to 
that part of the Colony near the northern boundary, where the 
W arrego River enters from Queensland, for the purpose of ap- 
praising a run called Gerrarra. After crossing the Darling at 
Brewarrina, for the second time, I went out to a station called 
VJiantambone, situated on the Cato Creek, about 4 miles north 
of Brewarrina. The Cato is a creek which flows out of the Dar- 
hng above Brewarrina, and returns to the main channel again 
after a course of a few miles. The Quantambone, or Cato Station, 
as it is now called, is the property of Mr. John Todd, and by him 

I was told of a remarkal 
a the place wl 
the back of the Cato heads 
the Darin-, is a very lai- 
being nothing in view as fa 

Cato I got up about half-ai 

feet high, crowned with a thir 

did not know that there vrae m 
to tell that it was , 1( ,t n- :i |. I 

had disappeared. 

There are no cliffs like tl 
hundreds of miles of Hi,. ., 
understand how this p-culia 
from the apj... 
the spectral cliffs, and from 
of the spectator, would fori 
in the north-east and the cl 
at the southern point. Tie 

ingly beat 
getting ui 

I reached Gerrarra three days after leaving the Cato, and had 
an opportunity on the way of examining the cane swamps as they 
are called, of which I have more to say further on. Gerrarra, or 
Gerrarra Springs, belongs to a Mr. Shearer (who is a very old resi- 
dent in that part of the country), and is only remarkable for the 
springs from which the run takes its name. There are two springs 
situated within about a mile and a half of each other in a line running 
about north-east and south-west, and Mr. Shearer told me they 
formed part of a line of spi fcbe same general 

direction, which were known to him for a distance of 150 miles, 
the springs being in some cases like those at Gerrarra, close 
together and in others separated 1 v L>ul; intervals of waterless 
country. Some of the springs in this line overflow and some, as 
those at Gerrarra, only rise to within a short distance of the sur- 
face. Mr. Shearer has made an . v i\ ni-ui in the rock at the 
mouth of each of the springs of which he is the owner, and draws 
the water out by horse-power for his stock, and as the springs do 
not supply water as fast as it is drawn out, I had an opportunity 
of examining the formation both above and below where the water 
is coming out of the rock. I found that near the surface there 
was about 4 feet of a soft coarse red sandstone, unlike anything 
I had seen anywhere else on the Darling, with apparently a slight 
dip to the south-west, and under this about 4 feet of a coarse light- 
coloured sand sii. her, out of which the water 
was coming. The cemented sand was resting on a very hard con- 
glomerate, composed chiefly of quartz pebbles ; in fact, the same 
conglomerate which has already been described in this paper under 
the name of the murrillo conglomerate. 

The water is, I believe, not affected by droughts, and stands in 
these springs at a few feet below the general level of the surface 
of the country, not flowing over but standing always at the same 
height. They as w*j between the Culgoa and 

Warrego Rivers, being about 26 miles from the former and 35 
miles from the latter, and about 20 miles south of the Queensland 
border. The cane swamps as they are called are a remarkable 
feature of the country on the Warrego, between the Queensland 
boundary and Bourke, and though I have seen some in other 
parts c* - 1 

country eastVfthe Warrego and abo'ut 30miles south of Quw_ 
J-hey are stretches of country sometimes several miles in extent, 
composed of a white clav, perfectly level, and almost as smooth 
and hard as a billiard-table, thinly covered with a kind of coarse 
grass about 4 feet high, resembling small canes, called in some places 
cane grass and in others Wilkie grass, and all through these cane 
swamps there are small islands, raised about a foot above the general 
level, scattered over most of the flats, and on these islands, which 

are composed of a better and more friable i 
grass does not grow, but instead we find < 
such as grow on ordinary plain 
have been formed by the accidental accum 
blown about in that country in such large 
The cane swamps wherever I have see 
lower than the general level of the sur: 
the water runs down in wet weather ant 
of some inches, and the clav of v. hi,], tli 

vent the 

I had 

tanks tl,; 

lill-d with 

like to a 

<l"pth of al 

which th 

to the f 

3 medyistop* 

These fragments, which are of all sizes up to about 3 inches in 
diameter, have no appearance of having been carried along in 
water, as the corners are perfectly angular, and they are not 
embedded in the clay, but rest on the surface as if they had only 
been just laid there. I could not find out where they came from, 
and the fact of their not being mixed through the clay but only on 
the surface makes it improbable that they have been carried into 
their present position by moving water, even if there were any 
high land in the neighbourhood from which the water could have 
come, which there is not, and if they had been carried a long dis- 
tance the stones tln-iusrlw.s would show some signs of their 
journey. An explanation, offered by Mr. Crosse, a squatter in 
that part of the country on whose run some of these cane swamps 
are situated, that the stones are of meteoric origin seems to me 
not to meet the difficulty. First, it seems strange that there 
should in that part of the country have been such a very large 
shower of meteoric atones wh< n in the rest of the world showers 
in which large quantities of stones fall are of such rare occurrence ; 
and second, if such a shower of stones fell, many of them 2 or 3 
inches in diameter, one woul lid fall with such 

force as to bury tli. ma Ivefl in the day and not be as we see them 
on the surface. 

I regret very much that I neglected to bring a specimen of 
the stones with me, but I hope soon to obtain some with a view 
to testing the meteoric theory. After leaving Gerrarra I came 
through Messrs. < ross. d: Featherstonhaugh's run, and on to 
Bourke, where I crossed the ang on my way a 

very interesting part of the country in which are situated some very 
peculiar mud springs. I did not at any point come within less 
than 30 miles of them, and as my horses were almost worn out, 
and I found it quite impossible to buy fresh ones about there, I had 
to give up the idea of examining them. I believe they are to be 
found scattered over a large area of the north-western part of the 
Colony, as I heard of them being in many places, and from 
descriptions given to me by people who are living in that pact of 
the country- I should think they are a soi-t of natural artesian 
wells in which the water forcing its way up under great pressure 
converts so much of the clay into mud that little or no water 
reaches the surface. Th. • v : . ■ to me as pyramids 

of mud oozing up out of the ground, with sometimes a little 
water, standing i Ii maybe formed on their 

surface, and this water, when there is any, is, I believe, always 
fresh. The fact that where attempts have been made to sink 
wells m the mud springs they have always failed through the mud 
torcmg its way in, sometimes bursting the timbers and always 
filling the wells up, seems to show that the water must be under 
great pressure and would rise freely to the surface if a way were 

through the mud almost to any depth, and if, as seems very 
probable, there are water-bearing strata of sand or gravel under 
the clay, when they were reached the water would rise freely 
through the pipe and flow over the surface. Tube wells have 
been driven in America to depths of 200 feet and upwards with- 
out any very great difficulty, and surely as much can be .lone here. 
Along the Darling, fi >m L' irk- to Lout! . tin re is nothing very 
remarkable about the country. Small isolated mountain ranges are 
to be seen in the direction of Cobar, but as I did not approach 
any of them I cannot say wh ,: L !.. h- g,,,logh- : d formation. The 
rest of the country is very level, and the i imber the same as in all 
the other parts of the Darling frontage where 1 have been-ia 
fact from near the Queensland boundan to Louth there is no 
variety about the river at all. 

At a station which I was inspecting near Louth, I saw a rather 
curious effect produced to mixim.- ,'..•.!( uater from a well with 

salt and offensive to, -i-A as (!„ 

: : 

from the well with it. 

On the evening of my arrival the 
: pea-soup, 

;ence and c 
with a single bucket i 
the well and empty it into the tank. This conl 

' il the time of mv departure, when I 

water in the tank had heeot.e" ahm ,t «pdte clear. 

i 1 was free fr. 

smell, and on tasting I c 

water. The proportion in th ■ mixture w- not 

that the water was not ea 
of the combination. 

From Louth [ return,. 
with fresh hors 

country almost enclosed 


space on the maps of the Colony. The country seems to rise with 
a very gradual slope from the Darling, at Bourke, in a southerly 
direction towards the Lachlan for about 150 miles, to near Gill- 
gunnia, and all the water up to that point goes in the direction of 
the Darling, but there are no water-courses marked on the maps 
and no well-defined water-courses on the ground, except close up to 
what may be called the Dividing Range, where the country rises into 
tolerably high mountains th i, th u< _' hourhood of Gilgun- 
iiia—and from there the ground, an far as [could see, seemed to fall in 
the direction of all the three rivers named — this being, as it were, 
the centre of dispersion. The gullies coming out from the moun- 
tains are numerous enough, but they all seem to disappear on 
reaching the open country. The high ground is chiefly granite, 
but all through the level country where I have been, at distances 
of from 10 to 20 miles apart, there are hills scattered about, gen- 
erally cone shaped, that 1 found in some cases, Avhere I had 
an opportunity of . x.imii.ii.w th. m, to be composed of trap. 
Springs are to be found in some places among the mountains, but 
as they seem to be only the result of local drainage they are not 
of much importance except to the owners. There is a creek called 
Sandy Creek, not very well defined as to its channel and not 
marked on the maps of the Colony, nor even on the run maps of 
the Occupation Office, which ris s' it Mothmnbil, about 30 miles 
east of Gillgunnia, and flows to the westward in the direction of 
VV" ilcannia, and through this creek all the surplus water of that 
part of the Colony finds its way, but whether it ultimately reaches 
- or not no one seems to know. 
1 could see from the drift wood that heavy floods sometimes 
Pass down it, bu- there is no water apparent 

*n the channel. By digging in the coarse sand with which it is 
almost filled, water could be got at the time I was there in almost 
any place at a depth of about a fo t from the surface, and in this 
way a good deal of the stock belonging to lessees of land through 
winch the creek passes are watered. All along Sandy (or Crowl 

water frontage i s seem to know 

nttle of the water-course beyond their own properties. The ex- 
ploring sp i r it does not seen I to trace it either 
way, and I was only enabled to find out where it rises through 
j*vuig to follow it up to win r, the Lead is -nutated, for the pur- 
Pose en. an appraisement. I found it quite impossible to get any 
| tlt:uu information as t . where th, wat. r C oes which passes down 
«, some squatters a~. rtii.- rb.r it ian into the Mallet- country 
and disappeared, some that it spr. ad out over the level land and 
2£. k mto the g* entered the Darling near 
vv llcanrua; but I did not meet with any one who could speak from 
Personal knowledge 

a slow and laborious 

lount of hardship and 

danger attached to it, but within the last four or five yeawso 

the hardships and dangers have been very much lessened. 

The area of unstocked and waterless country has been so mudi 
reduced and the stations already established can now be made a 
basis of operations to enable the intending squatter or back-blocker, 
as he is generally called, to get out on to that which he is about 
to stock. But though the making of tanks and stocking new 
country has been going on faster round Cobar for some fouror 
five years past than in any other part of the Colony, there is still 

from the nature of the soil 
fill in moderate rains, mean 

tanks have been fixed on, ii 
dried up before men can be 
cases there may be no gil 
Then the back-blocker mi 
nearest tank where water c 
where the work is to be 
believe it i3 never refused, i 
of I00-ga!lon iron water-tai 
and men set to work to ex, 

saving of time, but even then, and when capital is plentiful, the 
lessee will in very few cases get any return for his expenditure 
until after the lapse of .-it least two years, and the time may he 
extended by a few adverse seasons to four or hve years, which 
would mean to manv an enterprising and energetic 
absolute ruin. The long stern struggle with the adverse forces of 
Nature goes on from day to day, and year by year continually 
increasing quantities of wool with gold and other valuable metals 
are passed through our ports. These are the spoils, and the export 
entries are often the only records of victories as great and glorious 
as any that have ever been won by "the hardy Anglo-Saxons, to 
whom the waste places of the earth have been given for an 
inheritance." The work that is being done, watering, stocking, 
and prospecting back country, where hardships and dangers have 
to be met and where lives are sometimes lost, is not done with any- 
public or patriotic object in view: but, nevertheless, the public 
will and do reap the benefit, and the men ^ who undertake it 
deserve all the ! ' - ' 


We see and hear much of the successes, but the failures— the 
cases in which in , -\ ,"1 Youth, and courage and energy, and 
even life, have been expended in vain— go unrecorded. I suppose 
there must be failures; sacrifices must be offered to the spirit of 
progress — often the best we have ; but when the victory is won, is 
it well to reward with a.bu -<■ those' who have fought the battle for 
us, and to forget those who have e;one down in the struggle? 

The spirit of chivalry which urged the knights-errant of old to 
go forth redressing w r,.n_- was not so true nor could it produce 
so great an effect a «-h< - irir of enterprise which to-day urges the 
modern representatives of these same knights further and further 
into all the unknot u ph.. ; of the earth nd the cry of "West- 
ward, ho :■"' which was rai && not do more 
£'"'• Englishmen than the ■• Westward, ho!" of to-day will do for 

When Jack Smith, with his trusty revolver at his side, goes 
forth into the unknown wilderness in search of a new run or a 
new gold-field, risking all that he has, even to his life, he is doing as 
good work, and, although he is unconscious of it, is as much a hero 
as the best knight of ancient davs. 

These back lands had little or no value in their natural state, 
and the value which they now possess is chiefly that which has 
been given to them bv the m ,„.,v and .lnrgv which have been 
expended on tie ! v formed no part of "the 

public estate." 

To people who have seen these things and know what settle- 
ment in the dry back country really is, it is not a little disgusting 
to hear the outcry that is continually being made about great 

it to the surface by boring in the Western plains. The materials 
at my command are not numerous, being very little besides Mr. 
Russell's rainfall observations and calculations as to the outflow 
of the Darling, and what I have been able to collect myself in a 
journey of about five months' duration, and they apply to a vast 
area of country, so that I am not at all sure that the tame lias yet 
come for arranging them and endeavouring to show what lesson 
they teach. But, on the ground that no harm can be .lone by 
opinions based on even a few facts, I have decided to make the 

Before starting for the Darling, in June of last year, at the 
suggestion of Mr. Russell, the Government Astronomer, I wrote 
to the Honorable the Miuisu-r for Mines (in whose department 
the appraisers are) suggesting that a circular should be sent to 
each of the appraisers who were then starting for different parts 
of the Colony, asking them to make certain observations. Mr. 
Russell undertook to draw up the eir ular. md F referred the Min- 
ister to him as a guarantee that the object in view was of some 
scientific importance, and the few gentlemen I had an opportunity 
of seeing express fco do the work required. I 

received a reply informing me that the Honorable the Minister 
for Mines did not think the appraisers should be delayed in their 
work, and for tl. forward the circular. How- 

ever, as all the runs have to be appraised every five years, it is to 
be hoped that some future Minis! ,l t0 request the 

appraisers to make notes of all natural springs and wells givmg a 
large supply of water in th ■ ' ; < r1 "' ,l, 'T tu ot 

the wells, depth at vhicl v at< r st nids, % h. th. r iff* et-.i b\ dry- 
weather or not, and, if possible, the strata passed through, and to 
fix their position as nearly as possible on the map, and also to 
make similar notes in ca» " ;tV0 been sunk 

without reaching water. Such notes would be of great value m 
enabling people who have not an opportunity oi ob~ 5 \ mg b-r 
themselves to come to some conclusion as to the possibility ot 
obtaining water in lanre ..•- ilar P art °* "J 6 

interior, and also as to the probable depth at which it would be 
obtained, and would not increase the work of the appraisers nor 
delay them to any appreciable extent They would, in fact, give 
scientific men, who are not, as a rule, to be found on the frontiers 
of . ili ition, an op] rtunitv of attempting the solution of a 
problem which is of the very greatest importance to this and otto r 
Colonies. On the supposition that there is a great drainage system 
under the Western plains, taking away to the ocean that part or 
the rainfall which is not accounted for either by evaporation or by 
the outflow of the Darling River (and this seems to be almost 
proved), it ought to be possible, by careful observation, to trace 
the general direction and reach it in many places by means ot 

"bored wells. There is such a sameness about all the Western 
plains, and the whole have so much the appearance of having been 
deposited as it were at a single operation extending probably over 
a very long period of time, and left undisturbed ever since, that it 
seems probable that the experience gained in any one place IN 
apply to a very large area. The high mountain range which runs 
parallel to the east coast seems to continue to the west in 
Queensland, dividing the Darling waters from those of the eastern 
and northern rivers, and this would make it improbable, if M 
impossible, that the underground water should find its way to tin- 
sea either on our northern or eastern coasts. The maps of the 
interior of Australia are not, of course, very accurate yet, and it 
is only possible from them to make a fair guess at the general 
direction of the high 1 nd But many things seem to indicate 
that all the western parts of New South Wales and Queensland. 
with part of South Australia, in times con 1 pa rati vely recent were 
depressed below sea-level and open to the ocean to the south-west, 
and this would be the direction which the underground water 
would most probably take. My chief reason for holding this 
opinion is that in no part of the western country where I have 
been is there any indication of a disturbance of the strata since 
the deposition of the great clay-beds of which the plains are 
formed. Wherever I had an opportunity of seeing the older 
rocks, the arrangement of the clav with reference to them seemed 
to indicate that it had been deposited in still water over or around 
them while they were in exactly the same state as they are in 
now, and that ftl whole awfl 

J • edthew, stent of almost 

. withthft tnns or ■ tains of »°* 

ated peaks 

level land, with the tops of what" 

That the underground water would take the same general direc 
tion as the surface water seems probable, but that the under 
ground drainage s\ stem is in anv other wav a counterpart ot 
surface system is not at all likely. t , a : m . 

The underground water, as shown by Mr. Russell, must be m 
mensely in excess of the surface water, a ad would, in a gen 
way, flow towards what were the lowest parts of the origin** ■» 
face of the country before the vast mass of clay which no^ 1 " 
the surface soil i , h.-re these lowest parts 

situated, or what is the thickness of the clay mi 
covered, there an n r for f or f 3^ 

opinion. If my conclusions are correct there would in fact be >* 
great river systems— one on the surface, carrying away to tfi 
a certain part of the annual rainfall, and one underground, p« 
an ancient river system, carrying off by far the larger portio 

• way out rd«m» 

the bed of an ancient inland sea or unit', som, -tiling like the Baltic, 
in -which case there would not be any well-definded drsfnagi 
system, but it woi jh the most permeable strata, 

and in either case would tend to rise above the surface wherever 
obstructions were met with. So little is known of what is under 
the western plains that it is impossible to say with any show of 
certainty which of these theories is the more probable. It would 
be possible to account for a great thickness of permeable strata 
underneath the present clay soil by supposing that at one period, 
when the western parts of Queensland and New South Wales, and 
eastern part of South Australia, were below sea-level, there was a 
connection with the ocean to the north through the Gulf of Car- 
pentaria, and perhaps to the west through Western Australia, when 
a strong current flowing through would scour out the depression, 
depositing great quantities of sand in what were then the deepest 
parts ; and afterwards, v. 1 , the i rthern and western connections 
were cut off by the rising of the country, the mediterranean sea, 
which remained where the western plains mnvaiv. would be gradually 
silted up -with the tine clay which now forms those plains. Never 
having had an op] tfng the country in Northern 

Queensland, or on the western coast of Australia, I cannot say much 
as to the probability of either of those connections having existed, 
but as far as I can learn from the reports of explorers there seems 
to be nothing to make them impossible or even improbable. 

, there is a well at Mr. Meddlk-ors run, Booroora, 15 miles west 
of theMooni River, ai d G n iles south of the Queensland boundary, 
winch, though not vorv deep seems to be connected with some 
Partoftheund.-,-. ,. This well is 40 feet 

d <*P, sunk through 9 feet of dark-coloured clay impervious to 
water, 26 feet of hard cemei ;i,, "' s down on 

exposure to the 1 1 i rworn pebbles, and is also 

mvpervious to water, and 5 feet of loose running sand ; and the 
water on being reaehed ro^e to within 10 feet of the surface, 
coming up through the bottom in a thick spout. Mr. MeddBsot 
passed an iron rod 14 feet long down through the hole out of which 
*ae water comes without meeting with any obstruction. The 
to the level at 
*r? the loose a m that it has to be cleaned 

ut trom time to time. There is now in the well a targe-sued 
P and a steam-engine attached, with which it is 
Fusible to clear out the water in about half a day; but the fact 
rf* tbe ^ater can be reduced does not arise from a lowering of 
*« j source of supply, but only from the sand which comes into the 
*ell obstructing the inflow of water. 

J- jus is proved by the fact that a well, situated 100 yards from 
tusc i s uuk through the same strata, except that the cemented 

and keeping it empty when i 

somewhat coarser each time it is cleared our, ana tne most remai*- 
able thing about it is that each time it is cleared out and free 
access allowed to the v uv, emwd, ' >bh- quant'th > of chaired. ". 
rounded pieces about the size of a pea, are brought up irimm 
water. This set 1 - to in- t ivn i commui iticii 
point from the surface to the underground source from which the 
well is supplied. _ 

< Soing west from Booroora we come to < errar ' J ' nigs. v ; ' 
form part of the lin < f ,!„., ch nl 1 to m. b : Mr >• < ' 
some of which (the mn t v.-t<rh) rise above the s rfaco, ' 
if the others an hh< th . 1 vuv ^,uhl - .m '<> "> (llclt 
rise in the older "foiie <tioi, - by which tlie v ii" ■ ■-, as i: v '' 

direction w< reach th i<_- n of tin mud spring on the Warreg'J 
and Purr.,, hiu,- which n,l ,.,■■,,, in leYable head of pressure 
in the water that causes them. About SO miles a little to the 
west of south from Booroora, on Mara Creek, there is the ciuli^, 
which also has sullicient pressure to currv the water above tM 
surface, and which is d« I i- L l l' ;" 

Tourale, between Bourke and Louth, I was told there is a flo^ 
well giving : ter, but as my appraise*© 

work did not all ,, ,., tit j u as unable to get rmj 

particulars. It is situated about 40 miles west of the Darim* 
but how dee]> it is, what is the quantity of >. 
ugh which it 1 

The general fall of the country as shown by my own notes oi^ 
distance to which damst' per foot ot tn^ 

height, and the general direction of the rivers, is to the ^. 
and is not more than 1 foot nor less than 6 inches to the ran 
all the Darling country from Queensland to Louth, where !« 
had an opportunity of travelling. The full is i 
and I think 9 inches to the mile is as nearly as possible 
average from Mungundi to Louth. „ . m the 

That all these springs and wells draw their supphes from ^ 
same underground source, or should be capable 
same level with reference to each other is not, I ih ^' n i 
likely, but thai : | , ith the »imeundergr 

i by many,, :r. in places' 
great width of permeable strata to form what 
sunterpart of lakes on the surface, and r 

the permeable strata were narrow, and winding about to a certai: 
extent as rivers do on the surface; and it is quite possible tlia 
two wells, comparatively close together, might strike dilleivn 
branches of the same drainage system and the water stand i 
them at different levels. The same water which supplies the we 
at Booroora, if tapped at Tourale (although, where tl; 
water stands at 10 feet from the surface, is nearly loO feet higlu 
than Tourale), would not there rise 140 feet above the surfaei 
but the rise would depend altogether on the freedom of the outh 
from Tourale to the sea. Wherever the obstructions to the fr< 
passage of the water were gieat there would be upward pressur 

rise above the surface, although 

uld be just as mvat in one c: 
wells will have an advantage over open shaft- in so i ir a- i h ■ water 
can be prevented I i tie- rides in any fissure or 

porous strata that may be above the water-bearing strata. 

This will be made clear by supposing a well to have reached a 
supply of water that comes in at the rate of 100 gallons per minute, 
with sufficient force to brinsf it up to the surface. When the 
water rises to any fissure orp-.r-.u- -.rata .a) able of absorbing 
100 gallons per d ' be**» ^ the 0l ^~ 

flow will exactly balance the inflow, while in a tubed well the 
outflow might be prevented and a rise obtained corresponding 
with the head of pressure- whatever that might be. Of course it 
would be possible to tube an open shaft if there were any reason 

t ■Mipp.-s-the waf r would r" ' 

be prevented from coming 
; ■■' '■ 

The driest part of New Sofath Wales is that piece of count 
b'ing between the Darling and the South Australian l-ru.-r. a 
there the indications are strongest that a hu-e su;,j ,y "< ;'■' 
water would be obtained by boring, and that it would rise ire; 
above the surface if an outlet were made for it. There is a lai 
area of country in Queensland to the north of this, m which t 
rainfall is comparatively heavy, which s 
its waters by surface drainage, and 
scattered about the country show, 

the water is there and that the force with which it tends to rise to 
the surface is very great. The only part of the western country 
in which I have been where it seems to me improbable mat wat -i 
will be got to rise up to or near the surface by means of boring is 
that piece of dry country between the Darling and Lachlan Hirers 
about Cobar. This is a large area of country without any weii- 
defined water-courses, raised somewhat above the general level ot 
the western plains, and from what I saw of it I am inclined to 
think that the older strata in which the clay rests are there above 

the general level of the Darling country, and being cut off from 
the higher land on the east by a long stretch of country from near 
the Bogan to bey< bich the older rocks come to 

the surface, it seems unlikely that there could be any underground 
water except what is derived from the local rainfall. If, as I 
believe, it was before the clay soil was deposited a very broken 
and rocky country, which has been levelled up to a certain 
extent by filling the valleys with clay, then of course wells giving 
a large supply of water might be made if the original drainage 
valleys could be sunk into, but the water would not rise to the 

When Mr. Russell first put forward the theory of an under- 
ground drainage system to explain the -rent disparity between the 
rainfall in the watershed of the Darling and the outflow of that 
river, one of the < irred to me was that if such 

a thing were in existence the surface rivers crossing the under- 
ground channels in all directions would in many places cut through 
the clay beds and form communications with the underground 
water, so that strong springs would be numerous in the Darling 
and its tributaries, but when one has examined the Darling and 
its tributaries thi, ditli-ulu at once. The clay sod, 
winch is almost perfectly impervious to water, has been deposited 
evenly over the whole country. There is no tiltimr up °l tlie 
strata anywhere that I have seen which would cause the rivers to 
cut across and expose the edges, and the rivers themselves are 
little better tha : : in the clay. 

The Mara Creek (which is the channel bv which th Uaequan* 
waters reach the Darling), the Nanioi, Narran, Bokira, Culgoa, 
Warrego, Moonie, Bogan, and even the Darling itself, scared) 
deserve the name of rivers. There are no great beds of sand or 
gravel under the water and extending out under the MurouiKlmg 
country, as in otl «gy to see almost at the nrsj 

glance that the rivers have had nothing to do with the present 
formation of the country through which they flow, nor have tnej 
even modified the surface to any considerable extent. The only 
change in the features of the country since the waters m wwcu 
the day was dep ias been the cutting of a » 

shallow channel- , name of rivers. There is 

no soakage of water from the rivers under the adjacent county 
nor f rom the a- ; ],. river*. At Gmge, naj 

Walgett, I saw a well about 100 yards from the I >arling in ^ 
the water was 40 feet from the surface, and when the W** 
rose over its banks and flooded all the surrounding ,T ' UIi: 'J „..,, 
water m the well was not affected at all. On the Bogan 1* 
told of a well ha . h( , d f the river during 

drought of 1877, to a depth of 40 feet, through perfectly dry c*y, 
without finding any water, and in another part of the same B* 

I saw a series of dams, by which the water was thrown 1 
a great many miles, and as far as I could learn there was r 
of water through the banks in any part ; and it is the san 

the other tributaries of the Darling where i have seen or 

hundreds of miles, and everything about the rivers, after getting 
away from the Great Dividing Range and well into the interior, 
is different from what one would expect from a knowledge of the 
rivers of any other great drainage system : and the difference is, 
as I said before, that here the rivers have neither made nor modi- 
fed the countrv. 

The subject is so full of interest that I have already extended 
thispaper far bevondth.'linntstir^e^iumMlnnd must nowconclude 
in the hope that at some future time I may have an opportunity 
of adding som< thing in on val i ible to tin- imtt > made in my recent 

These notes have been put together at Mr. Russell's request, for 

aly a small part of the mas "' which u 

he hai Ss of tl > squatters and their managers. The men who 
engaged in the practical work of colonizing do 
;ess the hind of general scientific knowledge which would 
ble them to see the relation of the facts in their possession to 
lothei mdif tlo-v , '5. tl - facts . scatte, d in so m:im 
da that the iirst and most important work must be to collect 

from Mr. John Todd, 

! Cato, near Brewarrina, an account 
Ot some wells and snrin-s on a station which ho held in South 
Australia, not far from the coast. The information is ot so much 
importance, and seems to bear so directly on the question at issue, 

" Regarding tl d me for. The station that 

A had in South Aturf rali 1 s trom ^uichen 

B ay and a littb n |., t )lh !i I' ' Tivre was a coast 

"age, then bey. - of a flat nature. One 

Part is known as the Biscuit Mat, so called from the surface being 
strewn with thin cakes in every way resembling biscuits, wnicn 
w hen burnt make <*ood strong lime. On this flat country several 
strong springs e ined up keep a constant 

^pply of wa 


for stock. Then, on the coast sine o 

ron<* springs, in two of which the \ 

mg up about 2 feet high, which shows there 

strong underground current. On the flat country we used to dig 
out waterholes, so that the stock could water at them. They 
would be from 10 to 12 feet d.'].. -..i. tine h s when- the ground 
was of a stony character. I have seen fish from 4 to 7 inches 
long come into them. They had eyes, but did not appear able to 
see, as they did not try to escape, They were tasteless to eat and 
shaped very much like an eel. 

"On another part of the run there was a low-lying range. 
About the middle of this I took out a waterhole, and into this one 
came leeches— the same kind as doctors use. The hole had no 
l with any swamps." 

Astronomy of the Australian Aborigines. 
By the Rev. Peter MacPherson, M.A. 

[Bead be/ore the Royal Society of X.S. W., C July, 1SSL] 

It is not my purpose merely to give a list of aboriginal names of 
stars and constellations. Looking over the materials to hand, and 
Betting forth the a [ge possessed by aborigines 

of Australia, I have tried to tlnd points , f interest to which special 
attention might be directed. Are there traces of systematic 
arrangements of the stars 1 There are, indeed, evidences ot 
imagination in traeii _ r - inblan. • h.-tween < bjects on the earth 
and the outline formed by certain stars. Thus we have the 
Northern Crown formic the curve ..f a boomerang; a group ot 
stars in the Lion (as it appears to me) exhibiting the shape of an 
eagle's claw; ike ' ' '' * '■ «"*, as the body of 

an emu : the stars composing the Dolphin, as a great hsh ; un.l_th<- 
streams of stars in Berenice's Hair, as a tree with three principal 

But there are more important materials than these to consider. 
As to the literature of the subject, the most valuable paper on 
aboriginal astro] ' u<1 1S one r e 

by Mr. W. E. Rianbriduv, before the Philosophical Imntute ct 
Victoria, as far back as the 30th September, 1857. It is pub- 
lished in the so, h " Institute, at 
pages 137-40. The information contained in it was obtained from 
a tribe called the Boorong, who dwelt about Lake Tynll, m the 
Mallee country in the west of Victoria, The more important 
systematic arra! . stars, as indicated int.. 
paper, will be briefly stated, as introductory to other systematic 
arrangements of an astronomical character, which are not stated 
°y Mr. Stanbrid. rtln'low be gathered from 
materials he has supplied. We learn that a mythological con- 
nection was made between certain stars and the seasons of the 
year. Thus, the Pleiades (Larnavh'rrlc) are ■ . 
females playing to a corrobo i /v " ''' " ; "'' \ \ ',' 
represented by the belt and dirk of Orion. The red star Aiae- 
Gellarlec, or rose-crested Cockatoo, is an old man keep- 

eio . This as a summer group 
the beautiful moonlighi 

vhen the air is balmv, and the signs - T ' 

the resplendent groups of Orion and the Pleiades, 

with such 

individual bright ran. As tlie year 

advances we come to the Twins, who arc two hunters, Tumi 
and Wanjel. These pursue and kill Capella, which in the 
aboriginal mythology is called Purra, and represents a kangaroo, 
The mirage is the smoke of the fire at which Purra is cooked by 
the successful hunters. The corroboree party and the hunting 
party fitly enough form two groups to set forth the period of 
summer, and the arrangement has a poetical character about it 
Moreover, as an isolated point, the breaking up of a prolonged 
drought is thus set forth : Berenice's Hair, which is in the 
meridian at midnight in the month of March, is a tree with three 
principal branches. Now, although a shower of rain has come, 
the dusty and gaping earth has soaked up every drop of water 
that has fallen upon it. A small cavity, however, formed at the 
junction of the three branches of a tree retains some of the 
precious fluid, and here a number of birds are represented as 
drinking, and the scene is transferred from the earth to the skies. 

The winter also has its ruling stars. These are Arcturus and 
Vega. Arcturus is known by the name Marp&mkwrk, «Jj 
held in great req ht aborigines where to find 

pupa of the wood-ant, which during August and September forms 
an important article of food. Vega in Australian mythology is 
Neilloan, or the Mallee-hen, elevated to the rank of a goddess. 
She too is held in much esteem for having taught them how to 
find eggs of the MaUee-hen, which also form an important 
element of food during October. Here then are two representa- 
tive stars, corre ; j ve groups of stars 
which fitted to the summer-time. The guiding ideas in one case 
are the corroboree and the kangaroo hunt ; in the other case, the 
discovery of pupa of the wood-ant and egijs of the Mallee-h m. 

As to the south polar region, we might almost expect that sucfl 
a conspicuous group as the Southern Cross would figure* 
aboriginal legends In their oial literature the Cross is a tree 
which affords safety to Bunya (the Opossum) that was pursued If 
Tchingal (the i . th:lt he in fear left W 

weapons at the foot of the tree, and was changed into an Opossum 
for his cowardice. Tchingal appears to be the impel- initi< 
evil, and is ideal ,. k . The figure of this dark 

space somewhat resembles the rough outline of the body ot a* 
emu, and hence it would seem that the dusky figure of the em 
is accepted as the impersonation of evil. The Pointers are w 
great warriors who spear and (Heir spears sttf 

into the tree at the two point, represented bv the two n&* . 
stars^one m an arm, the other in the foot of the Cross. Ab*g. 
specially connected with the sout £J opUS 
listinguisb** 1 

place in aboriginal legend-. Caimpns is the male, and the small 
red star No. 966 in King Charles' Oak, the female Crow. Strangely 
enough the Crow represents the benefactor of the aboriginal 
race. He is the Prometheus, the fire-bringer, « 
are celebrated in fire-legends over the greatest part of Australia. 

Having got something like systematic arrangements, the ques- 
tion occurred whether other arrangements might be discoverable 
from the materials Mr. Stanbridge supplied, though they were not 
pointed out by him. Thus we find that Arcturus (Marpean- 
kurrk) is the mother of Antares, which the Boorong people 
called Djuit. Then again, Vega (Xeilloan) is the mother of 
Totyarguil (Atair) in Aquila. Moreover, two small stars placed 
closely together near the head of I'nprieurmis represent the fin- 
gers of an uncle of Totyarguil. This warrior bad been killed by 
Bunyips in the water, but bis remains were rescued by his uncle, 
whose name was Colb uhit, -h Ik. Th e t w« . 1 ittl e stars are his fingers 
feeling for the shore. Thus mythological associations connect 
Arcturus and Antares as one ; and Vega. Aquila, and the small 
stars near the head of Capricornus as another family group. 

With these materials we can determine t lie principle on which 
a systematic grouping his been made. Three stars near each 
other, and in a line or nearly so, form a starting-point. Hence 
we have the tine. ■ . the three in the Scorpion, 

with Antares in the middle, and the three in Aquila. All are 
brought into service. These three triads of stars are of such a 
character as to strike the eye at once. They stand out in a 
very marked manner from all the stars about them. Those 
who accustom them-eke. to .,b~r\e the stars become familiar 
with these triads, and could distinguish any of them at once, 
supposing the whole of the sky beside should be clouded. 
The three stars in Orion are the most regular in size and tioi 
Of the three stars in the Eagle group, the one in the middle 18 Dj 
far the largest ; and of the Scorpion group, the one in the middle 
is not only the largest but it is also the red star Antares, tne 
nval of the planet Mars, which sometimes comes in the vicinity 'Ot 
it. But besides I three, there are plainly the 

larger groups of three. Each triad indi ed , listing of stars 
near together, becomes, as a whole, a starting-point to be asso- 
rted with other points to form a new linear group on a larger 
f ale. Hence we have Orion's belt, Aldebaran, and the Pleiades 
forming a much longer line across the heavens. The triad ot stars 
ja the Scorpion becomes a starting-point from which a hne is pro- 
longed to Arcturus. A similar arrangement prevails in regard 
t<> the triad in Aquila. The line is prolonged to the two stars 
near the head of Capricornus in one direction, and to the brilliant 
star Vega in another. Thus the triadic arrangement is fully car- 
ded out in three out of four groups. 


The arrangement in regard to Totyarguil is not injured by his 
boomerang being sent out of line to occupy the curve of the 
Northern Crown. Moreover, only two pointg are given in the 
group connecting the Scorpion group and Arcturus. Now it 
happens that Mr. • i two small stars in the end of 

the Scorpion's till A / A 11 ill with A 

Arcturus would make a line corresponding closely with the line ot 
which the Aquila group forms the centre. The two small stars 
near the head of Capricornus bear a close analogy to the two 
small stars in the end of the Scorpion's tail. Mr. Stanbndgp, 
however, though he mentions the stars as Karik Karik, du. * n^ 
mention any mythological circumstance connecting them with 
Antares and Arcturus. The principle of grouping thus developed 
will explain why some bright stars are not named amongst those 
given in Mr. Stanbrid-es paper. Such bright stars as Proqyon, 
Spica Virginis, Regulus, and Fomalhaut are not mentioned: 
they arc isolated ,<f, ■,. t],ou_!i bn _rht — th<y do not readily fell 
in with any mechanical grouping of stars. 

Moreover, the aboriginal astronomers who constructed the 
system we are unfolding wore content with three points in a line. 
This is very noticeable in the case of the group embracing Orion s 
belt, Aldebaran, and the Pleiades, Those engaged in making out 
this mechanical arrangement could scarcely have failed to notice 
that Sirius, in all it, splendour, would have formed a fourth point 
in a line stretching from the Pleiades, yet it is not included in 
the scheme. Sirius and Rigel are connected as the male » 
££*£! V *\ ^ t0 ^t S The straight 

nne joining three points was the one object sought by the sta , - 
gazers of the W riangles or ^squares 

exist. The four stars, Scheat, Alpherat, Algeneb, and Mar* 3 , 
form a tolerably good square, but it is not introduced into ta 
system. Thou.,; not oven namea. 

Thisisthemoretobenotieu! L-. ,;;-, ih-v cvur in that part 01 
the heavens where no linear arrangement exists to suit the uw*» 
of aboriginal astronomers. y . 

The important points not noticed by Mr. Stanbridge, but «• 
coverable from the materials he has supplied, are :— 

1. A systematic grouping on the hasis of linear arrangement. 

2. Four linear groupings an toh rahly parallel to each other. _ 

3. AlUre tokrahly parallel to the hori/on as th<\> 

x scheme of the stars. ^ 
, group these; 


in distinguishing the different stars, but I do not remember any of 
them so successful as this. Necessity is the mother of invention, 
and no doubt the circumstances of aboriginal Herschels of the 
niccess in the matter. 

The name Aqu red in the aboriginal name, 


Let _ us follow a different line of inquiry. Glancing over the 
abonginnl (combination of astronomy and mythology, we find 
that early occupants of A in the same way 

as the early inhabitants of Kuropc and Asia. Heroes and 
heroines have 1, .,> earth to the skies. If in 

other lands the Lion and the Bear and other animals have been 
elevated to the heaven.,, w, find thai Australian aborigines have 
also done as much for the kangaroo, the opossum, and other Aus- 
tralian quadrupeds. When' we come to birds, we find the 
eagle, the crow, V hoi ogical skies by 

inhabitants of Asia and Europe, and by those of Australia. 
Reptiles and fish. m ; nor has the 

made from 

brought before our notice." In the Greek mythology the'Pleiades 
formed a group of young ladies, who were the daughters of 
Atlantis. In the Australian mythology, the same group appears 
as a group of dusky damsels, as we have seen, playing to the band 
ot men m Orion going through the evolutions of the corrobore~ 
Ibis we learn i , | ,er. From works of the hv 

llt ' v - ^ • Ridlev we I- arn that'in other } arts of Australia, as o 
""* coast, an u. the Pleiades are ah 

Mythology the faint Pleiad, Merope, is obscure compared with the 
°thers, because she married a mere mortal, while her sisters 
Redded divine personages. In Australian mythology the same 
Pleiad is represented as being ashamed, and hiding behind the 
lest on account of her defecth . arar .?. All this is worthy 
pi note, but without some other points of identification it would 
°? needless to set down the similarity between the two mytholo 
3 derived from the other, or that both 

*ere derived from some older source. To liken a glittering group 
°J stars to an as> h i. a >ugi,'-tion winch 

w-ouid quickly occur to those concerned i 

?nd analogies. Even the special notice of the less briUiant Mero 
« so near the < rjiat it would be unsafe 

0Und much upon it. These coincidences, however, should 


noticed, as in the course of further t t o otl cm 

stances may come to light which would invest them with new 
value and importance. 

The cluster of stars belonging to the Dolphin occurs in Mallee 
astronomy as the Great Fish. But here again, as the outline of 
the group is not unlike that of a fish, the resemblance might easily 
be noticed by independent observers. We have seen that eagles 
and crows, as well as other birds, have been elevated to the skies. 
Unfortunately, however, the aborigines have sent up so many 
eagles and crows, 1 t 1 1 if ■ .1 .ab i 1 i t'i h i favour of identification 
are lessened thereby. Sirius id Hi-el in n ih ind female ragles 
Altair and Vega (according to M r. Ridley) are both eagles, and the 

. by Mr. Ridley. 
eagle for eagle. Unfortunately, however, the value of this identi- 
fication is seriously weakened by the consideration that, as we nave 
seen, a number of other very bright stars have been chosen to 
represent eagles. At any point, then, can we make anything out 
of the names 1 Our inquiry now will bring us into contact witn 
philology, with which, h * it, it is our purpose to deal only m 
so far as it comes before us. That the roots of some aboriginal 
words are the same as those of tin- la e .a-.-, ..f A ia ami M' 
has often struck observers. Collins and Mundv, Miles, JLm. J? 
Bennett, as also the 11,.. ■• -^ ^ U [ 

may be mentioned as having pointed out vonb 1 ' ' -. ' . 
resemblance, in , , , . rs> to words in Asiatic an 

European languages. As regards our present purpose, somegro 
exists for belies | only refers tow» 

eagle, but also <■ ; . the same roo 

the Latin ^,iA, itself. ! name Totyarguu, 

t^'a 1 .i ginalnaim „f t! -o \t ',. in Aquila. ThaUtapp 
to the bright star of the group rather than to the group itse« :W£ 
not stop our progress. The particular often expands a •:•> -^ 
general, and conversely, the ■ ,,.„..,,,] often roneretes into the F» 
ticular. Morr,,.., . | ,, Vu ] ..\ applies the nam 

eagle (-^ to the bright star itself. , . the 

The first part ; ( , ;U , ilv discovered m t 

vocabularies to bean al>l,r,viat, i tWn, of the word *•>'«% ^ 
means a star. Totyarguil, then, means the star Argui 1. Ihe 
tmrte reminds us , r .!,■<,, , k ; ,, ■ ,„/„„, , - md. ■ ■";_ 
heavenly sign. There is also the plur.-d epic form, t "';'\ S >i ca n. 
heavenly const-' i:iade by vui^ 

the poet tells m. d „,,, . . . andalltbeg 

(teirea) with which heaven is crowned," w< iv represented. -~(^ 


B. xviii, 484-7.) The root is wide-spread, being found in the 
Persian, Zend, and Sanscrit of Asia; in the Gothic, with its 
numerous modern descendants in Europe ; in the Latin, with ite 
numerous descendants ; in the Greek, and in the Armoric branch 
of the Celtic language. 

It may be here noticed that the sibilant, the letter s, is almost 
wholly wanting in aboriginal dialects. Now, although it occurs in 
so many roots, the Sanscrit and the Greek supply forms which 
dispense with it. At the same time those forms appear to be 
accepted as of the same root with the forms referred to which possess 
the sibilant. In Sanscrit, we have stunts (pi.) and turn, star; m 
Greek, teras and teirea, as well as aster and astron. The pecu- 
liarities which appear in lists of aboriginal words for eagle and 
birds of that description are all in accordance with the well-known 
principles of comparative grammar. The letters g, k, with c and 
q, as also with the aspirate forms gh, Ac., all belong to one class 
of letters, and are interchangeable. The Latin aquila becomes 
aguila in Spanish, air/le in French, and eagle in English. In 
aboriginal lists it will be noticed that stem-letters, represented by 
kL gl, cl, are found in words along the eastern side of ^Australia, 
i Cape York to Victoria, and even to Oyster " 

t of Tasmania. There is one word of special 
This is the aboriginal 

Cairncross, 'in New England. The meaning of it has been 
preserved by Lieutenant Breton ("Excursions in New bouth 
Wales, W p. ■_■;:■ ; 1,..,, u. I-:',) It means, «y here the 
eagle drinks," and it is as poetic as it is stately. It ^ will be 
noticed also that the part Coola agrees closely with the ft» 
Couel, Kawool, and Eowool the words for eagle m localities m 
the same general d Ut ri, r in v. 1 , i . •] M t . Cairncross is situat 
presence of the letter r in Argnil 

iuced into places to which it does not belong. 

x aboriginal words for c 

:uch spellings as icah, 

Now although the.-'- n 
k of the bird itself, the vibratory 

- ~~* of the forms. In other forms for the name eagle, 
*e find this same p. -aim-in- with regard to the letter r. Inus 
there is waa-pil, an ea*le, and also war-pil an eagle. It will be 
noticed, of course, that there are other forms in gl, etc., the stem- 
Jetters of aquila, in which no r occurs. As to the various torms 
beginning with ul, wl, bl, pi, ml, the first two of these indicate the 
aere difference between English and Continental spelling, inns 

•,-iously the s 
°* Sir George Grev. We have an r in the one 
ot fier. Tli,, :n like Vtdtw 

ph = f ; b aspirated becomes bh = v ; the form in m is the appro- 
priate nasal to the labial class, as may be seen in Bopp's Compara- 
tive Grammar. Looking down the column of aboriginal words for 
eagle and some of the birds of the same class, it is very noticeable 
how persistent is the root in the various forms bl, pi, wl, ml 
Accretions occur prefixed to the root, and also accretions suffixed, 
but the root strikes deep through all. 

The dropping >1 ter in a number of the forms 

requires to be noticed. An inspection of the rows of words given 
from the vocabulari. - >,i J« i \</ui d < . rds !• aves no doubt that it 
is the same root which is perpetuated through the series, though 
with many modifications. The chief modification is the dropping 
of the initial stem-letter represented by g, k, q, or c ; but tins is 
a well known phenomenon in languages examined and compared 
by philologists. Tl „ , *h.-n .1 .1. i ml ami a labial come together 
the initial dental sometimes disappears. D» /■''""' ( ' r "''." ' .' 
losing the d becomes bdhim. Ag;iin, a guttural and a liquid may 
come together ami v.,- ti;,.l t!.. _u« < di..pp.d. In the case tf 
kmelan, black, \\e h :L \ c nv„ 1< r„. ., /. I,r t .,.,,, and melan, w *»» 
latter case the initial guttural is dropped. We are also familiar 
with such peculiarities as in guerre of the French being «« r 
English, gwin of the Welsh 'being the viauia of the Latin. * 
these cases the guttural at the beginning disappears and is 
placed by a letter of the labial elass. in English itself we a- ; 
the guttural in y^/A/disq.j-. .riim b. fbiv the labial v: m " ' 
As to the two forms, the longer and the shorter, the one vitr i «w 
the other without the guttural at tin- beginning, it is only pr°P^ 
to point out that they are I the lan S uage -^ 

Europe and Asia. The Latin aqrll,; w itli it > '■-' i '; u /> v 
nbles the ag 
■ - - ■ 

The aboriginal name Tolyarguil v. i 
reappear both in South Australia and Tasmania. In tne i rf 
of these Colonies we find the w ord B 

the year ^ ttar-eagh \* j£3* 

pretty plain tha 

reversed. Another South AiMialun f..n.» i- " < ; " " ..,'. 
means spring. This agrees with the twofold division ^^ ^ 
summer group and the winter group, the eagle group beioi «, 
the latter. Again. the ;oeabuhu-v of Messrs. Teichelmann 
Schiirmann gives the word H7//o as meaning an- eagle, and ^ 
as both a star and an eagle, 'ibis la-t appears to »« 
contraction of Wiltutti, the season of the year in which tM > t > 
the eagle-is a ruling sign in the heavens. These associations ^ 
to fix Totyarq A \- the same naxne, 

occurrence in South Australia of the name Wiltutti, 

appears to be compounded of the same roots as Totyarquil, is not 
very wonderful, considering that the Mallee country extends far 
int.) South Australia. The occurrence of the word Weelaty in 
the south-east of Tasmania is more noticeable. This word means 
an ea-le, and readily takes its place with the South Australian 
words Wiltutti, a .season of the year, and Wilto, which means 
both a star and an ea^lo, and presents so nnieh of the appearance 
of being a mere contraction of Wiltutti. The materials under 
review seem to show that the root of the aboriginal word for eagle 
is the same as that of the Latin aquila. Wc have seen that it is 
no mere isolated root ; it is wide-spread over the whole of 
Australia, being found in dialects in Queensland, Sow South 
Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia, and Western 
Australia. The only portion in which the root does not occur is 

1 eabularies are ft w. lathe meantime, a 1- ast, the root may 
take its place with such ot; ers as have b. . n pointed out from time 

amy be in a positi: ai to decide how far -rah words are mere coinci- 
dences, or how far they prove that the ancestors of the aborigines 
were one with those whose descendants have spread over Asia and 
Europe. In conclusion, I desire to say that the region called the 
■dallee Scrub was visited some time ago by a special representa- 
tive of the Melbourne Argus. He describes the portion which 
belongs to Victoi • sides are about 200 miles 

J n length. The area is about 13,000,000 of acres, and occu- 
pies about one-fii of the Colony. No river 
runs through it, and the places mark-la. lakes are often dry. 
There are sand-La a high as 2-30 feet. These 
are called " Pin,. a i^v specimens of Murray 
pme trees grow v is occupied hy 
the Mallee Scrub, which is summarily called the E»r,ih fr t»s 
dumosa, although E. oleosa and B. Boeialis, 
ar e also found. The average height of the trees is about 12 
feet, while the maximum is 25. The monotony of such a country 


« bewildering as an expanse of open ocean. Tins wa 
; a knowledge of the stars 

aping which we hav. considered accords wel 
* l - ' circumstances of the people. 



European and Asiatic words for eagle, hawk, &c. 
(1.) With stem letters of Aquila. 

Acpiila QL eagle, Latin. 

Aguila 6L eagle, Spanish. 

Aigle Gr L eagle, French. 

Eagle GL eagle, English. 

(2.) Dropping the initial guttural. 

Wali WL eagle, Malay, &c. 

Australian words for eagle. 
(1.) With same stem letters as Aquila. 

Agal-zg G L eagle, Cape York. 

(?ooa£-anghta... G- L eagle, Tasmania. 

Cowl CL eagle, Wilson River, N.S.W. 

Kmrool K L t^l,, M . i. . i: ■ ■ . N>W. 

CWa-patamba C L " where the eagl 

(.'airncross, N.S.W. 

, Western 1 

(2.) Dropping the initial guttural. 

tfatcia j U L ea S le > Western Australia. 

JP^1° W L eagle, Adelaide. 

YJi io W L star > ea fe' le » Adelaide. 

JF^-tutti WL season of year, Adelaide. 

I/™ 1 W L h .rii g, Adelaide. 

jj^aty WL eagle, Tasmania. 

. BL eagle, Darling River. 

Dib-w ;;;;;; bl L 

Wer -^'{? BL ea-le", Murray River. 

£«?-tyak PL eagle, Manning River. 

Pa^-onga PL hawk, Kamilaroi. 

P'«--/' PL West of Victoria. 

; PL eagle, Ric 

^ aa V " •■ PL eagle, Loddon River, Victoria 

M L hawk, Western J 
ML eagle, New Soutl 
M L eagle, Kamilaroi. 

J&m-mul \ ML hawk, Port Jackson. 

The authorities for the foregoing Australian words are ^ff^ 
andSchurman,, U),^^' 

MiLhgan, Ridley (Rev.), R.Brough Smyth, and Dawson, tog*** 
with some manuscript vocabularies. 

The Spectrum and Appearance of the recent Comet. 
By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S. 

T saw the comet first on the ( 

a conspicuous object with tin 

binocular glass I traced the 

inch refractor the nucleus w; 

little oval in shape, the Ion 

direction of the tail. There * 

diameter of the nucleus was f 

From May 25th to June 2m 

1 cloud\- v, 

the clouds. The coma had v 

nucleus. The mornin- of . 

(uiie r. r 1 1 

increase in the coma was visit 

■le, the jvr. 


^•ehing of the 5th was also ti 

n.-,' and .as 

;' - 'l u "t aj.p. u ti c< I rl.ii k 

red me from seeing as much of the < 
of the 5th as I did in the morning. 

On the morning of June 6th I obtained a goo 
j* the comet and a seven magnitude star, and i 
w same day, there being no good star for obi 
,n "ied to test the comet with the spectroscope ; but before doing 
so drawing C was made, to show the rapid change that was going 
°n in the coma. This was the onlv time that there seemed to be 
^y dark shadow behind the nucleus, and I may mention that the 


general colour of the comet seemed to be greenish, except the 
nucleus, which was of a decided yellow, almost orange colour. 
The spectroscope I used was by Browning, and capable of clearly 
dividing the D lines, and the measures were made by means of a 
micrometer. While working at the comet I was urn I le to « 
avtiii ; 1 light, and th i fore adopted the method of makingthe 
hnsa disappear behind a bar in the field of view, with very satis- 
factory results. For the purpose of securing the exact positions 
of the bright lines, I turned the telescope to the moon then shining 
and measured I tile tlie micrometer 

was in the same position as it was when used for the comet. 

Turning the telescope so that the slit of the spectroscope re- 
ceived light from the tail of the comet, I found it was too taint w 
give a visible spectrum, and I could not see any until parts n-i 
the head were I ' bright aw* ■ 

came visible. (totting nearer the nucleus a faint coating 
spectrum was visible, cm 
grey continuous spectru 
three lines were not sharply d tine. 

dark lines, m 

■ sufficiently so t 

iof.-neh. The middle line** 


.the slit all the 

le of the B line until i shone 


by far the brightest; the next i 

and tie third and faintest was in 

spectrum increased in brightness a 

but when the nucleus itself was o 

seemed concentrated in the midt 

almost like a star, and quite as bright a» ^ - - . 

ing that irs light is inonochronmtie. 

the comet I was unable to see any dark lines in the conto 

spectrum. I think the reason was its faintness, for wae» ^ ^ 

examined the solar spectrum reflected from paper in a roo 

obtained a simii i vnthout dark luiea 

— >.. .^.ofsiu!, , in the comet, the i^ 
doubt that at least part of it is caused by r ^ 
■ gases in the staf 
ght as the comet does, 
i a „l,\l matter must give 

no means sufficient to raise solid matter t<> a si.u- y Q &cC0 &} 
cence such as the bright lines prove the gas to be in. forflrftr d. 
for the observe.! facts several tl.e..ri.-s l.av '' " l ! f 

One is that the light is due to el etrieiU ran, I }>> tl . ,,;,!," 
of the matter of ,!,, ,„„, uiihin itself < 
agitation as it approach,, thcun. and- h.rthi^,'-' 
discharge. Another is thai it is due to clien11 _,. rt f this . 

up as the 

may be said that meteors burning as they apt 


• •':,];, -h , , 

the comet, and the ditliculrv of -ettin- thorn at all during the 
short time l«-t .. ', comet's setting are very 


In the standard works of reference the information about 
cometary spectra is very men ere. 1 was therefore very glad to 
receive in il av a verv v ; ihml»le work on tlie spectra of comets, 

of the spectra' Takk , th • twelve comets 

there recorded, them, .n wave length for A i or>64; for B, 512-7; 
and for C, 470-6. I may mention that C is the most difficult to 
measure of the three lines. In the earlier comets the values given 
are higher than the hit. r <,iu > : th" In>t three. 1S77 to 1879, give a 
mean of 4680, ih . v • . „ ^j „., f, r A .- "'59 -0 to 553-8 ; for 
B, 5110 to 513-8 ; and for C, 1750 to 467-2. 
There are carbon lines at 558-2— 5130 ami 467-5. 

„ Lines. A. B. C. 


Mean of twelve comets 556-4 512'7 470-6 

Recent comet 55S-J 513-0 4673 

Carbon lines 558-2 513-9 467 5 

Searching for a terrestrhl sub.tanc ■ that w, aid give a spectrum 
^ that of corner. I >> . I : - of the hydro- 

ojrhons came nearest to it. and he « arlv e die 1 attention to the fact 
that some mete i oaedWe link thus 

pt;t!,h p..,] i . tW( , (i]i thi , Uvo - 1( ||Uii ^ sinr , thrU thp investigation 
has advanced an f> 187 5 . a meteor 

having been m M - | [LS.A., :■ and before it was 

«>W, and it oceu fco examine it for 

occluded gases, with th i .;..... ,.t' .... :, ■ v.-i.. rher thev were the 

= eon re v 


four times its bulk of gas, which could be driven out by heat, at 
temperatures under 200" : '.•■". to •)•""> per cent, of this gas was car- 
bonic acid and carbonic oxide : at hijmr u mpemrure-, hydrnr. i 
predominated, as it does in metallic meteors. Whin examin J 
' scope these gases gave a brilliant spectrum, in which 
3 quite eclipsed those of hydrogen, the brightest 
being three lines in the green, which Professor Wri-i.t m}s ay- 
precisely the same as the « one t Km s. In the extract from his paper 
on this subject which I have seen in the Reports of the British 
Association the hm^th^ aiv not - i\<ii, mi that we are unable 
to see if they have exactly the same position as the average of all 
the' measures of e< m 'ts, for the dilh rent comets have given slightly 
different values of these lines. We may. however, lake it a* 
proven that the spectrum of the gases yielded by some meteors is 
coincident with the comet speetrnm ; Vnd this is the strongest 
evidence that the substance is the same in both cases, and there- 
fore probably derive. I from the same source. If in nddiih. - t- ' ■- 
we bear in mind that some comets travel in meteor orbits, we set 
that there is very good reason for the supposition which is no* 
generally accepted, that they have had a common origin. What 
that may have been is yet to be proven ; at present , wend th< lUt : 
are put forward. One makes mete, »r.s the fragments of a shattered 
comet, for all are angular pieces which seem to have '■' en i;- 
off; another makr . one t all _ .-. ( f su< 1 ;i character ascaiMi 
be converted into stone or ne t d." n k. s all the p 1 ' 
mena of meteor 

thesis, according to which, matter coming out 
arranges itself, in obedience to the law of gravil tion, i 
centres of attraction, the heavier parts forming the body ot _ 
planet and the lighter one. the atmosphere, and these togeu^ 
having motion round the m.ual centre of attraction rh > y™- _ ; 
that in the va- space, some mattei 

far removed from the attraction of tin 1 irg« r [ 1 an I K~ 
that it oh,. red the smaller and nearer centres, formi v< a. ^ 
worlds revolving round the sun, so 1*1.1 a -I -» *"" tV " U! tl i'„ ,]■• 
that they were distur'oed !,v , |,e attract ion of ■ 
and were thus fina IK thrown into 1,1-1.1% . lipth d orbit- '., 
thus derived from the ori-inal nebula, we should fxp<'^ , 

tin- soli.l and the gaseous part, dmilar to t!. *o in the earth, a» 
Those who ha under the microscope finde«* 

deuce of original r,w dine f.,,., ,hi-l ■ ^{. ^^ 
existence during long periods of rest. In one that 
these seem to have been broken into pi-.-. - 

) form part of a meteor, whi< ■■• 

r,„ — i i,,>« p~~,™ cnm« larger to*** ' ^ 

sufficient to keep iron in a fluid state, for it is distributed through 
the mass of the meteor as if it were the cement. 

But I will not detain you with these speculations, which open 
such a wide field of investigation. I hope I have said enough to 
indicate the direction in which the investigation is proceeding, and 
the importance of testing with the spectroscope another member of 
the meteor-comet system. 

On June 7 the weather was again cloudy, and I only caught a 
■4 the sketch 1), 
which shows a remarkable change in the coma. I then put on a 
direct vision spectroscope, and got a glimpse of a continuous 
spectrum with tl a decided shade «.f red at 

the red end of the spectrum, but before I could obtain any 
measures it was gone, and I did not get another opportunity of 
toting t lie spectrum. 

The morning of the 8th was cloudy, but the evening fine, and I 
got another good set of measures ; thence to the 14th the weather 
prevented observations. On that morning I saw the comet when 
above the clouds, and tried to follow it into the sunlight, but lost 
it about 15 minutes before the sun rose ; there was too much day- 
light to permit of star observations. 

Before concluding these notes I would like to direct your 
attention to the extraordinarv chan-vs that went on in the 
appearance of the comet. When I first saw it, the nucleus was 
well denned, and had a small coma in front of it. Eight days 
afterwards, on June 2, the coma had increased very much, and 
spread out like a fan before the nucleus, the greater part of_ it 
being turned to the following side. On the morning of June 5 a 
still greater change had taken place ; the bulk of the conia was 
turned like a Prim, ..f \V:d- I", to the preceding side, the 
extremity being turn, .-d towards the tail, and a .second branch on 
the following si- dure* tly to the tail. (See 

Drawing A.) It seemed as it in the interval from June 2 to 5 the 
coma had divided into two branches, one turning to the preceding, 
and the other to the following side ; and it presented all the 
characteristics i ! • en shot out of the nucleus, 

and carried far in 1 1 m d gracefully 

back to form part of the tail. 

On the evening of June 5 the coma was not so striking. It 
still presented two branches, but neither developed to the same 
extent as when seen in the morning j the difference was I think 
aue to the state of our atmosphere, which prevented me from 
seeing clearly. 

On the evening of June 6th I had a fine view of it, and this 
T as . tne °nly occasion in which there seemed to be a shadow or 
<tofk cone in the rear of the nucleus. The coma was more con- 
spicuous than ever, and presented the appearance of a bird with 

outstretched wings in front of 
seen in the morning of the 5th ' 
to the tail. (See Drawing C.) 

On the evening of June 7th the coma in front of the nucleus 
had divided into two shoots, which extended a great distance m 
front of the nucleus, and then arched gracefully until the tips 
turned right to the tail, thus forming two enormous hook-like 
apj ndaa nd the 1 ln.nt! -side was very much 

enlarged; hut retained the same - ■ -•>! iir etion. (See Drawing 
D.) Altogether, it presented a most striking appearance, wnicn 
I shall not soon forget. 

On Comet II, 1881. 
By John Tebbutt, F.R.A.S. 

[Read before the Royal Society of £f.S. W. t J Segi m 

I submitted to the Astronomical Section of the Royal Society, at 
their last meeting (August 5 ) , ; ' ! ; ul UoU * )1X '' J 

orbit of the C01 d " ' l . v M " ' ,J " ne [ a r * 

determinations atmyo,,.,- 

vatory on May 22, June 1 and 11, but, owing to the limited time 
at my disposal previous to the mo« ing, ' « ■- ' ! ' ;Li . ,le t0 / 1 "f 
residuals for the middle place within the limits of errors ot 
observation. T! f^ ^K2S 

statements in the daily papers that our late visitor could ^no w 
either the second comet of 1819 or the great comet of l»J«« 
at the same time pointed to the probfthi 

with the great comet of 1807. 1 have now muc h pie ^re 
presenting to the General Monthly Meeting of ^^^ 

some time ago to the Royal Astronomical Society and to ^ ess ? 
Krttger, of Kiel, and will, I believe, represent * itlun 1 6 - — ^ 
of are all the observations taken in the soutl - 
juxtaposition with them I have presented foi 
elements of the great comet of 1807, the 
systems being referred to the mean equinox < 

of are all the observations taken in the souther'.: 

juxtaposition with them I have presented for ™ m P*™ on .f e f*^ 

elements of the great comet of 1807, the longitudes in 

svrfpm, I,,.;,,., ,„ .?. ',.,.„. i +.. +1,,-, mo.m emiinox or tool v. 

Comet, 1S07. 

Perihelion passage, G.M.T... 1881, June 1630995 180 ^ S ^., 1S ' 75 

Longitude of perihelion 264° 56' 15*'5 Si* 40 

Longitude of ascending node 270 54 0"2 26/ 

Inclination of orbit 63 27 14'0 G3 ^ lu 

Perihelion distance -7357075 

Motion Direct I**? 

But the recent fine comet is not the only one v-hi.-h h- been 
^pected to be a return of 1 1 ' ' \ .V? o bser va- 

December last a comet was ;lt ™ e j* the 

W of Copenhagen. It was observed for son. 
northern hemisphere, and its orbit has been computed >\ - ■ 

From these calculations I have selected the following, lv Ibr: 
Ambronn, of Hamburg, as it is based on the longest series of 
observations : — 

Perihelion passage 1880, Nov. 9 "5320, Berlin M.T. 

Longitude of perihelion 262° 30' 9" j . . 

Longitude of ascending node ... 249 35 36 \ x ' 

Inclination of orbit 60 41 5 

Perihelion distance 0*67406 

Motion Direct 

Dr. Holetschek, of the Vienna Observatory, and Mr. S. G 
Chandler, of Boston, U.S., have both pointed out the general 
resemblance of these elements to those of the comet of 180i. 
From the elements which I have given of our late visitor, it 

j of discovery, May 
!,000,000 miles from the sun, and 71,000,000 from xl " " 


tins., distances had diminished to 69,000,000 an 
miles respectively. The coi t pas I through perihelion - 
minutes past 7 o'clock in the o eniiu of .June HI, ^^)- 
time, and at 20 minutes past noon on June 19, it reached the ; •• 
of the earth's orbit at the ascending node. Now it is a renia^ 
able circumstance, as ] pointed out indeed in the previous p>I 
that the earth at the time of the nodal passage was net tart- 
the prolongation of the axis of the comet's tail. Had the c mm 
been delayed 2 To days in coming' to the line of nodes, th< <•■ . 
would have been exactly in a line with the sun and the com;-- j--- ' 
the comet would of course have been projected on the sun > < ■ .; 
as seen from our planet. It does not, however, appeal l 
probable that had the earth and comet been in the line of I • " 
the same time, the earth would have been involved in we mm 
of the tail. On the 1st June I could just trace the tail M ■* 
a small star, whose dist mee I im tsuivd from the nucleus '•} _' _ 
of in ordinary sextant The resulting 1 u'tli of th« 
8° 38', and, adopting my elements before gi\ > n, this woi^< ^ ___. 
spond to a real length of 8,000,000 of miles. Supposing tne 
and comet to have been in the line of nodes, the distance De 
the two bodies would have been 26.000,000 of miles, tne 
being that distance within the earth's orbit. I 
fore, that the visible p. it of the tail would not 
18,000,000 of miles. Doubtless the diffused matter »^| W 

actually seen, but I do not think it at all pr 
portion of it could have n sl 0lblt ipt is its 

interesting circumstance in connection with the late coniev 

near approach to the orbit of Venus. The planet itself, however, 
had passed the point of near approach about seventeen .lays 
before the comet arrived at it. Had the two bodies arrived at the 
point together, the elements of the comet's orbit would have been 
considerably changed by the excessive attraction of the planet. 

In conclusion, I may mention that No 2377 of the Aitronom>' 
ische Xachrichten, the latest date to 1 

by telegraph to Europe of the c 
is dated 

The telegram is dated 1st June, and identifies the comet Witt 
that of 1807. 

I now add the results of my observations of the comet. I hey 
will prove useful to any computer who may be desirous hereafter 
of investigating a definitive orbit from a combination of all the 
observations in both hemispheres. The differential measun s on 
the morning of dune l_'rh depend simply on the circles of the 
equatorial, and are therefore only approximate; all the other 
measures were taken with an excellent filar micrometer. They 
arecorrected for refraction. The positions depending on Laeaille s 
stars must be regarded as | » : au ' s wlD h ^ ve 

to be re-observed in the meridian at the close of the year. IJie 
second term in each co-ordinate of the comet is the reduction to 
the earth's centre, ir denoting the equatorial horizontal parallax ot 
the comet in seconds of arc. 


- o » . , o = .. » =. 2 = « 5 


«f-«Mt-««-n» „«,»» 


•lis ; i i i i 1 i £ \i\ 

-§22 ; 2 3 » = g - g : n 

• 8 S § ; S S S S 3 2 3 : I 8 


as 8 i s s h « "^ ° * * * ; 

1 5 

-§|1 5 ss5S*5S iS] 

+ + + • 7 + 7 + + + + : + * 


;II ; 1 5 1 1 1 1 1 E.I 1| 


-8 S 8 a 61«BSS8«»| 

«"! 8 • • 8 9 8 8 ! J;j 


-?: rr s ?, s ^t - ci « IS * 

ijr ji ------ 







g I g g \ \ 3 : 

i i i i ~= \~t i 




* 8 3 S § 8 x 8 & " 
. § § g S S 2 3 2 : 






g 3 a $ ? S ? 9 | 

- - *> is |^JSJSJ<_ 

, 1 1 1 ^iTi!" 

| * ® « a 5 s * s s 



% 2 3 


brought up by the Oi 
between the epochs of tl 
precessions have then 

1 in bringing up the places frouj *¥■« 
i 1881-0. Proper motion froni^tne j>— 

iL. 1 i.. ti •■ pla< e> uf No^. 1 and /. 

New Double Stars, and Measures of some of those 
found by Sir John Herschel. 

By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.RA.S., Government Astronomer. 

[Read be/ore the Royal Socie'y of X.S. W., 7 September, 1881.] 

The study of double stars is, I think, one of the most fascinating 
■which astronomy gives to us. The great number and variety of 
the objects already known, ai t many new ones 

will be the reward of any diligent seaivh f< r them, keep up the 
interest to such an extent that the observer needs no other in- 
centive to his work. M. Flammarion, after an examination of 
the observations already made — and be it remembered that this 
branch of astronomy mav be said to have been originated by Sir 
William Herschel, about the year 1800— finds that there are 
11,000 double and multiple stars catalogued. Of these, 819 
give certain indication of relative movement ; of which 731 
are double, 73 triple, 12 quadruples, 2 quintuples, 1 sextuple; 
of these again, 518 seem to form orbital systems, and 316 are 
only united by celestial perspective. Observation further shows 
that the components of an orbital system may be separated by as 
much as 22", and two stars separated by 15' of arc may have a 
common proper motion. Again, Mr. Doberck, after a critical 
examination of d that orbits of only twenty- 

seven are known, and of these only seven are in the Southern 
Hemisphere. We know five stai- vla^e puiod is under fifty 
years ; seven with periods from 50 to 100 years ; six between 
100 and 200 years ; six between 200 and 350 years ; three over 
400 years. If, i n addition to these statistics, we bear in mind 
that the Southern Hemisphere is only in part explored, and that 
mthe Northern l[, „ i~, ! . , , v I ■. h has been examined over and 
\v-l a -- i11n with fine instruments, used by such observers as Sir 

WiUiam Herschel, Struve, and others, it has been recently shown 
to be possible, with moderate or small telescopes and good eyes, 
™ hnd many new and difficult objects, as Mr. Burnham has done, 
a think you will see thai th.-re is justification for the opinion 
^Hich I have just expressed, and that the observer, in watching 
wjese objects for changes, and then in the investigation of them 

o see whether they are due to the motion of one star round the 

of +1' *° ^dependent motion of the stars, or to the annual motion 

nnti earth ' has hia interest constantly maintained; and it is 

1 les sened by the fact that he may go on thus for years making 

observations which seem to pro's tl there is orbital motion, 
only to find in the end that the changes he sees are due to inde- 
pendent motion, as I endeavoured to show you last year in 
reference to p Eridani, in the supposed orbit of which, as the 
observations accumulated, the ellipse had gradually to be increased, 
until in the end the most probable curve, if I may so express 
myself, was shown to be a straight line, or, in other words, the 
motion which was supposed to prove it a binary is found to be 
probably due to proper and not orbital motion at all. I may 
mention in passing, that if subsequent observation confirms this, 
the southern binaries referred to by Mr. Doberck will be reduced 
to six. 

Before proceeding to give you some of the results of my 
own work on our southern double stars, it will be necessary 
to spend a few moments in describing the instruments ami 
methods of observation. The first instrument with wind m 
work was begun is a very line ".[-inch refractor by Merz, of 10 it. 
4 in. focal length, and very fine defining pow. r : upon tl is > a 
position circle micrometer by tiie same maker, with U m. position 
circle, and means of dark and bright wire illumination, ami 
magnifying powers up to 580. For easy stars a power of !■>' . aw 
for more difficult ones 330 was used; and the method , f <eV ( n^ 
was, first to place the position wire so that it bisected both stars, 
and then to bis. ■ h one of the para el *" * 

After which circle and micrometer were read. The v, ires w W * "■ 
• • 
,ars as before, and eu 
ad. Hence two independent deter; 
angle, and two readings for the distance, the difference <rf 
gives twice the angular difference between the stars. In* l ; 
these, the two readings of the micrometer were in seme ■ J " "'. 
pared with the coincidence of wires reading to l< t tw m«^ ^ , 
at other times the difference between the read -- ■''' ' • , 
was taken. The result w a '.' lT J" u) R 

As the latter h, 

generally been adopted. In many ca - 

meter were taken, that is, ten measures nt anga ^ ' ,. „ 
distance ; but in the majority of cases only six have b li ^ 
When the stars are very el 

''' ''' *' ' i 

found more satisfactory than the other m< thod. _ ! 

the distance lias been obt:, 

the stars, and from rte kno I &■ roltltlon 

tance of the centres, estimating tie- distance. llbin^ 1 

The other telescope, used since 1«74, is a 
objective, 12' -ft t\. ' . 1 )} Seh, , 
meter by the same maker. The illumination ot wires \ o 

obtained by four prisms- placed near then . a id the light from a 
small yas llame reih-cti d into the side of the telescope. The 
magnifying powers are from 100 to 1,500, the power 800 being 
used for all difficult objects. The same method of observation as 
used with the Mi n continued with the 1U- 

inch. Since 1879 tb.-7_!-iiuh telescope has been setup in the 
north dome, and has been used by ~S]r. Ilar-iave in measuring 
Herschel's stars and verifying the positions of new stars. 

About 746 of Herschel's stars have been remeasured, some of 
them many times over, and 350 new double stars have been found. 
The results are a; 

15,000 measures of angle and distance. 

t For the sake of completeness I have included, in the general 
list, the few stars mentioned in my paper read before the Society 

With regard to other matters affecting the observations, I may 
mention that both the domes are made of thin brass, and the 
temperature is alwaj s \ - ry n< arh the s i ■■ iiwde a. it is outside ; 
hence the work could be begun as si u a- tin sh ttii is were opened. 
It has been my j i re on the meridian, or very 

near to it, and always taking the E.A. by means of the instrument, 
tne hour circle r« meridkn when 

the observations were finished. In some instances bright ^ars 
have been measured during the day-time, but generally the . \ ■< r- 
ture has been reduced to get rid of the excessive light of bright 

at the time of observation, a diagram 

A few words about the list of 350 new double stars, which I 
have the honor to present to the Society to-night. They cannot 
he said to be the -r new stars, for except an 

evening n0 w and then devoted to that work, and some time 
recently given to it at n.v r ' '• m ? o b J ect b Jf 

**entore-exann- ,,,n^ south 

and the pole. It would have been very easy to double the number 
even under these chviii -im., ,. it 1 had adopted the same limit of 
distance as Sir John Herschel ; but I was anxious to avoid 
burdening the list in that way, and made my limit much Batik* 
and w as always more anxious to record close pairs than wide ones. 
*«** of the new ones are under one second of arc*-- -v.-ral^t 
them very difficult. Sixty-six are under five seconds, others under 
twenty-five seconds, and all of them are between the parallel 
" fttthand the pole, with one exception, which was found in 
*be field of view with one of L'a stars. As they are so far south 
* In 2102 stars Herschel has only 25 of 1" and under. 

they are out of the reach of northern observers, and, so far as I 
can learn from published lists, they are new ; but hereafter, when 
the work of several double star observers in the southern heims- 
pfoere is published, it may be that some will be found in other lists. 

Many of them are very close and otherwise interesting doubles; 
and there is every probability, seeing that h. overlooked them 
when in close proximity to stars that he observed, that some of 
them will prove to be binaries. 

Only a few of them have as yet been repeatedlv me isured, 
of these several show signs of motion. One at 12h. 4m. 60 3 21' 
was found in April, 1873, and then the measured angle was 
212-3-V, in May, 1880, it was 209-55°; at first the^listance was 
4-33", last year it was 3-87", showing a change of 3° in angle and 
0-46" in distance. Another at 15h. 50m., and dec. 65° 37' in 
July 31, 1872, angle 134° 12, dist., 2-13"; on July 21, 1880, 
angle 131° 19', distance I -91", again showing a change of 3^ and 
0-52". Another very difficult pair at lOh. 45m., dec. 58" 38 
found in March, 1874, angle 250', distance |- a second, and in 
March, 1880, angle 258-81°, distance M5"; this one I have men- 
tioned in the paper on double stars last year, but place it here lor 

Another star at 13° 0m. 59-14°, found in April, 1880, gives some 
indication of in< h, « ben first measured, was 

0-33", and when last seen was 0-70". 

Amongst the h. stars observed are all those which are c 
been supposed to be in motion ; of these ; 
orbits have several ti 

my earlier observatio. 

able extension of the period, but the later c 
still; in fact, a straight line accords better wim an — 
tions made subsequent to Herschel's than any ellipse, and i r J«j 
appear that the x motion; or 

I think there cannot be an- ! />' *." ' ; , 

meridian observations made at the < j, unl M Iras that u i> 
preceding star which is in motion, not the following one —-a.* . ^ 
Dunlop's observations will not plot into the straight line, _ 
must be remembered that Dunlop had a very imperfect tew ^ 
and only guessed the distance; and h.'s angle doe % a ^Sino 
distance only being too little— a fault the possibility ot J 
one would have more readily admitted than h. himseii. \ 
diagram.) . tna t 

Alpha Centauri. It will be seen from the ohser^o^ fc 
periastron did i M neb, l°'°> ^ 

March, 1878, three years after. A great many measures ^ 
binary will be found in the catalogue. At present th e 'J*^ 
increasing rapidly. (See diagrams showing plot of byciney 

,■ one : 

1836 is now a single star, with the huh. m powers on the large 
equatorial. The motion is evidently slow, and it is remarkable 
that Herschel says of this star, '• Cleanly divided with power 480 
and the black division well seen, well separated with power 800 ; 
and of 7r Lupi he says, " I do not think measures of this star will 
be got with this instrument." "Excessively ditlieult. It is closer 
than y Lupi, for the discs are smaller, and yet are not so much 
divided." Now I found -k Lupi quite an easy object, and the mean 

0-67", so that there has been no great change in this star, l'.ut 
7 Lupi, which h. found so easy, f have examined a great many 
times and always failed to divide it even with the greatest powers 
on the large refractor. 

Another star of the same character it would seem is h. 4854. 
h. classes this as "very difficult to be verified." On June 4, 
1872, at the end of my evening's work, I looked at it and divided it 
easily w ith power 230; I only took one measure, making th. angle 
f ( j" 26', and the distance I ■ ■ • l ^' lH ease - as 

in many others, that what was very difficult in Herschel's reflector 
wiBTOy easy in the Sydney refractor. By some chance I did not 
look at this star a^ain until June 1 7. 1874, and to my surprise I 
could not divide itwith any power. On July 16, 1880, 1 carefully 
examined it with the large telescope, and found only a round disc 
y-ith all powers ; so that w< ■ 1 : -resting double 

ia which the character of the motion has yet to be determined. 

But it would take too long to go over all the cases of real or 
"«l'l os..J change, and I have therefore collected them into a list, 
p v mg only bare measures, more details being found in the cata- 
logueof stars measun d. In all there are twe! ty-two stars which 
'idier give satisfactory indications of motion or have at sometime 
d to be in motion. 

1 have added another list of seventeen interesting ohj. ets.bemg 
"i' h double st us as have been found in the same field of view as 
: r ai's which Herschel measured, and which therefore we are 
Justified in assuming that he looked at without discovering their 
character. Of these no doubt some must be set down as too difh- 
fut for the reflector; three, h. 3370, 4935, and 5078. have the 
^rge star double, but there are several instances in which the only 
factory explanation is that the stars have changed Knee be 
^kecl at them. Perhaps the most striking case is 4909 where he 
^struck with the beauty of the group, and went on to describe it 
Particularly, and he left out what is now one of its most striking 
t r«ures- a star within the pentagon, quite as bright as three ot 
ml* he mentions. His descriptions of such things are as a 

rule so accurate that I a, ^o«d star has 

appeared since ! . obj< fc. As another es ■ 

may mention h. 4890, which he is careful to say "is in a vacancy 
in the Milky Way, which is here entirely free of ground stars," 
yet only lis. foil I re h. must have s o 

then visible, I find a beautiful double star, magnitud s ! i . 
and in a field of ?i)<. diameter sixteen other stars, and the telescope 
then (1871) used was 7 !, while It. used the large reflector. There 
are others in the list of the same character, but I must pass on to 
notice changes in ti. ■■ m.^niM-l. - <.f some of the double stars. One 

1836, he looked a 

■Tiin : 

verified this, mak 

iug t : 

magnitude star w 

with the other tw 

and from the fact 


1873 I examined 

could not see the 

must have been 

favourable, but h. 


mac t 1 tier 

There are man 

y st.-.: 

cannot be faf- 
see if tier 

the Cape 
of these I have spent a good deal of tin: 

fcara or change of posit? 
satisfactory in most of' the cases traced--^ 

videntlv the >■-. It , t .-!■ rieal errors : f. r instance, em< 
dth the wrong R A. or declination. Probably most o 

fissing stars are of this character, 

t some may *> 

veriookeTfrom and other ^ 

bag when we« 

the difficulty of the work as carried on by Herschel. 

I have not o p to colours, nor have 

fully compared a with h. 's but one ^ 

n^t.m.v h have hoen found ,.f apparent decided change. ^ 
is " very red"; I could not see ai j 

1 see decided colours where h. mentions 
these will be found in the list attached. ^ 

In conclusion, I may say that my object has been ^to re® ^ 
all h.'s close stars south of 34° south declination, in -.^ { , 
cases considerable differences between h.'s observation ^ ^ 
reflector and mine have been found ; but a complete u» ^ often 
has not been made, because the reflector observatio^ ^ 
differ from those h. made with his equatorial that it a lu 

Instances of change — real or supposed (23 stars), 
angle 78° 3C/ to SO 51' ; K, 80° 12' j prob 
ingle, 17° 50', dis. 5-78"; JL, 8° dis. 5-34 
* &, dis. 3-39"; R., 234° 

MM) ; and 1 

h.'s angle, 72° 43', dis. 3-40"; R., 

probably not binary. 
Triple b.'s angles, 47° 6' k 34° 8', dis 

tudes, 6-14 & 6-12 ; H. angles, 69 
h. 13!) IS": It. 143° 8'. 

h.'s angle, 108 3D' to II .1 3.V. dN 0-67 to 1 ■(»] : R., 

[a too difficult to divide ; one 
tare changed. 
h.'s angle, 90° 10' to 104* 30\ dis. § to 1": j: I-A 
but though I have often tried I never can divide it. 

h.'s angle, ll.V, dis. «V : II. angle. 145 s'. di.«. U'M . 

; . 0(i7 . [»., 7!) 1>. dis. 081 ; but as 
!. - s , „_•! s rang* froi « 61 to 76 . it is probab y n 

h.'s angle, 59° 2': R.. 1S71, SI 7 42: H 

i _, of 25 in thirty-live years, and , m 

h.'s angle, 313° 4'; H., 212° .50'. Is this a clerical 

h.'s angle. 37 6, dis. 1 "23"; R. angle, 53° 8', dis. M5". 

h.'s angle, 116° 8', dis. H" ; R angle, 129°, dis. 3S2". 

S : R. angle, 2S8 a 50', dis. 4'fi£* 

Instances in which 1 

(17 objects.) 
must have looked at double stars, if they 
1 double, without seeing them. 

Large star, double, R. No. 3. 

In same field wit i tli s a *i Kill triangle of rim -the 
is a close double not seen by ft, 

R. No. 11. 
Another double, precedes this only 15 s , E. No. 16. 
Another wide double in the field north following this, not 

seen by h. 
Another north, and only 12 5 following, R. No. 74. 
Another double in the field with this, R. No. 82. 
Another a little south and in same field, R. No. 86. 
Two pairs in the field with this, R. Nos. 238 & 239. 
Two doubles in field with this, R. Nos. 265 & 2* 
Another double, 6 3 following this, R. No. 273. 
Another double infield, 11 - f 

is here entin 1 -. ri. i> • 

h. say,, "Thisisavcrv; 

of two large and three of 12 magmtj 

adding much to its beauty, h. would certainly na 
mentioned it if seen. R. 289. 
Large star, double, R. No. 298. 

rs nearest star is distant 15'; R. fin ^f^y *>. 
i pretty triangle ; seems strange h. di 
Lar_. star is double, R. No. 317 
Another double in field with t 

Another double precedes this 60= 

, K. No. 3?S: 
. No. 336. 

looked for and not found. 

• i>f 10 h. stars looked for and not foun 

And 4038 probably s, 
I 41 42 probably a 

Probably same 4S3G. 

Looked fur several 

I "coppermr^ 10 " ^ 

h. calls magnitml ^ •■. - -^ J •■ 

1836; P.., 1873, !<».' ■ '-!-»: ; '- ' 


1873, made them 10$ and 12 (?) variable. 
. 8-9 now 9-13. 


*;;Y' r -V".; 

. Cape Catalogue. 

i. 13m., but there is at 4h. 13m., 

■ Probably same star. 
| Probably same star. 


- ,:•■ li: 

Cannot find a double he 
\ Probably same star. 
Angle of position 160° i 
I Probably same star. 

K smaller our- '.,.■ triple or multiple stars 

anmncr-.t those of the Cape catalogue which have been measured, 

The value, .f I Vi'Zhikonof thescrewof each of tLe micrometers 
ha-; ]-.oon carefully (It tcrmined in the usual way, m\, by separating 

ipoln Mb that of th< 1 H-ineh is ls-UOo", and thatof the 

at the time ti 1 1 1 . i i ..idt.l in 

tions prior to July, 1874, \v. re ... ...[,. with i • ' 7 i inch, and all the 

"''- rvations sine, th l' da ■ which are marked H. have been made 
*;ith tl e same i trum nt. , id ill those marked R since the date 

The date given in each of the catalogues is the date of the 

added. A table sho\ i g the value of the decimal date is given 



Double Stars observed and 

H -. ! I 

I jlj L I, 

l-Vir Is* 



Ulill J _ lb Ilk 


is ;■■; \;-i 

measured at Sydney Observatory— continued. 


SI* J. 

measured at 

Sydney Observatory — continued. 







H u 

• ... .. 
., ... .. . 

Double St 


























8 1 


measured at Sydney Observatory — continued. 


Double Stars obse 



DmS l e 


f P | 







16 8 1 M« 








B .' 




1! : 


Si ::; . .: 


\lur 'to 




Z \ 



I at Sydney Observatory— continued. 


-- - ;,il Hersoh 

nm* ' 



ble Stars observed and 











After 4076 







4 » oG 


Z 9 ™"^::::: 



^ te j- 41 -^ 





■ ' 


1 - 

!!•! y || 

fdney Observatory — continued. 

1 sue Stars observed ut 


88 J 8 J 

Sydney Observatory — continued. 


MM _»»_ 

sll 8 8 b 

3 1 § !§, 
~«. I P 1 P* 

I- II II I! 
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Transit of Mercury, November 8th, 
By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.K.A.S., Government 

[Bead be/ore (he Royal Soch t,j of X. S. W., 7 December, 1881.] 

A Transit of Mercury is not of so much value for determining the 
sim's distance as a transit of Venus, nevertheless observations of 
Mercury in transit have an important hearinif on the <juestion, 
because they afford almost the only teaching which an observer 
can get in the very difficult task of determining the precis* 
moment when the limbs of the sun ami planet make contact; for 
the long interval k-i^vn ih- transits ,.f Yen us render practice 
upon that planet impossible. In an ordi 

observer may have the chance of seeing several transits of the 
inner planet, and thus ginning by experience the knowledge 
required for the observation of Yenus in transit. And this is not 
all .-there are several important questions to be answered as to the 
phenomena of the transit of Mercury itself; for be it remembered 
that, in this matter, what one or two or e\ en se\ ■ ral obs< rvers s . 
is not necessarily a fact, and it is only by collecting the 
of a number of trained observers furnished with good in 

r of train. I wiw goo 

that we can distinguish the subjective from the objective. I may 
illustrate my meaning by reference to comparatively recent tran- 
sits. That of 1868 was observed by many persona in Engjand, 
and little is said about anything except the phenomena of _ the 
contacts, but Dr. Huggins, observing with a first-class 8-inch 
refractor and pel I ' igbt white star-like spot 

near the centre of Mercury kB8lt » and he .. 

saw an nmw,!. 

rent diameter; these he i 
egress of the planet. In giving an 
' I points out tl. - ^ seen m 1 1 &b t 

• " xnd that a bright spot J" 
of 1799 by Schroter i 
others. The effect of this was that in the transit of 1878 every 
oae looked for the white spot and halo, and almost every one saw 
5°th. One observer sawY-o white *\ »ts : th« majority ^- a 
flawed white spot. Dr. Huffgins saw a stardike point, some 
»* the halo brighter than the sun, but many speak of it as 
darker Mr. Proctor saw it as a narrow bright ring, a mere thread, 

the planet. The breadth of this luminous annulus was ^J^ 

points ont thai . seen in 

^lantade, and by other observers since, and that a bright spot I 
^on seen on the t 


distant from 1 
who express 

It is obvious therefore that with regard to the phenomena of 
Mercury in transit there is much yet to be decided, and every 
opportunity should be taken to clear up these uncertainties. On 
looking about me as to the means at my disposal for observing 
Mercury last month, I found that I could command six telescopes, 
having respectively apertures of 11£, 7£, 4f, 4§, 4£, and 3|; and 
in order to secure observations in the event of cloudy weather I 
determined to divide the observers into three parties, and put so 
many miles between them that if one lot had cloudy weather the 
others might fairly look for fine. The inland stations selected 
were, (1) a point on the western railway 06 miles from Sydney and 
3,400 feet above the sea, and (2) a spot near Bathurst with an 
elevation of about 2,400 feet. My object in selecting these elevated 
stations was of course to have the benefit of clearer air as well as 
the distance from Sydney. At Bathurst Mr. Conder, chief of the 
Trigonometrical Branch of the Survey Department, used the 4f 
Schroder telescope kindly lent for the occasion by the Surveyor 
General ; and Mr. Brooks, trigonometrical surveyor, used a 3 r mcn 
which was at one time the transit instrument in the Observatory, 
but was equatorially mounted for the occasion. At Katoomba 
Mr. Hargrave, who "is doiil.l.- star observer at the Observatory, used 
a 4f-inch Simm's equatorial, and Mr. Bladen used a 4£ Cooke 
equatorial. In Sydney I us. <1 ilw ll. 1 , -inch Sehroeder refractoi 
with polarizing eye-piece, and Mr. Lenehan used the /i-inctt 
Merz. At ingress, however, owing to the top of the tower comin» 
in the way 2 M not use it, and thereto^ 

took the Merz equatorial, while Mr. Lenehan used a i 4 m 
equatorial hurriedly mounted. . • •_„ 

With the exception of the lli-inch, which has a i;---;;; 
eye-piece, all the telescopes were provided with reflecting ;sw 
eye-pieces and two coloured shades which afforded s 
except in Mr. Conder's instrument, in which urn 
of the coloured glasses was cracked and rendered useless, 
this exception, the provision for varying intensity ol &u £^ e 
was quite sufficient, and on that day, owing to passing clouct , 
variation was considerable. TeleW 1 

In the matter of time, as both stations were on the ietfb ^ 
Line, and the Superintendent of Telegraphs had f 1111 ^^ 
observing stations with the Observatory, I determined to a o ^ 
local observations for time, and by sending clock sigo^s 
diately before and after the transit to secure perfectly ace 
Sydney time. . t i ns-a 

And for the . 
matter which at the transit of Venus involved con* 

Under favourable eh cumstanccs Mercury has been frequently 
seen projected on 

i>n this occasion, although we were all on the watch for it. no 
one was so fortunate as to see it; in Sydney t) 

from the rapid subsequent formation of clouds the air inland 
was also unfavourable; certain it is, however, thai we did not 
see it, and no one caught first contact until there 
of it that he felt he was late. Such was my own case at 8b. 2 1 in. 
34s. I thought I caught it, hut the sun became so disturbed that 
I lost it, and at 8. 21. 4 [ found it so decided that I knew I was 
late. Air. Leuehan made the time 8. 22. 8. ; Dv. Wright, s. 2\. 
'20. : Mr. Morris, 8. 22. 1,3. : Mr. liar-rave, 8. 22. 0. ; Mr. lUaden 
B- 22. 3. ; Mr. Cornier. 8. 22. a, : Mr. Brooks, 8. 22. 3. ; a sutti- 
cient variety to prove the difficulty of - 

contact. It will, thai the four on the lafk 

land are within 5 s. con U of the s nn urn.', and two are alike. 

For the second contact, and taking the observer.-, in the same 
order, we have 8h.. 23m. for all, and the seconds run, 39.14; 
43.00; 10.00; 46.00; 41.33; 12.84; 3(3.4-3. My time 
v -"as unsatisfactory owing i Mr. Lenehan"s 

was taken with an inferior telescope ; at Katoomha the observa- 
tions agree very well, and rat, but the two 
places differ by 6 seconds, which is a considerable interval of 
time; owing however to tl e -'-■■v. movement of Mercury this only 
represents a mot i t a second of arc, a quantity 
so small as to be invisible unless under the most favourable con- 
ditions of atmosphere and telescope. Mr. Conder's observation 
**as made under the-e favourabl conditio . and he has great 
confidence in its accuracy ; in this he is borne out by Mr. Brooks; 
and if we bear in mind that the effect of unfavourable conditions 

probable that the others are all a little too late. It is perhaps 
worth mentioning, to show ' the planetary 

JMes, that the this first internal contact is 

J* 22m. .3(1.., that ^ .-50.7,5 seco nds before the earliest observer, 
«d 41.65 before the mean of the seven observers. 

■A-t egress, last internal contact, we have lh. 40m. for all, 
andthe seconds run, Russell, 26.65; Lenehan, 29.25 ; Dr. Wright, 
^•00; Morris, 16.00; Hargrave, 10.40 ; Bladen, 44.34; Brooks, 
-0.48. Mr. Bladen says he waited before recording this tune 
?atil he was quite sure contact was made, and his observation 
18 obv iously late. Now the effect of bad atmospheric conditions 


here would be different from what it was at ingress,— it tends 
to make the time sooner by bridging over the narrow streak of 
sunlight before the actual contact. If, therefore, we take a mean 
of the four observations not affected by these conditions, we find 
it is 26.35. I may mention in passing that the predicted times 
of egress agree better with the observations foi this third contact ; 
it was Ih. 40m. 28s., a little more than one second in error only. 
For the external contact, we have Russell, lh. 42m. 8.95s,; 
Lenehan, 4.25s.; Wright, 3.00s.; Morris, 16.00; Hargrove, 
0.09s. ; Bladen, 23.64s. ; Brooks, 8.59s. Mr. Bladen seems to 
be again late, and in this case also waited till he was quite sure 
there was no trace of the planet, which, when the definition was 
bad, as it then was at Katoomba, would mean waiting for some 
seconds after the last of the planet was seen. The computed 
time for this phase is lb. 42m. lis. 

No special attention was called 
only two saw the v hite spot. Mr. H.u gi iv» sa\ s •'» minut - after 
ingress— " There is an optical illusion like a spot of light m the 
centre of Mercurr, which disappears on looking steadily at it ; 
this was using the full aperture. An hour later he redo** v,c 
aperture to 2 inches, and saw " the white spot still dancing about 
the middle of Mercurv." Mr. Brooks observing at Bathurst says, 
" Three minutes after internal contact, there appeared to be a 
whitish spot in S.P. quadrant, and an 

light inside the planet's disc (I suspect this was merely optical, as 
I did not see it i ;i however the light was not 

nearly so good)." It is noteworthy that Mr. Brooks and «* 
Hargrave both saw this the gress. Mr.tfrow 

speaks also of "an irregular white band of light 
planet's disc," and I saw probably the 

n ,\ rli>; 

i of good definition Mercury i 
tensely blue-black, at other times streaks of light, cloud-like, an 
curved within the limb of Mercury, were seen on the planet tw 
few seconds at a time, something like the shading on a > 
whenever the d 

the impression \ Lad at Hi- tin ■ was that I was looking at 
optical illusion, caused by the vibration of the air ^m ' ^ ,, 
posed rapidly on my retina the dark planet and bright sun. 
not at any time see a spot of light in the centre, ami I *» 
most carefully for it, as well as for the aureola round the p"^ a 
Amongst astronomers, the general impression is 
subjective phenomenon, but it is time it was explained, so _ ^ 
may know whether it is something pointing to the pnysi^ 
ditio i ai Mercury, or the observer. ,. „ lire ola; 

^ the observers saw the^ ton]y 

two saw anything of it. Mr. Lenohau saw it for upwards of 
hour. He says — " At 8h. 50m. an apparent halo round the phim 
it was of a lighter colour than the sun, and about one-third t 
diameter of the planet wide. At 9h. 50m. the halo still visib 
the disc of the planet being sharp with mar-inal indistinctness 
halo." Light clouds came over the sun, and he did not again £ 

the planet, and sli-htlv than the general ill 
of the sun's disc. This I attributed to an optical illus 
than a real physical phenomenon/' 

Mr. Conder and Mr. Brooks, who evidently had the 
definition, saw nothing of the black drop phenoim 
Hargrave observi; . jaw noting of i 

Bladen, who was only 20 feet away from Mr. Harg 

very indistinct and tremulous," and he says, " I thought 

I of light separates 

In Sydney, the defin 
made and broken several times before it was actually so. At 
egress, when near internal contact, I was troubled with the same 
difficulty, but fortunately before the actual contact the air got 
steady, and enabled me to see the erarlua! approach of the limbs 
without the formation of a M 

should like to caJ ose observers 

^'liohadaeleai I one exception, and hi* case 

Jnay be explained by the very small aperture used in observing) 
It those who had 
^definition saw more of the drop than they wanted. 

The generallv received explanation of the '-lack drop phenomena 
attributes it to es the sun as seen in our 

eyes what might be called a false edge, or a visible one larger 
than the real one; the amount of this Mr. Stone estimated at 
«o the diameter of Venus. If this were the explanation of the 
black drop so frequently seen, it would follow as a necessity that 

"V- ■ : ' ' ■ - 

-Now, at the transit . f V, i -•-. it was my good fortune to have 
a splendid day and superb definition to observe the ingress and 
e gress, and I saw none of the drop phenomena. Many other 


observers failed to see it, tin ashed with good 

telescopes. This radiation theory. 

A =''■•'■'. read to you, those 

•who had good definition sa >p ; those who had 

bad definition saw more of i to see, and I am 

convinced that one must not look to irradiation for an expl mation. 
In the first place the amom -a the brilliance 

of the sun, and when the sun is looked at in the telescope, by 
reflection or coloured - - 1 thi-, 1 i '-cutoff, and there 

is wanting the c ■'ion; for, be it remembered, 

it is not the ac{>r<i' l-riliian f a I... K lau -<> much of it as is 

presented to our eyes, that causes irradiation, and from experi- 
ments I have made and hope to show you, at least in part,^ I am 
convinced that black drop phenomena m ■ m simply bad definition 
or vibratory motion in the body looked at. We are all familiar 
with the persistence of vision which carries to our minds the 
image of something when there is nothing but the space through 
which something passed, of which passage our persistent viafii 
gives us a misleading impression. If a black body be placed in 
front of a white one and made to vibrate rapidly, to our eyes it at 
once enlarges, the space round it becoming a grey halo, aureola 
or fringe. Now, if we have the limb of the sun bounded by the 
relatively black sky, and o on the sun and 

near the limb, that is, separated by just a thread of light, any 
vibratory motion in the atmosphere would at once cause the 
two dark objects to bridge over the white line, just as you 
see in this mo J dark ligament to join 

the two, and if the \ihj uion is of large amplitude you see dis- 
tinctly between i . .' i pi< >■ ' « itli <-m "; ■' •"' ! / 

v.; - 5 - ■-..• .. ■■; 

cap." When contact with the sun's limb is made, such v lbl J^ efc 
rounds off the point- of the cusps, and seems to make the p 
cling to the limb, and in some cases make it like the letter 1A 

Now this vibratory motion in the atmosphere is about the 
monest difficulty of the observer. It is seldom absent ; ami ^ 
is not to be wondered at. when -ne e .'. -' !■ ■ tha: an;. '''^ - .: 
currents of unequal temperature, or dry and m<>i>t t:U 1 rn ' n J ( ! ,^1 
at once cause such vibratory motion, which is simply u wj 
refraction of the ravs of light passing through. , k 

It is not therefore to be wondered at that foam 
drops, &c, are such common phenomena at planetary "* 
What is wanted is, that we should be familiarjvd^hejmenom^ 

: ■: '.■:•.. ;.. ..-. ■ 

amplitude of the vibrations, 
lid affect the observations. 1 
hat is the best thing for the 
1 ' I hope to return to 

Bladen .. 




! h m s 

h m s i 


h. m. s. 

.! 8 21 44-64 

26 ■(!.-, 

I 42 s!C, 

. 22 8-00 


2 1 'JO -00 



3 00 

22 15-00 





42-84 1 

22 5-00 

35-75 | 

22 3 60 




.Report on Transit of Mercury. 
Observed at Sydney, November Sth, 1881, by H. C Russell, 

At Sy,l ne j the morning was very fine 
good definition for the transit, but the 
telescope revealed the fact that there w» 

:■ fined the clouds extendiu- 

and sct-nicd t<< promise 
first dano 

■ he moisture 

uour later Ave should have lost the e-ivss altovvih-r. Similar 
conditions existed rorst. At ingress I was 

unable to use the large refractor because the time-ball tower 
Prevented me fro: . V- time of ingress ; I there- 

fore used the 7]-ii:cu M. rz : I -v r to the north dome, time was 
taken by havin- chronometer so close to the 

eye-piece that I could hear the ticks and see the dial directly I 
turned from the telescope. I a as r. idv to -Kscive some minutes 
before the predicted time, and found the definition of the sun's 
umb very Lad ind. !. at -Is -Jim "Ki-.. rV-u-ht I saw first 
intact, but had to wait t - sure; making 

refractor and posver loO, Sli. 21m. 44 -64s. 
very unfavourable, am 1 1 can - 1 it to this observa- 

tion. At 8h. 23m. 5s. Mercury on the sun presented a Mike 
shape, definition b.-ing wry bad ; at times the planet seemed to 
vibrate nearly its whole diameter, yet the sky was clear. At 8L 
23m. 39-1 4s. I noted a very in nt'isf.u-t -:y internal contact, for 
the contact seemed made and broken several times over; each time 
the limb of the sun was thrown into violent agitation, and the 
time taken was when I \. act was made ; as 

the definition continued very bad it may be late. The sun being 
now above the tower I used the lU-ineh refractor with 6-meh 
stop, and a polarizing oye-piece without coloured glass, magni- 
fying powers from 100 to 200 were used, some having iff** 
lenses; but though the planet was wr\ < uvfulh v t< I * d tor halo, 
satellite or physical phenomena, no si-n of a ring of light round it 
or of a -aeliite coul.l be ,.(.i. although in moments of_ best 
definition the black specks of the sun's mottliu- could be distinctly 
seen. During the forenoon from about 9 a.m. thin cirrus clouds 
were forming and steadily shutting out the sunlight ; but tne 
definition seemed rather to improve. . , 

At tun s belbi this haz -ot t 1 i..-l M« u 
blue-black, at ot' .,, . ,!. r '.Jit. cloudhke and 

curved within the limb of Mercurv wore seen on the p^nCT 
for a few seconds at a time something like shading on a •« j 
whenever the ■ ! 

the impression I had at the ti ue was. that I was looking at 
optical illusion, caused by the vibration, which ti 
on my retina the dark planet and bright sun. I did not see 
central white spot at any time. 55s> 

As Mercury got near to the point of egress at lh. >W&- . 
one of these b i : , occurred, - * 

band connected the sun's ar 
was repeated several times in as many s 
leaving a clear band of light between the limbs, and a «J ^ 
steady definition which enabled me to see the -i 
the limbs without the formation of black drop or haziness, an _ 
internal contad rved I Lh. ^"y ' ,„,;-'; 

ten seconds later the planet seemed to elongate fer 

nf nnnfa^ T U„A J...H L i. . ±. j.i- „„„„,,!', 

ring eye-piece 

rv :---■• a 

42m. 8-95s. ; after that I could -^ notli n, of the planet nor 
it likely that a phenomen t ,o deli,-,te .„ the j lanet on the % 
light about the - tigh so much haze. ^ 

My observations at egress are much better than ingress. 

using the splendid Schrueder refractor with }»,];, 
so that the sunlight could be exactly adjusted to comfort, and 
mried at pleasure to try the effect of more or lees Light : the air in 
spite of thin clouds was steadier, so that the renditions were 

the building got \\;um set tin;j up air currents in the dome. 

Reported times by Dr. H. G. A. Wright. Telescope used, 8$. 
" With Browning" reflector. Position, 2,300 south and 7'J2 east 
i v Observatory : — 

(5-inch aperture used.) 
Ingress — h. m. s. 

External contact 8 21 20 

Internal contact 8 23 10 

(THneh aperture used.) 
Egress— h. m. & 

Internal contact 1 40 '{■} 

External contact ... ... ••■ 1 41 67 

And certain notch 5s. later ... 1 42 3 

On Si-inch reflector powei 80 s ops ". i id - foi ingress iml 7* 

for egress. Browning d jJ b prism solar eye-piece, and Barlow 

Reported times by Mr. Morris, of the Survey Department 
Telescope used 8!. '"With Browning" reflector. Powers, 100 
to 150. Place, Petersham, 5 miles S.S.W. from Sydney 
Observatory :— h. m. s. 

External contact 8 22 15.00 

1st internal contact 8 23 46.00 

2nd internal conduct '.'.', ... 1 40 16.00 

External contact ... .,. 1 43 16.00 

Observations made at Katoomba, a place on the Western 

Railway, C6 miles from Sydney, and 3,400 feet above the sea. 

Longitude, lTxj IP 53.47" E. Latitude, 33' 42' 2,. 2/ b. 

Report made by H. A. Lenehan, First Assistant at Sydney 


Tuesday morning, the 8th November, was fi: 
*y, in l every prospect of favourable oondr^ " 

but towards m '" sua . ., , 

^cling sky, preventing the certainty . I 

. The ingress was observed through a 3-inch telescope of i*** 
fccal length, hur, d in the quadrang le, i teamed 

observations taken as well as possible 
conditions. The first indent on the sun's limb was 
* k 22m. 8-00 sec. and the planet moved steadily and 

noticed i 

towards internal contact, wh 3h. 23 in. 4000>. 

Tiie observations were now continued with the 7-\ Merz equa- 
torial, stopped down to G inches, and a great un-hMdhi - v >■, 
observable, attributed to the atmosphei 

light clouds over sun. At lOh. 39m. definition not good. At 
■ rnible. 

Towards egress the sky was covered with light clouds, rather 
thick over face of sun-' and at lh. 10m. definition bad, with 
marginal indistinctness. At lb. :h>m. d< -fin it ion improved. 

The first con: ■ I h. 40m. 29-25s. There 

was, as stated above, no absolute certainty in the actual timers 
the definition was not good and the ui, ,1 hi-:,. , i i in- mJ'V tion 
in telescope, but I am satMi<d with tin .nm' - i \ , , LL , i !/v: ,'. 1 ', : - > 

(1) Report from Law. Hargrove, double star observer. Telescope, 

a 4£ eqtmU rif.lhi ,„,,„„> ,1 , •', n >r, uiih < 7 «< A o'ou < «' 
first surface rjhrfuui ,„1 >r * , j, pi <'». Phice, Latoon*- 
November 8, 1881. 
6h. 45m. a.m., and 2h. 9m. p.m., compared chronometers with 
Sydney Observatory; by t- weather W W* 

could be wished. 8h. 22m. O-U'-.s. S.M.T., v. hen I saw the ar« 
contact, definition very good. Abivurv larger than I expecte > , 
full aperture 4 v v loo, with tin- arke t 

glass. When the plan, t v.a, on th n the < usps were slightly 
rounded. This appearance did not last till the second con^a , 
which was at 8h. 23m. I -l -:)<■.,., S.M.T. ; definition very g°° > 
quite calm. Tl ad facuhe were very cw 

3 minutes after,-., rl,,.,-.- is an optical illusion like a ,spu 
of light in th PP^^J^S 

steadily at it. Th- h .,b of M,,.u,n i, - hard line; no coww 
or difi'erence in the light on th.> sun at the planet's limb, c 
clouds over the sun at 8h. 43m., 8.M.T. At 9h. 20m., i &■£! 
tried the high power ; dehnition bad; it ^ ^^J\ xaf 

jduced the ap •rtun- to ah nil 1 inches 
definitions ; still cirrusy. The white spot still dancing 
middle of Mercury. The blackness of M.-n-u,; 
than that of a sun-spot. 91.. :,3>n., S.M.T., a 
carried the lea dose to the observatory 

lOh. 40m., S.M.T., thin clouds passing: nit d the full apertm-e 
again, with two • hanged for the darkest glass 

and 2-inch aperture, which is host. Large solar halo. 12h. 13m., 
S.M.T., took off the 2 inch stop ; clouds •_-. ■ttii.:.' thicker; the sun's 
limb well defined. At 12h. 2."im., S.M.T.. the white spot very 
persistent, lh. 35m., S.M.T., hazy and light clouds passing 
ess, both limbs 
O.nOs., S.M.T., 

/'. M. Bladen. Pktc . 

• flymg o 


The instrument was a refractor by T. Cooke, of York, England. 

mounted equatorially. with clock motion. Focal length, 5 feet ; 

aperture, 1] inches (stopped down to 2 inches); eye-piece solar, 

diagonal, power about 80, light blue tinted glass shade. 

Definition very good indeed ; sun's limb being very clear and 

sharp, and sun spots and faculse very distinct. 

First contact. 

First external contact took place at 8 hours 22 minutes 3-34 

seconds, Sydney mean time, when slight indent was visible, winch 

in a second or two had become too marked to be mistaken. 

Definition of cvsp*. 

This continued until the planet was about f of its diameter on 
the Ban, when o aed over, rendering the cusps 

very indistinct and tremulous. 

Estimated first internal contact. 

At 8 hours 23 minutes 24-64 seconds, Sydney mean time, I 
thought from the irregular shape of Mercury that internal com 

ion, could doubtless have been seen with better del 
■ three seconds earlier, if not more. 

No sign whatever could be detected during ingress of that por- 
tion of Mercury which was off the sun's disc, nor could any halo 
be seen at the cusps. 

Mercury on the sun. 

Mercury, when on the sua, appeared a perfect sphere, intensely 
black (more so than sun-spots), without any halo, haze or spots, 
the outline of planet being remarkably sharp. No companion 

The definition for about an hour after the ingress was very good 
indeed ; but with the highest powers and different stops on 
objective nothing noteworthy could be detected. 
Egress,— Weather. 

Weather not so favourable j sky covered with light cirrus 
clouds. ^ Mercury still a clear wJMr*!ined disc on face of sun, but 
the sun's limb unsteady and boiling. 

Second internal contact 1 hour 40 minutes 44-34 seconds, 
Sydney mean time. T v., - time until I was 

quite sure contact was complete ; the boiling referred to above 
making it very difficult tD decide. 

Second external contact. _ , 

The planet did not pass steadily off the sun, but in a series oi 
jumps of about half (1) a second in duration, which may nave 
lasted from ten to fifteen seconds, when 1 was quite 
trace of the planet was visible. I took the time, 1 hour 42 minutes 
23-64 seconds. r 

limb was considerably more ctis- 

Beportfrom W. J. Conder, Chief of the Trigonometricctl 


of Survey C M 

I have the honor to transmit the following report of ol ^ erV ^ 
made by me, during the transit of Mercury, on the 8th iSo\e 
1881, at the Racecourse, near Bathurst, New South Wales. 

The telescope used is a 4|-inoh refractor, by Schroder, ^ 
length, 5 feet inches, equatorial! \ immnted, and wi 
motion; this, how.-wr, was m, im-ulav that it often w 
necessary to drive th- t,l„-„p, l,v l.a.,1 in th- usual manner.^ 
diagonal eye-piee«- with dark u.-u rnl di:id«', and P°^ er w pic 
employed for Ufa bed the telescop 

se the whole aperture, definition I 
idvantage of an ekctric ahltmog! 

dney Observatory standard side 

about the time of : . . 

the sky, which, however, did not cause any difficulty in the 
observation of the ingress, definition being then very good ; at 
its first appearance, the planet seemed to me more like a dark 
shadow entering on the sun's limb, like the umbra in an eclipse of 
the moon, rather than an opaque body forming a distinct notch. 

As the telescope was not driven by the clock so regularly as to 
keep the sun's image stationary in the field, some small specks of 
dust on the eyeglass caused occasional apparent notches on the 
sun's limb, and for a second or two I was in doubt whether the 
indentation I sa-, .« 1 in this way, or by the 

planet. I waited until certain that it was really Mercury before 
closing the electric key, and the record thus made and reduced to 
Sydney mean time, is November 8th, a.m., 8 h 22-" 5-00 s . 

Comparing mentally, after the event, the distance between the 
cusps at the time recorded, I estimated tins at 6 to 7-tenths of the 
planet's diameter. As this estimate was not made at the time, it 
is of course not intended to be used in comput; tion, though I feel 
considerable confidence in its approximate correctness. 

A few seconds before the internal contact at ingress, the 
telescope was sli using -vibrations 

which had scarcely ceased when the limbs of the planet and sun 
appeared to be tangential. This was recorded at Bh. 83m, 
35 -75s. a.m. Sydney mean time. As I felt in some doubt 
whether the cusps had really closed at this instant, I continued to 
watch very carefully ; and within so small an interval of time 
afterwards as to . . an extremely fine line of 

light was noticed separating the planet from the sun's limb, which 
gradually widened until it became evident that Mercury was 
wholly projected on the sun's disc. 

I watched the | , &« definition 

most of the time being magnificent. The sun spots and markings 
were very distinct, although thin fleecy clouds were spread over 
the whole of the sky. I fai '. r agpea ranees, 

except perhaps a very faint suspicion of a halo or yeDowiah light 
surrounding the of the planet, and slightly 

brighter than the general' illumination of the sun's disc. This I 
attributed to an optical illusion rather than a real physical 

Jp to within about two minutes of the internal contact at 
ess the observation of this phase could 

r of cloud cut off a consi 
the sunlight, but a patch of cloud of g 

pletely i 

My last view of Mercury was at lh. 40m. 9 -2s. p.m. Sydney 
mean time, very near to ii; ,< 1 < <\ ;i '. but I am quite certain 
that it was then separated from the sun's limb by a narrow streak 
of sunlight. Immediately after this I lost sight of the sun's 
limb, and after waiting a she i rim ■, 1 < ping that this dense cloud 
would pass over, as a i. st chance I removed the neutral shade, 
which was very dark, with the expectation of being able to distin- 
guish the sun's limb through tin- cloud without the shade. My 
eye, however, itself readily to the large 

increment of light ; so that, to my great disappointment, I failed 
to observe either phase of the egress. 

The position of our telescopes has been deduced from that of a 
fixed point in the trigonometrical survey, with which it has 
been connected by triangulatiom 

The observatory v. ,■ ,\ U \] ,-. Hmoks at the same time was 
88} links north and 30 links -,>-< ; from the one referred to in this 


e transit 

l the 8th instant. 

Telescope used was by Truii-hton and Simms, of 3|-in- »P e 
ture stopped down to 3dm; eve-pk " 
_oi the two coloured shades; the i 
plane surface of plano-convex lens mounted diagonally. 

With a view to testing thf definition I went to the telescope 
about an hour before ingress. Day was clear, except a lew nfc ^ 
fleecy clouds to west and north w.v . 

.ry happily ma^d^utjh^b^ 
Sydney Observatory used for the Trigonometrical 

of expected in 

Lgress. A ] 


- north 




-snots til- T 

or 11 spots, th 

e other of i 

large s 

panions. The 

large spot 

.r the f 

nucleus being 

divided (by 

orked 1 

into t 


At8h. 23ra. 3645s. I caught first iu<lication of a white line 
separating the sun and planet's discs. 

Three minutes itfeh spot on S.P. 

^de planet's disc 
(I suspect this was merely optical, as I did not see it near the 
egress, when however the light was not nearly so good). 

At ahout 12 o'clock clouds were denser, causing planet disc to 
lose its dead black appearance and to assume a greyish Mack tinge. 
Definition remain.- 1 lairly -t-.-.d;. and at 10 minutes before egress 
I changed eye-piece, using one marked 90, telescope and sun- 
shade as before. 

Egress, first contact. 

At lh. 40m. 26-48s. first internal contact at egress was made. 
without any indication whatever of black drop. 

Chronometer was compared indirectly with Sydney by chro- 
nograph, and I am indebted to Mr. F. F. Furber for efficient 
manner in which he noted the times of my signals. 

On the Inorganic Constituents of some Epiphytic 


the Royal Society q 

As it appeared probable that some interesting information might 
be obtained from an examination of the ash of plants growing in 
such positions as to have earned for themselves the reputation of 
living upon air, and as the subject as far as I am aware has not 
before been taken up, I obtained some specimens of Platycerium 
grande, P. alcicorne, and Asplenium nidus, from the Claivnn Ilh w, 


[•Newcastle. Witht 

from the Clarence there w: '""' cm<d"< .>■-, 

which was too small to admit of more than an ash determination 
being made. It gave 5-35 per cent, of crude ash on the dried 
plant. Although these ferns con 1.1 perhaps have been procured 
nearer at hand,' it v.-u, thought preferable to get them from their 
native haunts in the brushes of the rivers, as anywhere in the 
neighbourhood of Sydney they would be sure to be contaminated 
with the dust with which the air is often plentifully laden. Along 
with each plant there was sent a piece of the wood and bark of 
the tree to which they were found clinging, so that a comparison 
of the ashes might be made. 

To obtain the ashes the p] «d at a dull red 

heat in a large French elav crucible, th. charcoal being pressed 
down by the addition of fresh portions of the plant as it diminished 
in volume. The charcoal was then burned off in a platinum basin 
over an argand gas lamp, and it was found that, by leaving the 
basin undisturbed and without stirring its contents, the whole 
of the carbon, except on the immediate surface, was consumed, 
leaving a very clean ash, even when the bottom of the dish did 
not appear red by daylight. The surface portion could then be 
skimmed off, as it were, and returned to the bottom of the basin 
with the next charge. 

Contrary to what might be anticipated from the mode of their 
11 it will be observed that the amount of ash in the growing 
3 quite as high as in the leaves of most plants, and those 


- .- 

This plant geu - out at intervals 

of about six m ates alternately to 

the right and left, which cling closely to the fronds which preceded 
them and to tin 3el£ at the bottom 

and sides ; whilst the upper part spreads out into a crown, sur- 
mounted by antler-like processes, from which it derives its common 
name of stag's-horn fern. As the fern grows outward £ro» JM 
tree stem by the addition of plate upon plate, a basket-like space 
is left behind the crown, or perhaps it should be rather called 
coronet, to distinguish it from the growing crown of the plant j 
and this space forms a receptacle for rain, loaves and dust, whilst 
the dead plates forma humus-like mass interspersed with small 
rootlets, which often weighs several hundredweight. In this peaty 
matter an ahum' r, the specimen which was 

obtained for examination <■< . i entipedes, &*i 

species of ant, and several beetles, Some of these probably bring 
nutriment to the plant from without. The plant was cBriH 
into two portions for analysis — namely, live fronds, including 
both barren and fertile, and dead fronds and humus. 
Analysis of live fronds. 

Percentage of ash of the composition stated, 8-62. 

Potash 33-88 

-:':1 .! V 

Analysis of humus and roots. 
Percentage of ash of composition given, 3-21 — 2*02. 

Potash 7-05 11-25 

Soda 2-26 |;61 

Chloride of sodium 2 - 26 3*61 

Lime 26-63 «JJ 

M«n«ia ** jfg 

12-88 moo 

Feme oxide 183 ffO 

Phosphoric oxide 1'16 }'f n 

633 10-10 

posed by acid 3731 ^ -- 

99-97 100-00 

ristic odour of 
cat smoke. The second column gives the composition of the ash 
fter deducting the silica, which was pi incipally in the form of 
ary fine white sand, which shows that some dust reaches even the 

(he scruhs. 

Wood and bark of the tree to tvhich P. granule was attached. 
Percentage of ash of the composition given, 1-27. 
Analysis of ash. 

Manganese oxide .. 
Phosphoric oxide .., 

SolubKhcT G ".'. 

mplete absence of 
s specimens of Platijo ri",n examined. Alumina has also 
nd as an undoubted ash constitm \\ of various Lycopo- 
.nd it does not appear in the present instance to be an 
.1 constituent, as it was not found in the other plants, 
came in the same case and were treated exactly alike. 


mass, and although each plant is much smaller, the barren fronds 
or plates being only six or eight inches across, whilst in P. grande 
they are often two or three feet, the humus mass is generally 
much larger. They grow either on projecting rocks or attached 
to the stems of Casuarinas or other trees which do not shed their 
hark, and in the latter position they generally grow completely 
round the tree, their humus mass forming a bowl-like projection 
often two feet deep and four or live feet across the top, the 
rounded exterior being covered by the green and brown barren 

1 rK erh £ ld A. Ann - d - Chem - u - Pharm., hxxxii, HI (1352). 
^burch, Chem. News, xxx, 137. Salm-Horstmar, J. Pr. Chem. xl, 302, 
Sohns-Lanbach, Ann. Ch. Phann., c. 297. 

Analysis of live fronds. 
Percentage of ash of composition given, 4-5] 

Analysis of dead fronds and humus. 
Percentage of ash of the composition stated, 19-22— 2'1 . 

a a plant which had g£* 
, un ^for P the large percen^^ 
■ sand consisted a most «* 

sand in the humus mass. This sand consisted almost e ^^ 
small angular fragments of white quartz. The followi a ^ ^^ 
were made on plants which grew on a C'asuarinain 
ahout three-quarters of a mile west of the Hunter Ki^ ^ 
smelting Works at Newcastle. As the copper smoKe of 

works sometimes passes in this direction, the presence ot^ ^ ^ 
a two of ^'xted for but ^ 

o often is shown by the Casuarinas and ot&er te d 

7a n „A +i„ t,„„h-1w The plants weic r n 

metimes passes in this direction, tne p»~~ - j 
copper in two of the ashes is thus accounted tor, dw> 
not do so often is shown by the Casuarinas and otner ^ tea 
still alive and apparently healthy. The plants J , barren 
into live fronds (including barren and fertile), ^ tioDj v^m 

into live fronds (including barren and tertue/, ^ on} i 

fronds, and humus, as there was enough for this sepa 
was not the case with the others. 

ash the actual amount is very small. 

Analysis of humus mass. 
Percentage of ash of composition stated, 2-6 

1 percentage 

M^esia ::: 

Oxide of copper 
Sulphuric oxide 6 

From the locality occupied by these plants, and the actual 
occurrence of copper in their ashes, one would almost naturally 
conclude that they would contain a very considerable proportion 
of sulphuric oxide, but the analyses show that they actually contain 
less than those of the same species from the Clarence. 

s species 1 
Castcarina wood and bark. 
Percentage of ash of composition given, 2 -03. 
Analysis of Ash. 

Soda ... .'.'.' .'." '.'.'. '.'.'. '.'.'. 
Chloride of sodium 

Fern? oxide.'.".' .'.'.' .'.'.' '.'.'. '.'.'. 

Magnesia oxide (M 3 4 ) 

Phosphoric oxide 

Sulphuric oxide 

Soluble silica 

The tree from which the ash analysis is g 
actual one upon which the ferns grew, but 
(C. 'pachdosa) from a different locality. 


The fronds of this fern grow in a circle from the 

plant assuming a cup like form, whence 
of bird-nest fern. This 

-■<> it (h'rivt sits common name 
dead leaves and t-,1 -.-;■;■; 

.„.• t„^Ja and 

have arrived at maturity, and as the fronds die their bases auu - 
leaves between them are cemented into a humus mass by root 

The ash of the live fronds of the specimen examined retain^ 
the shape and markings of the fronds when allowed to burn genu? 
and without disturbance. 

Analysis of live fronds. 
Percentage of ash of composition given, 12*35. 

Potash ... ... - 28-26 

of potassium ••• ffi" 

Ferric oxide . . . 

Manganese oxide 

Phosphoric oxide 


Phosphoric oxide 

37-31, P. 

Tlyyarc all plants i- 

as possible fro,,, t l„. v. i 
are deficient. Tin- latt< 

ter, being composed 
e of the inorganic co 

182 on 

plants, which shows that P. alcicorne growing upon rock is very- 
deficient in potash and soda, and has extracted almost the whole 
of these salts from the humus mass and dead fronds, and has made 
up for their deficiency by assimilating a large quantity of magnesia, 
lime, and alumina, which have been available in comparative abun- 
dan< : Tin same sp< < i< s from Newcastle contains more than double 
the quantity of alkalies, which it has removed chiefly from the 
withered fronds, but <rill b.-m- in them and in the humus con- 
siderable quant r •■ and magnesia are present 
in the humus in larger quantities than in the other, the living 
plant has not taken up so much. P. grande seems to have had 
an abundant supply of all its constituents, whilst A. nidus has 
been deficient only in sodium salts, which it has removed completely 
from the humus. 



1 .1 :II 




■ s 





I , .IM 


1 ,|SII 


11 .11! 



- - I 1! 


11 JII 

1 1 * 1 1 




IS ,2|! 

3* .*! 


11 .11! 

1 1 s 1 1 


hi i 


Census of the Genera of Plants hitherto known as 

Indigenous to Australia. 
By Baron Ferd. von Mueller, K.C.M.G., M.D., Ph.D., F.B.S. 

[_Read before the Royal Society of N.S.W., 2 November, 1S8L] 

" Suum cuique." 
The reasons for ofl list of Australian plants have 

been three-fold. In first instance it \v,->s to nil up a deficiency in 
the Flora Australiensis, that work giving no distinct record of the 
publications, in which the genera and indeed also the natural 
orders, represented in the native vegetation of this part of the 
globe, were first established. Secondly, — this list was to carry on 
the number of the genera bevond the Ferns to the Mosses, Lichens, 
Algs and Fungs ; and furthermore it was to add all the genera of 
Di and Mono-cotyledonea?, rendered known as Australian since 
the successive volumes of the Flora were issued. Thirdly,— it was 
"wished to place by this index some of the orders of our native 
plants into a more natural sequence than that, by which the 
Monochlamydese are maintained :-.* distinct ; not to speak of some 
minor changes, which additional or extended observations in later 
years have rendered imperative. In furnishing chronologic data 
it was deemed but just, to trace back the authorship to the real 
literary originators of any ordinal or generic group of plants, 
though the earliest indications in this respect may have beenyague 
or imperfect or even p rth en i ous. But let us regard him as 
the literary constructor of an order or of a genus, who comprised 
^thin such gysfr fur share of forms correctly 

grouped, notwithstanding that in the course of subsequent elimi- 
nations or alterations ( which, with the access of new species orthe 
better insight into known forms, goes on even at the present day), 
the original formula of the order or genus may have become much 
changed. In assigning generic limits I have been conservative, 
because practical experienet > i ugh four decennia 

has led me to perceive, how much easier the memory is aided 
by allotting to generic complexes an ample space, than by 
ennarrowing them into more and more limited precincts. Nature 
seated species only, not genera; the latter serve for more 
or less artificial aggregations of the former ; on the real boun- 
dary of species, accepted in a limitation equivalent to that of 

homo sapiens-oi man himself— ought, when all organic forms 
shall have become well known, finally to be no dispute ; «%*«■ 
the ctrc is seriptiona of genera will ever to a large extent dtpencl 
optionallv on individual ideas of any particular systematists. 
These views I have expressed publicly more than twenty years ago* 
and subsequent research has not led me to change them. 

In tracing the priority of each genus, I have checked the ^nota- 
tions as far as from 1700 to 1862 by the great nomenclator ot 
Sex a work of most extensive records, resulting fcomatao* 
unexampled patience, displayed in ex 

volumes 1 of litera, '> ^i ^emlearnij 

Bentham and Hooker's grand " Genera Plantarum, aided largely 
in quoting from the literature of the last twenty years tor* 
Dicotyledoneae, Jackson's Guide to the Literature ot botany, 
which carries to the present year, has also been consult, d. KM*wr 
CWt-x was a safe guide through all the writings of Linne Ue 
small but important volume of Fraas proved the surest clue to 
many of the plants of the most ancient authors. 

In dealing with the synonymy of the genera, it was not ^deeine 
necessaryto do more than to ^ , tl„- Ka,v ,...,„.• of tlj^^jj 
on this occasion, as otherwise the present index would ha> e e^ ^ 
much beyond the limits assigned to it. Fortius reas on ^a d 

with rare exceptions quoted of abolished genera only such as to 
their way actually into the literature of Australian plants. 1 
**»v unexplained repetitions, occurring in the plain synoi j ^ 

i imnair the use of this census for easy and pi 

T" f^^din^ of t: 
t, ~A_ unt of a mere difference in adjective endin o 

order, or if in adopting etymologic or other^. J^ 
in the wording of general ^f.,^^ I have, at 
reason to change the origii either, tne 

aU events, avoided far-stretching pedantry. hereafter 

It is not likely that very many genera will • ^^^ from 
to the number of those recorded now as ^^TV the rea lms 
the closes of the lower cryptogams, and especially from 
of microscopic organism. , • h nunl ber, in 

This census embraces 2,122 adopted genera, ^V d rea dily 
applying views less conservative, might have een^^ 
enough No less than 300 authors from the time .or t ^^ 
Greeks and Romans to our own era stand sponso^ / e 
plants, represented in our part of the globe thus ^ ^ 
exertions for creating the science of the vege t ^ tjj 

dawn of natural history are brought in close ^ mlgh ty 

extended efforts of past-medieval ages, as wen a, ^ten*** 

strides of the last century, which culminated, so tai ^ nt 
ing records are concerned, in the finishing sway ot 
secular epoch. 


Ray, Method. Plant, emend. 2 (17( 
Mueller, native plants of Victoria I 

Inst. 285, t. 149 (1700) from Bock 
119 (1718), from Bock (1552). 

Salisbury, in Koenig & Sims' Ann. of Bot., II, 70 (1805). 
Cabomba, Aublet, Guian. I, 321, t. 121 (1775). 
(Braseuia, Hydropeltis.) 
Nymphaea, Toumefort, Inst. 260, t. 137-8 (1700) from Theo- 

phrastos and Dioscorides. 
Xelumbo, Tournefort, Inst. 261 (1700). (Nelumbium.) 

Salisbury, Parad/Lind. I. 73 (1806). 
Wormia, Rottboell, Nye Saml. Vid. Selsk. Skrivt. II, 532 (1783). 
Hibbertia, Andrews, Bot. Repos. t. 126 (1800). 
(Candollea, Pleurandra, Hemistemma, Adrastaea, Ochrolasia, 

Hemistephus, Huttia.) 
IVtracera. Linne, Gen. 345 (1737). 
Ddlenia, Linne, Gen. 162 (1737). 

Pachynema, R. Brown in de Cand. Syst. I, 411 (1818). 
Jaume St. Hilaire, Expos, fam. II, 74, t. 83 et 84 (1805). 
I'riims. it. ,-t ti. F., r .M,r. Char. gen. 83, t. 42 (1776). 

A L. de Jussieu, Gen. plant. 283 (1789) from 
_ B. de Jussieu (1759). 

CVaria, Linne, Amoen. acad. 404 (1747). 

-Fitzalania, F. v. Mueller, Fragm. phytogr. Austr., IV, 33 (1863). 
Cananga, Rumphius, herb. Amboim, II, 193, t. 65 (1741). 
Ancana, F. v. Mueller, Fragm. phytogr. Austr., V, 27 (1865). 

Polyaltliia, Blume, Fl. Jav. Anon., 68 (1829). 
Popowia, Endlicher, Gen., 831 (1839). 
Melodorum, Loureiro, Fl. Cochinch. I, 351 (1790). 
Miliusia, Leschenault in Memoir. Genev. V, 213 (1832). 
Saccopetalum, Bennett in Horsf. PI. Jarvar. 165, t. 35 (1838). 
Eupomatia, R Brown in Flind. voy. II, App., 597 (1814). 


A. L. de Jussieu in Ann. du Mus. XIY, 30 (1809). 
Doryphora, Endlicher, Gen. 315 (1837). 
Atherosperma. Labillardiere, Nov. Holl. pi. specim. II, 74 t, 224 

Daphnandra, Bentham, Fl. Austr. V, 285 (1870). 
MoHmecfia, Ruiz et Pavon, fl. Peruv. et Chil. Prodr. 83, t IJ> 

(1794). (Kibara, Wilkiea). 
He Ivcai x a, R. et ( ',. For.ster, Char, gen., 127, t. 64 1 1 77''' , 
Palmeria, F. v. Mm 11. r, I'm m. rhvt- ur. Austr. IV, 151 (18M> 
Piptucalyx, Oliver in Benth. Fl. Austr. V., 292 (1870). 
P. Brown, Prodr. fl. Nov. Holl. L, 399 (1810). 
Myristiea, Linne, Gen. ed II, 524 (1742). 
Yentenat, Tabl. II., 245 (1799). 
Cryptocarya, R Brown, Prodr. I., 402 (1810). (O^P^) 
Beilschmiedia, Nees in Wall. pi. Asiat. rar. II, 69 (l*»/- 

Endian<fra, It. Brown, Prodr. I, 402 (1810). 
Cinnam mnm, Bimnan, Fl. Zeil. 62 (1737). «,:. 

Litsea, Lamarck, Diction. Ill, 574 (1789). (Tetranthera, vj 
codaphne, Litsaea.) 

;.. Bpec. pi. I, 35 (1753). 
Hernandia, Plunder, nov. pi. Amer. Gen. 6, t. 40 (1703). 
A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. pi. 284 (1789). 
Tinospom, Mu-rs in Ann. and Ma-, of nat. hist., second ser. 

35 (1851). 

Fawcettia, F. v. Mm !ler, Frair. X, 93 (1877). _ ubill 

Cocculus, De CWMI,., s\.st. i. 515 (1^18) from ^ m 

(1623). (Pericw . llora ;L 

Tristichocalyx, F. v. Mueller. rYa-m. rV, 27 (1863). ^ 

Hypserpa, Miens in Ann. and Ma- of uat. hist., -nd s 

36 (1851). (Selwynia.) 

Pleogvno, Miers in Ann. and M;i;'. of nut. 

(1851). (Micropsia.) 
Carronia, F. v. Mueller, Fragm. phyt. Aus< 
Adeliopis, Bentham et J. Hooker, Gen. pi. 

A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. pi. 235 (1789) from B. de Jussieu ( 1 759). 
Papaver, Toumefort, Inst. 237, t. 119 (1700). (Perhaps im- 

Ventenat, Tabl. Ill, 118 (1799). 
Cleome, Linne, syst. nat. 9 (1735); Linne, Gen. pi. 200 (1737). 

Gymnandropsis, De Candolle Prodr. I, 237 (1824). (Perhaps 

Roeporia, F. v. Mueller, in Hooker's Kew Misc. IX. 15 <1>5 7). 
Emhlingia, F. v. Mueller, Fragm. phvtoirr. Austr. II, 2 ( ! -GO). 

■ i-V*kael. Fl. A.- Aral.. 07(1775). 
<';U.|.avis. Toumefort, Inst., 261. t. 139 (1700). 
(Busbeekea, Busbequea) from Theophrastos, Dioscorides and 

A}. ..phyllum. F. v. Mueller in Hooker's Kew Misc. IX, 307 (1857). 

A. L ,1.> Jussieu, Gen. 237 (17S9) from B. de Jussieu (1750). 

from Linne, syst^nat 9 (1735). ' ' 

'•^mara-a, IWkmann, Lex. bot. 33 (1801). (Barbarea.) Linne. Gen. pi. 198 (1737). (Turritis) from Dalechamps 

Cardamine, Toumefort, Inst. 22+. r. 109 ( 1 700)from l'Ecluse (157(1). 
Alyssum Toumefort, instit. 217 (1700) from l'Ecluse (1576). 

(Meniocus Alysson.) 
Draba, Dillenius, Nov. gen. 122 (1719). (Perhaps immigrated.) 
Sisymbrium, Toumefort, Inst. 225. t. 109 (1700). 
VJilkia, Seopoli, Intr. ad hist. nat. 317 (1777). (Malcolima.) 
Erysimum, Linne, Gen. pi. 198 (1737). (Blennodia) from Taber- 

naemontanus (1590). 
ktenopetalum, E. Brown in De Cand. Mem. du Mus. TIL, 239 



Geococcus, Drummond and Harvey in Hook. Kew Misc. VII, 

52 (1855). 
Menkea, Lehmann, Ind. sem. hort. Hamb. 8 (1843). 
Capsella, Medicos, Pflanzengatt. I, 85 (1792). (Hutchinsia 

partly, Thlaspi partly, Microlepidium.) 
Senebiera, De Candolle, Mem. soc. d' hist. nat. Par. I, 140(1799). 
Lepidium, Toumefort, Inst. 215, t. 103(1700). (Iberis partly, 

Cakile ; 

Lepia, Monoploca) from Dioscorides ana 
Tournefort, Coroll. 49 t. 483 (1703). 


De Candolle, Fl. Franchise, IV, 801 (1805). 
Viola, Tournefort, Inst. 419, t. 236 (1700) from Plinius 
Hybanthus, Jacquin, Stirp. Amer. hist. 77, t. 7 

Hymenanthera, R. Brown in Tuck. Cong. 442 (1818). 
Richard, in Mem. du Mus. I, 366 (1815). 
Coclilosp'Miiuun, Kunth, Diss. Malv. 6 (1822). 
Scolopia, Schreber, Gen. I, 335 (1789). JPhoberos.)^ 
Xylosina, G. Forster, florul. 
Streptothamnus, F. v. Muell 

J. Gaertner, de Fruct. Ill, 238 (1805). 
Casearia, IS". J. Jacquin, select, stirp. Amer. hist. 132, t 85 (li63). 
Homalium, K J. Jacquin, sel. stirp. Amer. hist. DU, t 
(1763). (Blaekwellia.) 

R. Brown in Flind. voy. II, App. 542 (1814). 
Pittosporum, Banks in Gaertner de Fruct. I, 286 (1788). 
HymeWporum, R. Brown in F. v. Mueller, Fragm- ^ 

Bursaria, Cavanilles, Icon. IV, 30, t. 350 (1797). 
Manuutlius, Huegel Enum. pi. austro-occ. 8 (lba/;- 

un» Rhytidosporum Calopetalum). ^ SuppL 1, 585 


!*S«SaX ""of Bot. of New Holl. I, 1 (lW 

SolTya^LiLlley, Bot. Regist. XVII, t. 1460 (1831). 
Chclranthera, Cunningham in Brogn. Bot. du voy. «e 
t 77 (1829). 

Salisbury, Parad. Lond., 95 (1809). 
AMrovaiula, Monti Act. Bonon, II 3, 404 (1747). 
Drosera, Linne, Gen. pi. 89 (1737). (Sondera.) 
r.vKHs, Salisbury, Paradis. Lond. t. 95 (1808). 


Cambcsscdcs in M 

em. du Mus. XVIII, S 

125 (1829). 

Elatino, Linne, Gen. pi. 1 
Bergia, Linne, Mant. II, 

18 (1737). 
152 (1771). 


Jaume St. Hilaire, 

Expos, fara. II, 23, t. 


Hypericum, Tournefort, Inst. 254, t. 131 (1700) 



A. L. de Jussieu in Ann. du Mus. XIV, 386 (1809). 
Salomons, Loureiro, Fl. Cochinch. I, 14 (1790).. 
Polygala, Tournefort, Inst. 174, t. 79 (1700) from Dioscondea 



mi, Ro> 

;burgh, PL 

Them a 





in Flind. v( 
Lehm. pi. 1 

Ventenat, Tabl. Ill, 159 (1799). 
Hedraianthera, F. v. Mueller, Fragm. V, 58 (1865). 

Mi Mai tiss II. r.n (1771). 

Melia, Linne, Gen. pi. 127 (1737). 

-J 1825). 
1 1 >ysoxvlon. Enicharis ' Hartitjshea. ) 
Amoora, Roxburgh, pi Corom. Ill, 54, t. 258(1819). 
Synoum, A. de 3 XIX, 286, t. 1 

Owenia, F. v. Mueller in Hook. Kew misc. IX, 303 (1857). 
Aglaia, Loureiro, Fl. Cochinch. I. 173 (1790), non Allemand 

(1770). (Milnea, Nemedra). 
Heamia, F. v. Mueller, Fragm. V, 55 (1865). 
Carapa, Aublet, Hist, des pi. de la Guian. II. Suppl. 32 t. 387 

(1775). (Xylocarpus.) 
Cedrela, P. Browne, Nat. hist, of Jamaica, 158 (1756). 
Flindersia, R. Brown in Flind. voy. H. App , 595 (1814). 
(Oxleya, Strzeleckia.) 


De Candolle in Ann. du Mus. XVII, 398 (1811). 


A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 296 (1789). 
Zirria, Si.iith in Transact. Linn. Soc. IV, 216 (1798). 
Boronia, Smith, Tracts, relat. to Nat, Hist, 2 
Eii -u , .on, smith in T.-.u^-t. Linn. Soc. IV, 221 (1/98). 
(Crowea, TU Microcybe, Geleznowia, 

carpii . 
Philotheca, Budge in Transact. Linn. Soc. XL 298, t. -1 ( 
Correa, Smith in Transact. Linn. Soc. IV. 219 (1798). 

Nematolepi^ Turczaninow in Bull, de la Soc. imp. des Nat. de 

i:.s (1S.V2). (Symphyopetalum.) 
Chorilaena, Endlicher in Huegel. enum. pi. Austi 

Mu.-ll..- in 1! ,:!...,.■- I'l. A.M.-I. --V.'J 1 ';"; 

159 (- , 
XXI, 207, t. XiW- 

Acradenia, Kippist in transact. I 


Euodia, R. & G. Forster, Char. Gen, 13, t. 7 (1776). 
(Mclicujii.. Medicosma.) 

Brombya, F. y. Mueller, Fragm. V, 4 (1865). 
Pagetia, F. v. Mueller, Fragm. V, 178 (1866). 
Bouchardatia, Baillon in Andans. VII, 350 (186<_). 

, (.'atisl.y in LiunO hort. Cliffort, 48/ (IWh 
(Zanthoxylum, Blackbournia.) . 

Geijera, Schott, Rutac. 4, t. 7 (1834). (Coatesia.) 
Pleiococca, F. v. Mu I r, lu-aai IX, 117 (1S<5). 

■r, Char. gen. 

"ragm. V, 43 ( 
du. Mus. VI, 

I'.unnan. KI. Indie, t., 29 ei in.I.-x (17<is). 

Correa in Ann. da Mus. VI. ::s:; (1805> 

uie, Gen. 230 (1737) from Plinius. 

, J. Hooker in R & J. II. (ion. I, 298 (1^2). 

ruceii, J. S. Miller, Fasc. t, 25 (1780). 

yptiandra, J. Hooker in B. k J. H. Gen. I, 294 (1862). 

i-l'-Ilia, F. v. Mueller, Fragm. II. 25 (1860). 

m, Linne, svst. nat. 8 (TO5) J Linne, Gen 
le rObel, Icon. II, 84 (1581). (Tribuloj 
: and Plinius. 

Tournefort, Inst. 339, t, 176 (1700) fix 

A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 268 (1789) from B. de Jussieu (1759). 
Geranium, Tournefort, Inst. 266, t. 142 (1700) from Dioscorides 

and PUnius. 
Erodium, L'Heritier, Geraniol. t. 1-6 (1787). 
pelargonium, L'Heritier, Geraniol t 7 (1787). 
u xalis, Linne, Gen. 134 (1737) from Plinius. 


Adanson in Mem. Ac. Par. p. 224 (1761), from B. de Jussiei 

Lavatera, Tournefort in Act. Ac. Par. 80, t. 3 (1706). 
Malvastrum, Asa Gray in Mem. Am. Ac. IY, 21 (1849). 
(Malva partly.) 

Plagianthus, P. & G. Forster, Char. Gen. 85, t. 43 (1776). 
(Asterotrichon, Blepharanthemum, Lawrencia, Halottanmi^ 
Sida, Linne, Gen. 205 (17:57) from Theophrastos. 
Abutilon, Tournefort, Inst. 99, t. 25 (1700) from Cameranffi 

Urena, Dillenius, Hort. Eltham. 430, t. 319 (1732). 
Pavonia, Cavanilles, Diss. II. App. II. (1786). 

Howittia, F. v. Mueller in Trans. Vict. Inst. T, 116 (1 ^ ■'•»>• 
Hibiscus, Linne, syst. nat. 9 (1735); Linne, Gen. 207 (173/). 
(Fugosia partly, Abelmoschus, Paritium.) 

Or. Don, Gen. syst. I, 485 (1831). 
Thespesia, Solander in Ann. du Mus. IX, 290 (1807). 
Gossypium, Linne, Gen. 206 (1737) from J. Cameranus (loBty 
(Fugosia partly, Sturtia.) na>m 

Camptostemon, Masters in J. Hook, Icon. XII, t. 18 (lb'ty 
Bombax, Linne, Spec. I, 511 (1753). 

Ventenat, jard. de la Malmais. II, 91 (1804). 
Sterculia, Linne, Fl. Zeyl. 166 (1747). , 

Brachychiton. - . Melet. bot. 34 (IBS* 

. Puc-ilrHlrrniis. I >elabechea.) 
Tarrietia, Blume, Bijdr. 5, 227 (1825). 

il<Iron -) TTT Kia mm 

Heritiera, Dryander in Ait. Hort. Kew, III, 546 (178*/. 

Ungeria, Schott et Endlicher, Melet. 27-31 (1832). 

Helicteres, Plukeivt, v.hvto-r. I - 1 t. 215 (1692). 

Methoriun,. - U} ( lb32 > 

Melhania, Forskael, Fl. Aeg. Arab. 64 (177->). 

Melochia, Dillenius, Hort. Eltham. 221 (1732). 


Hermannia, Tournefort, inst. 656, t. 432 (1700). 

(Gilesia, Mubcniia partly). T ,^ .y,.-. , 1>-"'" ■ 

Dicarpidium, F. r. Mueller b Hook. Kew Misc. IX, 30, { 

Waltheria. Linne ( l.-n. 20.", ( 1 737). 

Abroma, Jacquin, Hort. Vindob. III., t. 1 (17# t>>. 

Commergonia, 1!. <-t G. Forster, Char. gen. 43 (lUO)- 

(Oommersonia, I '&■) n ... 

Hannafordia, F. v. Mucll.-r, Fragm. IL 9 (I860). 


3 up]. Anleit. II, 694 (1818). -I. Gay, Dissert 20 (1821). 
«^i«-l.<-ix.tia. .1. Cay in Mom. ,lu Mu.s. VII, 448 (1821). 
( , ; : : s i; , l , 1 , ' t ; llin ": Slllit1 ' ! '" transact. Linn. Soc. 216 (1798). 
Lysiosepalum, F. v. Mueller, Fragm. I, 143 (1859). 

A. L. de Jussieu, Gen., 289 (1789). 
•'■•nyi. Roxburgh, PI. Corom, III, 60, t. 264 (1819). 
!; r . ,,wl! , 1 - Ul111 "- ^'>t. nat. 9 (17:!.-)): Linne. Gen. 276 (1737). 
rniuat.-tta, Plumier, Nov. gen. 40, t. 8 (1703). 

' • '■ " " ' ■ \dans .mi \ I. 23s , I. VII (1866). 
torchorus, TounietVrt. lust. 2:>9, t. 135 (1700). 
^anea, Limie. H„rt. Cliff. 210(1737). 

Aristotelia, L' Heritier, Stirp. II, 21, t. 16 (1784). 

Ela?ocarpus, J. Bun 


^ A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 384 (1789) from B. de Jussieu (1759). 
Calycopeplus, Planchon, in Bull, de la Soc. Bot. VIII, 31 (1861). 
Euphorbia, Linne. Gen. 152 (1737) from Plinius. 
Monotaxis, Brognmri in I L 19(1829). 


^'•imlu.ra. lUi.luv i u Transact. Linn. Soc. X, 302, t. 22 (1811). 
; '"'■•antl.eum. Desfontaine.s in Mem. du Mus. IV. 253 (IMS). 

E£* «• *»•* By* On,. ,»,,. 25 , 1 B27>. 

1 "}')■;;,. Mi, lue i i n ^ 
igma, Bey 
g^. Desfontaine.s in Mem. du Mus. Ill, 459 (1817). 
Bertva, Planchon in Hooker's Lond. Jour, of Bot. IV, 472 (1845). 
Amperea, Adr. de Jussieu, Euphorb. 35, t. 10 (1824). 
AnUdesma. i - , 7) _ 

27?\ Lil: Linne. Gen. 2S7 (1737). 

Pet U% F l«* ^11, 356 ( 1867 >« 

«iiostigma, F. v. Mueller in Hooker's Kew Misc. IX, 17 (1857). 



Phyllanthus, Linne, Gen. 282 (1737) from J. Commelyn (1697). 

(Synostemon, Glochidion, Bradleia.) 

Breynia, R. et G. Forster, Char. gen. 145, t. 73 (1776). 

(Melanthesa, Melanthesiopsis.) 

Securinega, A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 388 (1789). 


Neoroepera, F. et J. Mueller, in De Cand. Prodr. XY, 489 (1866). 

Bischoffia, Blume, Bijdr. 1168 (1825.) 

Hemicvclia, Wight and Arnott, in Edinburgh phil, joura XIV 

297 (1833). 
Bridelia, Willdenow, Spec. IV, 978 (1805). 
Cleistanthus, J. Hooker, Icones pi. t. 779 (1847). 
Croton, Linne, Gen. 288 (1737). 

Aleurites, R. et Forster, Char. gen. Ill, t. 56 (1776). 
Claoxylon, Royen in Adr. de Jussieu, Euphorb. 43, t. 14 (lb-*)- 
Acalypha, Linne, Hort. Cliff. IX, 495 (1737). 
Adriana, Gaudichaud in Ann. des. sc. nat. V., 223 (1825). 

3olander in Swartz, Prodr. 6.98 (1788). 

Tragia, Plumier, Gen. 14, t. 12 (1703). 
Mallotus, Loureiro, Fl. Cochinch. II, 635 (1790). 
(Echinus, Rottlera.) 
Macaranga, Petit Thouars, Gen. Madag. n. 88 (1809). 

Codiaeum, Rumphius, herb. Amboin. IV, 65, t. 25 (1743). 
Baloghia, Endlicher, Prodr. fl. Norf. 84 (1838). H] 

Ornalanthus, Adr. de Jussieu, Euphorb. 50 t. 16 f. H (IB-*/- 

(Carumbium, TVartmannia.) 
Sebastiania, Sprengel, Xeue Entd. II, 118 (1821). 
(Microstachys, Elachocroton. ) 
Excaecaria, Linne, Byst. ed X., 1288 (1759). 

Ventenat, Tabl. Ill, 524 (1799). 
Celtis, Tournefort, Inst. 612, t. 383 (1700) ; from Caineranu 
(1586). (Solenostigma.) „ *J*Jk 

Ulm » s ,Tou': ^JS 1 

Trema, Loureiro, FL CJochinch. I! 

Aphananthe,PIanchon in Ann. des. sc. nat. trois. ser. -, J 
Ficus, Tournefort, Inst. 662 (1700) from Phnittft 
(Urostigma, Covellia.) p , -rrrn 133(1' 

Cudrania, Treeul in Ann. des. sc. nat. tr«'N. - ' • , ; V-,7 
Antiaris, Leschenault in Ann. du Mus. XVI, 4/fl P' 
Fatoua, Gaudichaud in Freyc. voy. Bot. 509 (lb-°/- 

hlatoht.-miihi, R. et <:. Forster, Char. gen. 105, t. 53 (1776). 

Prom's, Coinmeivnn in Jussicii gen. 403 (1789). 

Boehmcria. Jacquin, Stirp Amer. hist. 246 (1763). 

Pipturus, WYddell in Ann. des. sc. nat. quatr. ser. I, 196 (1854). 

IW.-.l/.ia, (hiudirhaud in Fivyc. voy. Bot. 503 (1826). 

(M.inorialis, Hyrtanandva.) 

Palilalia, Tournefort, Inst. 509, t. 289 (1700); from C. Bauliin 

(1623). (Freirea.) 
Au-iialma. < landiehaud in Freyc. voy. Bot, 505 (1S26). 
Fl-una. Caudh-haud in Fivve.'vov. Pot. 497 (1826). 
Urtica, Tournefort, Inst. 234, t. 308 (1700); from Plinius. 
Laportea. Gandichaud in Freyc. voy. Bot., 498 (1826). 

Richard, Anal, des fr. 32 et 92 (1808). 
Fagus, Tournefort, Inst. 584, t. 351 (1700) 1 

Balanops, Baillon, hist. des. pi. VI, 237 and 

Mirbel, in Ann. du Mus. XVI, 451 (1810). 
Marina, Rumphius, herb. Amboin. Ill, 87, t, 58 (1743). 

Kit-hard in Humb, Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. gen. I 46 (1815). 
Piper, Linne, Gen. 333 (1737) from C. Bauliin (1623). 
Peperomia, Ruiz et Pavon, Fl. Peruv. et Chil. Prodr. 8 (1794). 


Richard in Humb., Bonpl. et Kunth, Nov. gen. I, 246 (1815). 

<; ""usin,leterminatum. 

Reichenbach, Conspectus 45 (1828). 
Nepenthes, Linne, syst. nat. 9 (1735) ; Linne, Gen. 373 (1737). 

A. L. de Jussieu, Ann. du Mus. V. 221 (1804) 
Aristolochia, Tournefort, Inst. 162, t. 71 (1700) from Hippocrates 
Theophrastos and Dioscorides. 

Richard in Mem. du Mus. YIII, 404 et 429 (1822). 
Balanophora, R. et G. Forster, Char. gen. 99, t. 50 (1776). 


J. de St. Hilaire, Expos fam. II, 48, t. 79 (1805). 
Vitis, Tournefort, Inst. 613, t. 384 (1700) e Latinis. 
Leea, Linne, Mant. 17 (1767). 


A. L. de. Jussieu, gen. 246 (1789). 

Cardiospermum, Linne, syst. nat. 8 (1735) ; Linne, gen. 17 (1737). 

Blum..-, Mus. Hot. Lugcl. I, 230 (1850). 
Atalaya, Blume, Rumphia III, 186 (1847). 
(Pseudatalaya Sapindus partly.) 
Diploglottis, J. Hooker in B. et H. Gen. 395 (1862). 
Erioglossum, Blume, Bijdr. 229 (1825). 
(Pancovia partly.) 

Castanospora, F. v. Mueller, Fragm. IX, 92 (1875). 
Alloj.liylas, Linne, Amoen acad. 398 (1747). 

Cupania, Plumier, Gen. 45, t. 19 (1703). Vnnhoria 

(Guioa, Ratonia, Aryteria, Elatostachys, Mischocarpus, uup 

Nephelium, Linne, Mant. 18 (1767), 
(Euphoria partly, Alectryon, Spanoj 
Heterodendron, Desfontaines in Mer 
Harpullia, Roxburgh, Fl. Ind. ed. WalL 1 1 
Akania, J. Hooker in B. et H. Gen. 409 (1862) 
Diplopeltis, Endlirl, r m Hueg. -num. 13 (1837). 
Dodonaea, Linne, Gen. 341 (1737). 
DiXhoXmoX F. v. Mueller in Hook. Kew Misc. 
Blepharocarya, F. v. Mueller, Fragm. XI, 15 (1878). 
Ventenat, Tabl. Ill, 131 ( l799 > 
Ryossopterys, Blume in Delessert. Ic. Ill, 2 I 
Tristellateia, Petit-Thouars in Roemer. Coll. 205 (1809). 

Ic. Ill, 21 (183 


346 (1824). 

208 (1819). 

Kunth, in Annal. dos scicnc. 
Garuga, Roxburgh, PL Corom. Ill, 5, - 
Canarium, Rumphius, herb. Amboin II, 145 I 

E, Brown in Mind. voy. II, A pp. 554 (1814). 
Euonymus, Tournefort, instit. 717, t. 388 (1700) from Theo- 

phrastos an.l Plinius. (Evonymus.) 
Celastrus, Linne, Gen. 59 (1737). " 
Gyinnospoiia, Witdit and Amott, Prodr. 159 (1834). 
Leucocarpum, A. Richard, S,rt. Astral. 46 (1834). 

(Denhamia, Leucocarpon.) 

dron, J. F. Jaapiiii in Xov. Act. Helv. 1, 3b (1/ 
Caiyospcrmvnn, Blume, Mus. Lot, Lugd. I, 175 (1850). 
Siphonodon, Griffith, in Calcutta, Journ. IV, 150 (1843). 
Hippocrates, Linne, Gen. 363 (1737). 
Salacia, Linne, Mant. II, 159 (1771). 

R. Brown in Flind. voy. II, App. 555 (1814} 
tfkhousia, Smith in Transact, Linn. Soc. IV, 218 (1798). 
^."-■■«:.lV x . ".AiVi'.-lV."!-." Ki-acrm. VIII, 160 (1874). 

A. L. de. Jussieu, Gen. 22 (178 

Plumbago, Tournefort, Inst., 140, t. 58 (1700). 
Statice, Linne, Gen. 88 (1737). 

R. Brown, Prodr. 426 (1810). 


A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 312 (1789). 
Portulaca, Tournefort, Inst. 236, t. 118 (1700) from l'Obel (1581). 
Claytonia, Gronovius in Linne, Gen. 339 (1737). (Oalandrinasi 

Montia, Mieheli, Nov. pi. gen. 17, t. 13 (1729). 
Scopoli, Intr. 329 (1777), from B. de Jussieu (1759). 
Stellaria, Linne, Sp. plant. 421 (1753). 
Sagina, Linne, syst. mat. S (173.1) ; Linne, Gen. 118 (1737). 
Colobanthus, Bartling, Reliq. Haenk. II, 13, t, 49 (1830). 
Saponaria, Linne, Gen. 130 (1737) from Camerarius (1587). 

Spergularia, Persoon, synops. pi. I, 504 (1805). 
(Lepigonum, Arenaria partly.) 

Drymaria, Willdenow in Poem, et Schult. Syst. Y, 406 (1819). 
Polycarpon, Loeffling in Linne. Syst. ed. X, 881 (1759). 
Polycarpaea, Lamarck in Journ. d hist. nat. II, 8, t. 25 (1792). 

Scleranthus, Linne, Gen. 130 (1737). 
(Mniarum.) * 

Linne, Class, pi. 507 (1738). 
Bhagodia, P. Brown, Prodr. 408 (1810). 
Chenopodium, Tournefort, Inst. 506, t. 288 (1700). 
(Blitum, Ambrina.) 

P. Brown, Prodr. 411 (1810). 
Atriplex, Tournefort, Inst. 506, t. 286 (1700) from l'Obel (lS»lf 
(Obione, Theleophyton.) 
Enchylsena, P. Brown, Prodr. 408 (1810). 
Kochia, Roth in Schrad. Journ. Bot. I, 303 (1799). 
(Maireana, Sclerochlamys.) 

Didymanthus, Endlicher, Nov. stirp. dec. 7 (1839). 
Bassia, Allioni. Mis,-. Taunn. I I i. 177, t. 4, f. 2 (1766). 
(Chenolea, Sclerolama, Anisacantha, Echinopsilon, Kentropstf, 
Dissocarpus, Eriochiton, Osteocarpum). , , 

Babbagia, F. v. Mueller, Report on Plants of Babbage's Exped. -* 

P. Brown, Prodr. 409 (1810). 
Salicornia, Tournefort, Corol. 51, t. 485 (1703). 
(Halocnemon, Arthrocn. m , hycornia.) 

Suaeda, Forskael, Fl. JEgy V t. Arab. 69 (1775). 
(Chenopodium partly, Sehoberia, Chenopodina.) 
Salsola, Linne, Gen. 67 (1737) from Cesalpini. 

rantus, Dodoens, stirp. h 
tus, R, Brown, Prodr. ! 1 
liiniuin, (Jt>niotrK'h>>. I fci 

Fl. .Egypt. 
, 69 (1737). 

R. Brown, Narr. Exp. Cong. App. 454 (1818) 
Monococcus, F. v. Mueller, Fragm. I, 47 (1858). 
Didymotheca, J. Hooker in Lond. Journ. of Bot. VI, 278 (1847). 

>i:>. Moimhi-Tandon in De Cand. Prodr. XIIT, part. 


locarpus, F. v. MiulLr, Fragm. VIII, 36 (1873). 


L. de Jussieu, Gen. 315 (1789). 
mi, Breyn, Prodr. alt. 67 (1689). 
, syst. nat. 9 (1735) ; Linne, Gen 

E\t,l :•-.'- 


Jamatotheca, F. von MueUer, Frag. X, 72 (1876). 

- - - 


A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 82 (1789) from B. de Jussieu (1759), 
Emex, Necker, Eleui. Bofc. II, 214 (1790). (Perhaps im 

Rumex, Linne, Gen. 105 (1737) from Plinius. 
Polygonum, FObel, stirp. liist. 228 (1576) from Dioscorides i 

Muehlenbeckia, Meisner, Gen. pi. vase. 316 (1840). 

A. L. Jussieu, Gen. 90 (1789). 

. Mueller in Woolls's pi. of the neighb. of Sydney, 

I Brown in Tuckey's Narr. exp. Cong. App. 431 ( 

Haller, Enum. stirp. Helv. II, 565 (1742). 
Jansonia, Kippist in Gard. Chron. 19 (1847). 
(Cryptosema.) a/isi1\ 

Brachysema, R. Brown in Ait. on hort. Kew, ed. sec. Ill, 10 ( 18U ^ 
(Leptosema, Kaleniczenkia, Burgesia.) 
Oxylobium, Andrews, Bot. Rep. t. 492 (1809). 
(Chorizematis subgenus, Callistachys, Podolobium.) . 

Chorizema, Labillardiere, Voy. I, 405 (1798). (Orthotropis.; ^ 
Gastrolobium, R. Brown in Ait. Hort. Kew, ed. sec. i i 

< 1811 )- -a 98(1837). 

Isotropis, Bentham in Huegel enum. pi. Austr. oedd., v ; . 
Mirbelia, Smith in Koenig and Sims, Ann. of bot. 1, DIM 
(Dichosema, Oxycladiuni.) /1798). 

Gompholobimii, Sn.iili in Trim : ..-i. Linn. S.i.-. I \ • - 

Burtonia, R. Brov, in A >. K,-w ,d. s.-, "V^/lSlA 

Jacksonia, R Brown in Ait. hort. Kew ed. sec. Ill, 1M 
(Piptomeris.) - t t 509 

Sphaerolobium, Smith in Koenig and Sims, Ann. ot do ■ 

(1805). (Roea.) 

Viminaria, Smith in Koenig and Sims, Ann. of Bot I, 507 

Daviesia, Smith in Transact. Linn. Soc. IV. 222 - , 
Aotus, Smith in Koenig and Sims. Ann. of Bot. 1, 50-1 (1>U>). 
Phyllota, De Candolle, Prodr. II, 113 (1825). 

Pultenaea, Smith, Specim. of Bot. of Now IIoll. 35 (1793). 
(Euchilus, Spadostvles, Bartlingia.) 
Latrobea, Meissner in Lehm. pi. Preiss. II, 219 (1847). 

Eutaxia, R, Brown in Ait. hort. Kew ed. sec. Ill, 16 (1811). 

Dillwynia, Smith in Koenig and Sims, Ann. of Bot. I, 510 (1805). 
Platylobium, Smith in Tranact. Linn. Soc. II, 350 (1791). (Cheilo- 

Bonam, Ventenat, Hort. Cels. I, 7, t. 7 (1800). 

(Lalage, Seottia.) 

Templetonia, R. Brown in Ait. hort. Kew ed. sec. IV, 269 

Hovea, R. Brown in Ait. hort. Kew ed. sec. IV, 275 (1812) 
(Poiretia, Plagiolobium, Platvchilum.) 
Kematophvllum, F. v. Mueller in Hooker's Kew Misc. IX, 20 

Goodia, Salisbury, Parad. Lond. t. 41 (1806). 
Crotalaria, Hermann, Hort. Acad. Lugd. Bat. 196-202, t. 197-203 

(1687). (Pentadynamis.) 
Rothia, Schreber, Gen. pi. 53 (1791). (Westonia.) 
Trigonella, Linne, Gen. 351 (1737). 
Lotus, Toumefort, Inst. 402, t. 227 (1700), from Gasp. Bauhin 

Psoralea, Royen, plant, hort. Lugd. 372 (1740). 
Indigofera, Lin,,.' 11,,-.. ( litF. (-7 (1737). 
Ptychosema, Bentham in LincU. Bot. Regist. XXV, (1839). 
Lamprolobium, Bentham, FI. Austr. II, 202 (1864). 
Tephrosia, Persoon, Synops. pi. II, 328 (1807). 
U waria. Kuttall, <W. N. Amer. pi. II, 115 (1818). 

Sesbania, Scopoli, Introd. 308 (1777). 

CarmichaeUa, R. Brown in Bot. Regist, t. 912 (1825). 
Clianthus, Banks and Solander in G. Don, Dichlam, pi. 468 

(1832) ; indicative. (Donia.) 
Streblorrhiza, Endlicher, Prodr. fl. Norfolk, 92 (1833). 
Swainsonia, Salislmrv. Parad. L<„,1. t. 28 (1806). 
(^.vclogyne, Diplolobium.) 
( -'v yrrhiza, Tournefort. Inst. 389. t. 210(1700) from Dioscondes 

and Plinius. (Clidanthera.) 

Ormocarpum, Palisot, Fl. d'Owar. I, 95 t. 58 (1805). 

Aeschymomene, Linne, Gen. 350 (1837). 

Smithia, Aiton, Hort. Kew III, 4G9 (1789). 

Zornia, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. 1076 (1791). 

Desinodium, Desvaux, i ' i Ml. [-'2 (1S13) (Dicerma). 

Pycnospora, R Brown in Wight & Arnott, Prodr. I (197) 
(1834). K ' 

Uraria, Desvaux, Journ. Bot. Ill, 122 (1813). 

Lourea, Necker, Elem. Bot. Ill, 17 (1790). 

Alysicarpus, Necker, Elem. Bot. Ill, 15 (1790). 

Lespedeza, CI. Richard in Micheaux, Fl. Bor. Am. II. 70 (1803). 

Chtoria, Linne, Gen. 21 G (1737) from Petiver. 

Glycine, Linne, Gen. 349 (1737). (Leptolobium, Leptocyamus.) 

Kennedya, Yentenat, jardin d. M ih. lis. II. \ 101-106(1804). 
(Caulinia, Moench, 1802, Hardenbergia, Physolobiuni, Zichya, 

Erythrina, Linne, Gen. 21 G (1737). 

Strongylodon, Yogel in Linnaea X, 585 (183G), 

Mueuna, Maiv.- . 18 (1648). 

Galactia, P. Browne, Civ. and Nat. hist, of Jamaica, 298 (1756). 
Canavalia, De Candolle, Prodr. II, 403 (1825). (Canavali.) 
Phaseolus, Tournefort, Inst, 412, t. 232 (1700) from Dioscorides 

and Columella. 
Yigna, Savi, Dissert. 6 (1824). 

Doliehos, Linn*'', Gen. 222 (1737). 

Dunbaria, Wight & Arnott, Prodr. I, 258 (1834). 

Cajanus, De Candolle, Catal. hort. Monsp. 85 (1813). (Cajan, 

Rhynchosia, Loureiro, Fl. Cochinch. II. 460 (1790). 
Eriosema, De Candolle, Prodr. II, 388 (1825). 
Flemingia, Roxburgh, PL Corom. Ill, 44 (1819). 
Abrus, Vesling de plant. Aegypt, 25 (1638). 
Dalbergia, Linne f. Suppl. 52 (1781). _ rT „« 

Lonchocarpus, Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Gen. VI, #w 
(1823). . 

Derris, Loureiro, Fl. Cochinch. II, 432 (1790). (Brachypterura./ 
Pongamia, L 13 (1793). 

Sophora, Linne, Gen. 125 (1737). 

Calpurnia, E. Meyer, Comm. pi. Afr. I, 2 (1835). ^ 

Castanospermum. Cunningham in Hooker's Bot. Misc. 1, *** 1 - 

Barklya, F. v. Mueller, Fragm. I, 109 (1859). ,. 

CWlpina, Plumier, Nov. Gen. 28, t. 9 (1703). (Guilandma, 

Cesalpinia.) - ,, o1Q \ 

Mezoneuron, Desfontaines in Mem. du Mus. IV, 245 (181ty 
Pterolobium, R. Brown in Snlt. Abvs-sin. 65 (1814). 
Peltophorum, Vogel in Linnaea XI, 406 (1837). 

Cassia, Tournefort, Inst. 619, t. 392 (1700) from Plunder (1C93. 

IV; ,1.-1 vl is, E. Brown in Sturt's exi>. A r p. 7'.' 

A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 334 (1789) from B. de Jussieu (1759). 

^"".Ckim, \u\ nr.dnlC'MVlrduilui! V. J 37 (1819) (Macros 

Geum, Iinne, Gen. 148 (1737) from Plir 

P«.t.'iitilla. Linne. Gen. 14 7 ( 1737) from 
iiul.u.. Tuun.lM.r, [n-.t. III.") t. 3n> ( 1 JC 

Ak-hf-uiillu", l.iii.. (,.-, 30 M 737) from C. Bauhin (1G23). 

Araena, Mutis in Linn. Mant. II, 200 (1771). (Ancistrum.) 

Yentenat, Tabl. Ill, 277 (1799). 
gophvllum, E i-G Forster Char. gen. 29, t, 15 (1776). 
•ropkyUmn, J. Hooker in R and H. gen. I, 647 (1865). 

mm. VI. 188 (1868). 
Imeiroa, F. v. Muet! r. Fm-m VII, 149(1871.) 
ividsonia, F. v. Mueller, Fragm. VI, 4 (1867). 
'mtmia, A. de Candolle, Mon. Campan. 92 (1830). 
•Ivosma, Blume, Bijdr. 13, 658 (1825). 


Anopterus, Labillardiere, Nov. Holl. pi. specim. I, 86 (1804). 
Callicoma, Andrews, Bot. reposit. t. 566 (1809). (Calycomis 

Anodopetalum Cunningham in Endl. gen. 818 (1839). 
Aphanopetalum, Endlicher, Nov. Stirp. dec. I, 34 (1839). 

Ceratopetalum, Smith, specim. of Bot. of New. Holl. I, 9 (1793). 
Schizomeria, D. Don in Endinb. phil. journ. IX, 94 (1830). 
Acrophyllum, Benthamin Maund & Henslow's Bot. II, 95 (1840). 

(Calycomis partly. ) 
Geissois, Labillardiere, Sertum Austro-Caled., 50 (1825). 
Wcinmaunia, Linne, Syst. ed. X, 1005 (1759). (Ackama.) 
GiUbeea, F. v. Mueller, Fragm. V, 17 (1865). 
Tetracarpaea, Hooker, Icon. t. 264 (1840). 
Eucryphia, Cavanilles, Icon. IV, 48 t. 372 (1797). (Carpodontoa) 
Bauera, Banks and Kennedy in Andrews Bot. reposit. t. 19b 

Eremosyne, Endlicher in Huegel, enum. pi. austr. occ. 53 (1837). 
Cephalotus, Labillardiere, Nov. Holl. pi. specim. II, 7 (1806). 

De Candolle, Bull, de la Soc. philom. n. 49, p. 1 (1801). 
Tillaea, Micheli, Nov. gen. 22, t. 20 (1729). (Bulliarda.) 

B. Brown in Abel's narr. Journ. Cliin. 374 (1818) 
Genus indeterminatum. 

Adanson, Fam. pi. II, 81 (1763), from B. de Jussieu (1759). 
Oenothera, Linne syst. nat. 8 (1735); Linn6 Gja .* £* ("^ 
Epilobium, Dillenius in Linne syst. nat. 8 (1735), from w*u 

Jussieua, Linne, Gen. 126 (1737). (Jussiaea). 
Ludwigia, Linne, Coroll. 3 (1737). 

Salicarieae. _ 

Adanson, Fam. pi. II, 232 (1763) from B. de Jussieu (1TO 
Rotala, Linne, Mant. II, 1^1771) 


! ;r i LiiSaen. 332 (1789). 
TV„ lt J,i- l; .; K,„. f ,r el...,,-, wn. 07, t. 34 (1776). 

iruwn m Flind. voy. II, 549 (1814). 

ey, Bot. Reg. XXV, App. XLII. (1839). 

R. Brown in Flind. voy. II. 549 (1814). 
Rlrizopliora, Linn*, gen. 137 (1737). 

Ceriops, Arnott in Jardine's Ann. of nat. hist, I, 363 (1838). 
Bruguiera, Lamarck, Diet. IV, 696 t, 397 (1796). 
Carallia, Roxburgh in Flind. voy. II, 549 (1814). 


R. Brown, Prodr. I, 351 (1810). 
Terminalia, Linne, Mant. 21 (1767). (Chuncoa.) 
Lunmitz-ra, Wi] -. nat. Freund. Berl. IV, 186 

MacropteranifceB, F. v. Mueller, Fragni. Ill, 91 (1862)., Jacquin, Stirp. Amer. hist., 282 (1763). 

Adanson, Fam. pL II. 
o, Schauer in 

. Radge in transact. Linr 
is, Homoranthus, Chaeni! 
Francisia, Decalophium, Schi 
Verticordia, De Candolle in Diet, class, riu, a 

Pileanthus, Labillardiere, Nov. Holl. pi. spec: 
Calycothrix, Labillardiere, Nov. Holl. pL s 

(1806). (Calvtrix. Calvthrix.) 
Lhotzkya, Schauer in Linnaea X, 309 (1835). 
Thrvtomene, Endlicher, Ann. des Wien. Mus. II, 192 (1838). _ 
(Micromyrtus, Homalocalyx, Paryphantha, Astraea, Eremopyxis.) 


Wehlia, F. v. Mueller. Fragm. X, 22 (1876). 
Baeckea, Linne, sp. pi. I, 358 (1753). 

(Jungia, Imbricaria, Scholtzia, Schidiomyrtus, Einzia, Euryo- 
myrtus, Caniphoromyrtus, Tetrapora, Harmogia, Oxymyr- 
rhine, Bala; -. Piptandra, Anticoryne.) 

Astartea, De Candolle in Diction, class. XI, 400 (1826). 
Hypocalymma, Endlicher, in Huegel, enuni. pi. austr. orr. 51 (1837). 
Punicella, Turczaninow in Bull, de l'Acad. Petersb, X, 411 (1852), 
(Balaustion, Cheynia.) 

Agonis, De Candolle, Prod. Ill, 226 (1828). 
Leptospermum, R. et G. Forster, Char. gen. 71 t. 36 (1776). 

1 Lomalospernium, Pericalymma.) 
Kunzea, Reichenbach, Consp. 174 (1828). 
(Salisia, Pentagonaster.) 

Callistemon, R. BroAvn in Flind. voy. II, 547 (1814). 
Melaleuca, Linne, Mant. 14 (1767). 
(Gymnagathis, Asteromyrtus.) 

Conothamnus, Lindlry. Bot. Legist. XXV, app. p. IX (1839) 
Beaufortia, 11. 1 W ,' i . Ai . I,.m. Kow, sec. ed. IV, 418(1812). 

Regelia, Schauer in Linnaea XVII, 243 (1843). 
Phymatocarpus, F. v. Mueller, Fragm. Ill, 121 (1862). 
Calothamnus, Labillardiere, Nov. Holl. pi. specim. II, 25 (1W). 

Lamarcbea, Gaudi.-huud in Firve. inet. voy. bot. 483 (18lb> 
Eremaea, Lindley, Bot. Reg. XXV, app. XI (1839). 
Angophora, Cavanilles, Icon. IV, 21, t. 331 (1797). 
. L'ifmtW, Sertuin anglicum 18 (1788). 
(Symphyomyrtus, Eudesmia.) 117/1812). 

Tristania, R. Brown in Ait. hort. Kew. sec. ed. IV, 41/ (1WV 
(Lophostemon, Tristaniopsis. ) nTftfrt 

Metrosideros, Banks in Gaertner, de Fruct, I, U0 1"°°^^ 
(Syncarpia, Lysicarpus, Xanthostemon, Nania, Kamptzia, 

Backhousia, Hooker and Harvey in Bot. Mag. t. 4133 (184 > 
Oslx>rnia, F. v. Mueller, Fragm. Ill, 31 (1862). 
Myrtus, Tourm-forf. Inst. 640, t. 409 (1700) from Hum* 
lihodonn.tu. dMVndoll, Prodr. II T, 240 (1828 ) ^ 

Jil.odn.nm-.,, Ja-k in Hooker, comp. to the Bot. Mag. 1, 

F-nxlia, 'Endlicher, Atacta bot. 19, t. 17 et 18 (1 833)- 
mi, R. et G. Forster, Char. gen. 73 (1"°/- 

f: ._•' ': 1. Mieln.di, Nov. pi. -en. 226, t. 108(1729). 
(Plinia, Plunm.,-, 17-:', A.nun,, Jambosa, Syzy^J 
Acicalyptua, A. Gray, New gen. Un. St. expect, y ^ 

ingtoma, R. et G. Forster, Char. gen. 77., t. 58 (1770), 


PS Roxburgh, PL Corom. Ill, 13, t. 217 (1816). 

eratia, Linne fil. Suppl. 38 (1781). 

A. L. de Jussieu, gen. 328 (1789). 

Osbeckia, Linne, Spec. pi. 345 (1753). 
Otanthera, Blume in Flora, Regensburg, II, 488 (1831). 
Melastoma, Burnian, Fl. Zeyl. 72 (1737). 
Memecylon, Linne, Fl. Zeyl. app. 9 (1747). 

A. L. de Jussieu, gen. 376 (1789) B. de Jussieu (1759). 
Ventilago, Gaertner de Fruct, I, 223, t. 49 (1788). 
Zizyphus, Tournefoit, Inst. 627. r. 403 (1700) from Plinius. 
Dallachya, F.v. Mueller, Fragm. IX, 140 (1875). 
(Rhamnus partly.) 
Berchemia, Necker, Elem. bot. n, 122 (1790). 

!.. C. Richard in Ann. des sc. nat. X, (1827). 
Alphitonia, Reissek in Eudlicher, gen. 1098 (1840). 
Lmmenosperimu,,. F.v. Mueller. Fragm. HI., 63 (1862). 
Pomaderris, Labillanliere, Xov.Holl. pi. specim. I, 61, t. 86 (1804). 
Cryptandra, Smith in Trans. Linn. Soc. IV, 217 (1798). 
(lrymahum, Spyridium, Stenantheinuin. Wiohurea, Stenodiscus). 
tulletia, Commercon in A. L. de Jussieu, gen. 380 (1789). 
>"— a, Tetrapasma). 

, Jacquin, Stirp. Amer. hist. 263, t, 179 (1763). 

(Umbelliferarum subordo.) 
Ventenat, Tabl. Ill (1799). 
Astrotricha, de Candolle, Coll. Mem. V, 29, t. 5 et 6 (1829). 

nm, F. v. Mueller, Fragm. VII, 94 (1870). 
&^) SyStem - nat8(1735) - 

ia. F. v. Mueller, Fragm. VII, 107 (1871). 
Ussodendron, Seemann, Journ. bot. II, 303 (1864). 
^edera P ar %, Irvingia, Kissodendron.) 

ptapleurum, Gaertner, de Fruct II, 472, t. 178 (1791). 

(Discaria, [ 



G. Forster, Char. < 


*kya, F. v. MueUer, Fragm. IV, 120 (1864). 

Morison, Hist. pi. II, lib. 3, sect. 1 (1680). 
Hydrocotyle, Tournefort, Inst. 328, t. 173 (1700). 
Di\h>uOl.- Can L.llo in Bot. Mag., t. 2857(1828). 
(Huegelia, Dimetopia, Pritzelia, Cesatia, Hemicarpus). 
Trachymene, Rudge in Transact. Linn. Soc. X, 300 (1811). 
(Siebera, Fischera, Platysace, Platycarpidium.) 
Xanthosia, Rudge in Transact. Linn. Soc. X, 361 (1811). 
(Leucolaena, Schoenolaena, Pentapeltis). 
Azorella, Lama.vk. hi,-, .-t.--^ --1. 11.344(1783). 
(Fragosa, Pozoa, Microsciadium, Schizeilema, Oschatzia, Centella 

partly, Dichopetalum.) 
Huanaca, Cavanilles, Icon. VI. 18, t. 528 (1801). 
(Diplaspis, Pozoopsis.) 

Actinotus, Labiil-irdirro, Nov. Holl. pi. spec. I, 67, t. 92(1804). 
(Hemii>lmps, Eric, dia, Molotome.) 
Eryngium, Tourn, & rt, Enst. 327, t. 173 (1700) from Tkeophrastos 

Apiuin'.' T,,!n'.-f! '»'•/, h, -,t. 305, t. 160 (1700) from Dodoens (1583). 
Sium, Tournefort, instil-. 30*, t. 162 (1700) from C. Baumn(16-ty 
S.-seli. llivinnsiiL K.n.pius, Fl. Jenens, 2(57 (1718). 
Crantzia, Nuttall, g«>n. Amor. I, 177 (1818). 
(nonScopoli 1777), Crantziola, F. v. M. 
Oenanthe, Tournefort, Inst. 312, t. 166 (1700). 
Aciphvlla, R. et G Forster, Char, gen. 135, t. 68(1/76). 
KSln^ 307, t. 161 (1700) from FEcluse (1576). 

her, gen. 787 (1839). 
(Gal.lasia partly). 

De Candolle, Tbeor. elem. I, 217 (1813). 
Byronia, EmllicW, Ann ,1ns Wien. Mas. \MQ®*> 
Ilex, Linne, gen. pi. .'53 (1737) from C. Bauhm (16^)- 

Mirbel in Bull. soc. philom. 377 (1813). 
Nimenia, IN 
Olax, Linne 

Cansjera, A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 448 (1789). 
Opilia, Roxburgh, pi. Corom. II, 31, t. 158 (1799). 

Phlebocalymma, Griffith in B. & J. H. Gen. I, 353 (18G2). 


t G. Forster, Char. gen. 133, t. G7 (1776). 
Apodytes, E. Meyer in Hook, journ. of bot. Ill, 387 (1841), 
Villaresia, Ruiz et Pavon, Prodr. 35 (1794). 
Gomphandra, Wallich, Catal. n. 3718 and 7204 (1832). 


R. Brown, Prodr. I, 350 (1810). 

Elaeagnus, Tournefort, Coroll. 53, t. 489 (1703) from Camera 

R. Brown, Prodr. I, 350 (1810). 
Thesium, Linne, Gen. pi. 60 (1737). 

Rantalmn, Linne, Con. cd. 11, 165 (1742) from C. Bauhin (1623). 
(Fusanus, Eucarva). 

CSwwfcrum, R. Brown, Prodr. 354 (1810). 
Leptomeria, R. Brown, Prodr. 353 (1810). 
• J.; (1838). 
7 (1810). 
Exocarpos, LabillardiOiv. R.4at. du vov. a la rech. de la Perouse 
(1798). (Exocarpus.) 


A. L. de Jussieu, Ann. du Mus. XII, 292 (1808). 
Viscum, Tournefort, Inst. 609, t. 380 (1700) from Camerarius 

(1586). V ' 

Notothixos, Oliver in Journ. Linn. Soc. YII, 104 (1865). 

23 (1740). 
Atkmsonia, F. v. Mueller, Fra-m. V, 34 (1865). 
^uytsia, R. Brown in Journ. of the Geogr. Soc. I, 17 (1831). 

A. L. de Jussieu, Gen 78 (1789). 
Petrophila, R. Brown in Transact. Linn. Soc. X, 67 (1809). 
isopogon, R. Brown in Transact. Linn. Soc. X, 70 (1809). 
Adenanthos, Labil tI i .. . N. - . \\. ... ,.;. M ,c I. 28. t. 36 (1804). 
Shlo?" Br ° Wn ^ Transact Linn - Soa X ' 152 < 1809 ^ 
%naphea, R. Brown in Transact, Linn. Soc. X, 155 (1809). 
^onospernmm, 3, u. Soc. IV, 213 (1798). 

^randandia, R. ];„,,,, m Transact. Linn. Soc. X, 157 (1809). 
aymphyonema, R. Brown in Transact. Linn. Soc. X, 157 (1809). 


Bellendena, R. Brown in Transact. Linn. Soc. X, 166 (1809). 
Agastachys, R Brown in Transact. Linn. Soc. X, 158 (1809). 
Cenarrhenes, Labillardiere, Nov. Holl. pi. spec. I, 36 t. 50 (1804). 
PerBOOnm, Smith in Transact. Linn. Soc. IY, 215 (1798). 

(Linkia, 1797.) 
Macadaraia, F. v. Mueller in Transact, pliil. Inst. Yict. II, 72 

(1857). (Panopsis partly ; Andriapetalum partly.) 
Helicia, Loureiro, Fl. Cochinch. I, 83(1790). 
Roupala, Aublet, Hist, des pi. de la Guian. I, 83, t. 32. (1775) 

(Bhopala, Bleasdalea, Adenostephanus partly.) 
Xylomelum, Smith in Transact, Linn. Soc. IV, 214 (1798). 
Lambertia, Smith in Transact. Linn. Soc. IV, 214 (1798). 
Orites, R Brown in Transact. Linn. Soc. X, 189 (1809). 

Strangea, Meissner in Hook. Kew. Misc. VII, 66 (1855). 

Grevillea, R, Brown in Transact. Linn. Soc. X. 168 (1809). 

(Anadenia, Lysanthe, Stylurus, Manglesia.) 
Hakea, Schrader, Sert. Hannov. I, fasc. 3, 27, t. 17 (1797). 

Carnarvonia, F. v. Mueller, Fragm. VI, 81 (1867). 
Buckinghamia F. v. Mueller, Fragm. VI, 248 (1868). 
Darlingia, F v. Mueller, Fragm. V, 152 (1866). 
Cardwellia, F. v. Mueller, Fragm. V, 24, :}*, 73. 
Stenocarpus, B. Brown in Transact. Linn. Soc. X, 201 (lbUty 

(Cybele, Agnostus.) 
Lomatia, R. Brown in Transact. Linn. Soc. X, 199 (1809)- 

Embothrium, R. et G. Forster, Char. gen. 15, t. 8 (1776). 
Telopea, R Brow, i, Tr:ui- n-t. Linn. Soc. X, 197 (1809). 
Banksia, Linne til. suppl. 15 et 126 (1781). 
Dryandra, R. Brown in Transact. Linn. Soc. X, 211 (^ u » 

(Josephia, Hemiclidia.) 

A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 76 (1789). ^ 

Pimelea, Banks & Solander in Gaert. de Fruct. I, l8G J^J. 
(Thecanthes, Gymnococca, Heterolaena, Galyptru B 
Macrostegia Banksia Forst. 1776.) i(Wl79 2 ) 

Drapetes, Lamarck, Journ. d'hist. nat. I, 119, * 1U v 

(Kelleria, Daphnobryon.) rns^) (Dl** 

Wickstroemia, Endlicher, Prodr. fl. Norfolk. 47 {!&*•) K 

partly.) t 156 (l s3 ^ 

Phaleria, Jack in Hook. Comp. to Bot. Mag. J, 

l am. Ill, 430 (1818). 
220 (1790). (Marlea 



•r, Gen. 42, t. 36 





IVnflla, \\. v 
<>l>hiorrliiza. ] 


-. Mur 



'" ,; 

)• (1 


Diplospora, D 


Coffea, Linne, 

TimonS (1 Ru 


Lmn. Ho'rt. Cliff 
olle, Prodr.IV, 4/ 
. nat. 8 (1735) 
ra, Hylcoryne.) 
nat 8 (1735); ] 

3, herb. Amboin. 


485(1 737)! ' U1; " 
7(1830). (Discosp 

Linne, Gen. 55 (173 
III, 216, t, HO 
III, 91, t. 196 
991 (1753). (Anl 






in Linn, spec pi, 



Coprosma, It. - ,1776). (Nertei 

Gpercularia, Gaertner, de Fruct. I, 111, t. 24 (1788). 
£omax, SoL r .-• . r . I. 112 (1788). 

Weuthrantli, ■>. F. v. Mueller, fcagm. IV, 92 (1864). 
J^oxia, Linne, Fl. Zeyl. 189 (1747). 
opermococe. 1 ■ . t. 277 (1732). 

^sperula, Rnppius, Fl. Jenens. 5 (1718) from Dodoens (1583). 
^Imm, Dodoens pemptad. 335 (1583) from Dioscorides. 

Adanson, Fam. II, 133 (1763). 
Sambucus, Tournefort, Inst. 606, t. 396 (1700), from Dodoens 
(1583). (Tripetelus.) 


A. L. de Jussieu in Ann. du Mus. VI, 102 (1805). 

Passillora, Plukenet pliytograph 202 et 282 t, 104, 210, 211, 

212(1692). (Disemma.) 
Modecca, Lamarck, Diet, IV, 208 (1797). 


Haller, En. stirp. Helv. Praef. 34 (1742)., Linne, Gen. 295 (1737). 

Lagenaria, Seringe in Mem. de la Soc. Genev. Ill, 25, t. 2 (1825). 
Luffa, Tournefort in Act, Acad. Paris, 84, t. 2 (1706) from 

Vesling (1638). 
Zanonia, Linn6, Coroll. 19 (1737). 

Cucumis, Tournefort, Inst. 104, t. 31 (1700) from Plinius. 
Benincasa, Savi in Bibl. Ital. IX, 158 (1818). 
Momordica, Tournefort, Ins;. 103, t. 29 et 30 (1700). 
Bryonopsis, Arnott in Hook. Journ. Bot. Ill, 274 (1841). 
(Bryonia partly.) 

Melothria, Linne, Coroll. 1 (1737). 

(Zehneria, Mukia.) _„. 

Sicyos, Linne, syst. nat. 9 (1735); Linne, Gen. pi. 297 (I7JWJ 


Vaillant, Act. Acad. Paris, 143 (1718). 
Centratberum, Cassini in Bull, de la Soc. Philom. (1817). 
Pleurocarpaeu, Hentliain, Kl. A list r. Ill, 100(1866). 
Vernonia, Schreber, Gen. II, 541 (1791). 
Eleohantopus, Vaillant in Act. Acad. Paris, 309 (171»J. _ 
Adenostemma, R. et G. Forster, Char. Gen. 89, t. 45 {Uto/- 
Ageratum, Linne, Gen. 2!7 (1737). v , n -RAuiun 

Eupatoi-ium. Tourm-fort, Inst. (55, t. :M9 (1700) from C i^^ 

(1623). n a, g) 

Lagenopbora, Cassini in Hull. <!<• la soc. pl.ilom. mart. (1^ /• 
(Ixauchenus, Sol-m-vm . Kmpliysopus.) ^ 

Brachycome, Cassini in Bui l " ( Scrlossa, 

(Bellidis subgenus, Pacquerina, Bracbystepbmm, bteir D 

Silphiospermum.) „ ,-,o-k.\ 

Erodiophyllum, F. v. Mueller, Fragm. IX, 119 (18/&> 

Minima, Dc Candidly Prodr. V, 298 (1836). 

(ThrroytTon, Klachothamnus, Kippistia.) 

Calotis It. Ilrown in Bot. Regist. t 504 (1820). 

( Hu.'iiftYUlia, (roniopogon, Cheirolonia.) 

Astrr, Tminu-fwrt, Inst. 481, t. 27 1 (1700) from I >ioscoridcs. 

(Okaria, (Vlmisia, Kuryl.ia, Steetzia.) 

Yittadinia, Auh. Richard, Vov. Astrol. Lot. 250 (1832). 

(Eurvbiopsis, Microglia) 

dni in Butt de la Boo. Philoin. 137 (1817). 

Brigeran, Linne, Hort. Cliffort. 407 (1737). 

dnvza, Li-ssinir. svnuos. ^rn. cmim. 203 (1832). 

1,',[1,. m (Million. Arch. Lot. II, 514(1833). 
Plucm-a, Cassini in Hull, do la Soc. Piiiloiu. 31 (1817). 

lV: l ;^r' , .M U, i , )o Candulk, Prodr. V, 293 (1836). 

' nmra.) ^ 

Thespidium, F. v. Mueller in Journ. of Landsborougn a Exped. 

app. (1862). 
Coleocoma, F. v. Mueller in Hook. Kew Misc. IX, 19 (l8o<). 
Elites, Cassini in Bull, de la Soe. Philom. 139 (1818). 
(8phaeromorphaea partly, Ethuliopsis. ) 
>i'aa»-rantlios, Vailhmt in Act. Acad. Paris, 2-9 (1719). 
Pterocaulon, Elliott, Sketch of Bot. of S. Carotin and Georg. II, 

323 (1824). (Monenteles.) 
8tuartina, Sonder in Linna.-a XXV, 521 (1852). 
Gnaphalium, U bom J. & C. Bauhin (1619). 


Antennaria, Gaertner, de Fruct. II, 410, t. 167 (1791). 
(Raoulia partly.) 

Eeontopodium^ R. Brown in Transact. Linn. Soc. XII, 121 (181 < ). 
(Raoulia partly.) iojwi 

Pterygopappus, J. Hooker in Lond. Journ. of bot. VI, 120 (184<). 

Ixiolaena, Benthani in Huegel. 

v. F. v. Mueller, Fragm. XI, 49 (1878). 
'! ma, Pterochaete.) „.,„, . 

Helichrysum, Vaillant in Act. Acad. Paris, 290 (1-19) from 
nm -^^P^rastos and Dioscorides. 
(Elichrysum, Schoenia, Petalolepis, Faustula, Ozothamnus, Swam- 

merdainia, Lawrencella, Argyrophanes, Chrysocephalurn, Uon- 

anthodium, Xanthochrysum, Argyroglottis, Acanthocladium,, 

Raoulia partly.) 


Helipterum, De Candolle, Prodr. VI, 211 (1837). 
(Argyrocome, 1822, Pteropogon, Rhodanthe, Xyridanthe, Aniso- 

lepis, Hyalosperma, Triptilodiseus, Acroclinium, Monency- 
anthes, Dimorpholepis, Duttonia, Cassiniola.) 
Podotheca, Cassini in Diet. XXIII, 561 (1822). 
(Podospermum, Pkaenopoda, Lophoclinium. ) 
Millotia, Cassini in Ann. des schmc. nat. XVII, 416 (1829). 
Quinetia, Cassini in Diction. LX, 579 (1830). 
Rutidosis, De Candolle, Prodr. VI, 158 (1837). 
(Pumilo, Actinopappus, Lepidocoma.) 
Ammobium, R. Brown in Bot. Mag. t. 2459 (1824). 
Scyphocoronis, A. Gray in Hook. Kcu mi.,-. IV. l'-:'- (1852). 
Toxanthus, Turczaninow in Bull. Mose. I, 177 (1851). 

Eriochlamys, Sonder & F. v. Mueller in Linnaea XXV, 488 (1852). 
Cassinia, R. Brown in Transact. Li mi. Hoc. XII, 126 (1817). 
(Non zoologorum Apolochlamys, Achromolaena, Chrome-chiton.) 
Hum,,,. Smith, Exot. bot. 1. t. 1 (1804). 
(Haeckeria, Calomeria.) 
Acomis, F. v. Mueller, Fragm. II, 89 (1860). 
Pithocarpa, Lindley, Bot, H, _<i-t. XXV. app. 23 (1839). 
Ixodia, R. Brown in Ait. hort. Kew, sec. ed. IV, 17 (1812). 
~ yriocephalus, Bentham in Hueg. Enum. 61 (1837). 
lyalolepis, Antheidosorus, Gilberta, Lamprochlaena, Elacfio- 

pappus, Polycalymma ; some readily to be restituted.) 
Angianthus, Wendland, Collect, pi. II, 31 (1809). 
(Siloxerus, Sti , I 'vlindrosorus, W£ 

calymma, Skirrophorus, Chrysocoryne, Erioeladium, Togo 

lepis, Piptostemma, Epitriche, Gamozygis, Cephalos^j 

partly, Hyaluclilamy.s, [Jithyiostegia, Pleuropappus , 

readily to be restituted.) 
Gnephosis, Cassini in Bull, de la Soc. Phi m 1 "" l ^ !| Jni]i 
(Cephalosorus partly, Xematopus, Crossolepis, Le] 

anthodium, Cyathopappus ; some readily to be restitu / 
Decazesia, F. v. Muelh-r, [-Va-m. XI, 71 (1879). infi/lgl7 ). 

Calocephalus, R. Brown in Transact. Linn. Soc. XII, 106 (!«'/ 
(Lencophyta, Pachysurus, Blennospora, Achrysum.) ^ 
Cephalipterum, A. Gray in Hook. Kew Mis,-. 1 v - ; 7l J-^'"'' 
<*naphalodes, A Cray in Hook. Kew Mi-' - - 1N - --f [ ,-" vj - 
•Craspedia, G. Forster, florul. insul. Austr. Prodr. 300 {it t 
l !1 L,h 1 n.Pl.Preiss.I,444(1845). 

'■ n 2S 

P/vl^l^io t..,i. ill. .'...!;" ... v.... ii, J! ,,1 siH-cini. II £ .'',,„„;«. 


Atlirixia, KerinBot. Regist. VIII, 681 (1823). 

(Astoriili.a. Chrysodiseus, Trichostegia). 

Nal.lnnium. Cassini. Diet, XXXIV, 101 (1825). 

Chrysogonum, Linne, Hort. Cliffort. 424(1737). 

(MtJmiia. Pentalepis). 

Sir-rsVekia. Liim.«. Il,.rt. CliilV.rt. 112 (1737) 

Enhvdra, Loureiro, Fl. Cochinch. II, 510 (1790). 


Eclipta, Linne, Mantiss. II, 157 (1771). 

\\Y«l.>lia. .Iin'ijuin, Stiq>. Amor. hist. 217, t. 130 (1763). 


Sjiilanthes, Jacquin, Strip. Amer. hist. 214, t. 126 (1763). 

Bidens, Dillenius, hort Elth. 51 et 52, t. 43 and44tt732) from 

Cesalpini (1583). (Probably immigrated.) 
(il.^so-rvnp, Cassini, Diet. LI, 475 (1827.) 

Flaveria, A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 186 (1789). 
Soliva, Ruiz et Pavon, Prodr. 113, t. 24 (1794). 
(Gymnostyles) (Probably immigrated). 
Cotula, Linne, syst. nat. 9 (1735) ; Linne, gen. 256 (1737). 
(Gymnogyne, Strongylospermum, Pleiogyne, Symphyomera, 

Stenosperma, Leptinella.) 
Centipeda, Loureiro, Fl. Cochinch. II, 492 (1790). 
(Myriogyne, Sphaeromorphaea partly.) 
Abrotanella, Cassini in Diet. XXXVI, 27 (1825). 
(Scleroleima, Trineuron.) 

Elachanthus, F. y. Mueller in Linnaea XXV, 410 (1852). 
Oratogyne, Turczaninow in Bull. Soc. Mosc XXIV, 68 (1851). 

m Bull. Soc. Mosc. I, 175 (1851). 
<-yn Ura , Cassini in Diet. XXX I V. :*91 (1*25). 

fort. Inst. 456, t. 200 (1700), from Plinius. 
■ tiiu-sque. Fl. Lu.lov. 65 (1817). 

Diet XXXV. 397 [1825). 
^iussi m -a, Do Candolle in Ann. du Mus. XVI, 156 (1810). 
Aplotaxis. Haplotaxis.) 
Centaurea, Linne, Hort. Cliffort 420 (1737). 

Trichocline, Cassini in Bull. Soc. Philom. 13 (1817). 

Microseris, D. Don in Edin. Phil. Mag. XI, 388 (1832). 
(i'hyllopappus, Scorzonera partly.) 
^•u. pL 240 (1737). 
(^oungia.) F K ' 


A. L. de Jussfeu, Gen. 163 (1789) from B. de Jussieu (175 
Lobelia, Linne, Fl. Lappon. 227 (1737). 
(Rapuntiuni, Pratia, Granimatotkeca, Holostigma.) 
Isotoma, R. Brown, Prodr. I, 565 (1810). 
(Lobelia partly, Encli\>L L partly. Lauivntia partly.) 
Wahlenbergia, Schracler, Catal. Hort. Bot, Goeti 

Can t dolleace.e. 
P. v. Mueller, Pragraenta Phyfcographiae Australia VIII, 41 (1873). 
(Stylide*, R Brown, Prodr. I, 565 anno. 1810). 
Candollea, Labillardiere in Ann. du Mus. VI, 451 (1805). 
(Ventenatia, Stylidium, Forsteropsis.) 
Leeuwenhoekia, R. Brown, Prodr. 572 (1810). 
(Levenhookia, Coleostylis.) 

Phyllachne, R. et G. Forster, Char. Gen. 115, t, 58 (1776). 
(Forstera, Oreostylidium, Helophyllum.) 
Donatia, R. et G. Forster, Char. Gen. 9, t. 5 (1776). 


R. Brown, Prodr. 573 (1810). 
Brunonia, Smith in Transact. Linn. Soc. X, 366 (1810). 
Dampiera, R. Brown, Prodr. 587 (1810). 
(Linseho tenia.) 

Diaspasis, R. Brown, Prodr. 586 (1810). 
Leschenaultia, R. Brown, Prodr. 581 (1810). 

Anthotium, R. Brown, Prodr. 582 (1810). 
Catosperma, Bentham in Hooker Icon. pi. t. 102b (ibb»). 
Scaevola, Linne, Mantiss. II, 145 (1771). 
(Pogonetes, T. mm;;. !:ia. ( unpluisia, Crossotoma, 

Merkusia, Verreauxia.) /ii-oox 

Selliera, Cavanill.-s, Anal. Vu-uy.. Nat. 1,41, t. 5 (17»J> 
Calogyne, R. Brown, Prodr. 579 (1810). 

IV, 217 (17^ 


to (1700) from Diosco: 
. II, app. 564(1814). 


Imos, L 
-a. Tin 


ola, Li! 



ri! .(i>ot). 

R. et G. I 


iia, !;.' 



A. L, de Jussieu, Gen. 89 (1789). 

Plantago, Tournefort, Inst. 126, t. 48 (1700) from l'Ecluse (1576). 


Ventenat, Tabl. II, 285 (1799). 
Anagallis, Tournefort, Inst. 142, t. 59 (1700) from Hippocrates 
and Dioecori liicropyxis.) 

Lysunachia, Tournefort, Inst. 111. t. 59 (170*)) from Dioscondes. 
kamolus, Tournefort, Inst. 143, t. 60 (1700). (Skemeldia.) 

(Primulacearum subordo.) 
R Brown, Prodr. 532 (1810). 
Maesa, Forskael, FL Aegypt. Arab. 66 (1775). 
(Baeobotrys.) * JF 

Sahara, Linne, Mantiss. II, 144 (1771). (Choripetalum.) 


Myrsine, Linne, Syst. Nat. 8 (1735) ; Linne, Gen. pi. 54 (1737). 
Ardisia, Swartz, Prodr. 3 et 48 (1788). 
Aegiceras, Gaertner, de Fruct. I, 216, t. 46 (1788). 

A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 151 (1789) from B. de Jussieu (1759). 
Chrysophyllum, Linne, Gen. pi. 361 (1737). 
(Niemeyera. ) 

Lucuma, Molina, Saggia, 186 (1782). 

Sideroxylon Dillenius, Hort. Eltham 357, t. 265 (1732). 
(Achras, Sapota.) 

Amorphospermum, F. v. Mueller, Fragm. VII, 112 (1870). 
fformogyne, A. de Candolle, Prodr. VIII, 176 (1844). 
Madhuca, Hamilton in Asiat. Research. I, 300 (1788). 
(Bassia, Illipe.) 

Mimusops, Linne, Fl. Zeyl. 57(1747). 
Vi-nUmat, Tabl. II. 443(1799). 
Diospyros, Linne, Gen. pi. 143 (1737). 
Maba, R. et G. Forster, Char. gen. 121, t. 61 (1776). 

L. C. Richard, Analyse du fruit. 48 (1808). 
Symplocos, K J. Jacquin enum. plant. Carib. 24 (1760). 

A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 104 (1789) from Necker ( 1770 )' m 
Jasminum, Tournefort, Inst. 597. t. 368 (1700) from l'Eclus^lw^ 
Olea, Tournefort, Inst. 598, t. 370 (1700) from Plinius. 
Ligustrum, Tun, , ,;„,; I, , :,:,; i. 367 (1700) from C. Ban** 

Notelaea, Ventenat, Choix t. 25 (1803). 

Ochrosia, A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. pi. 143 (1789). 


Notonerium, Bentham in B. & J. H. Gen. II, 698 (1876). 

Tabernaemontana, Plumier, Gen. 18, t. 30 (1703). 

Tinea, llivinus in Hupp. Fl, Jenens. 27 (1718) from Plinius. 

Alstonia, R. Brown in Mem. Worn. Soc. I, 75 (1809). 
Ichnocarpus, R Brown in Mem. Wern. Soc. I, 61 (1809). 
Wnjiti;.. It. Ili-own in Mem. Wern. Soc. I, 75 (1809). 

Jacquin, Misc. Austr. I, 35 ^ I 77^). 
Gymnanthera, K Brown in Mem. Wern. Soc. I, 58 (1809). 
Scamone, R Brown in Mem. Wern. Soc. I, 55 (1809). 
Vincetoxicum, Dodonaeus, stirpium hist, pemptades, 704 (1583). 
(Oxystelma partly, Cynoctonum.) 
Cynanchum, Linne, Gen. pi. 63 (1737). 
Sarcostemma, R. Brown in Mem. Wern. Soc. I, 50 (1809). 
Baemia, R Brown in Mem. Wern. Soc. I, 50 (1809). 
(Pentatropis, Rhpicharrhena.) 

i. Soc. I, 33 (1809). 
(Bidaria.) ' 

Gongronema, Decaisne in De Cand. Prodr. VIII, 624 (1844). 
Bro q in M m. Worn. Soc. I, 28 (1809). 
II Brown in Mem. Wern. Soc. I. 28 (1809). 


in Benth. 

Fl. Austi 

■. IV, 347 (1869). 

n in Me 

m. Wern. 



Mem. Wern. Soc. 1 

[, 32 (1809). 

R. Brown in Mem 

, AVer.,. S: 

t>c. I, 25 (1809). 

ae, Gen. 

pi. 65 (17 


A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 132 (1789) from B. de Jussieu (1759). 
Roxburgh, pi. Corom. Ill, 31, t. 159 (1798). 
r^stemon, Blume. Bijdr. 722 (1825). 

7pr^' Lhm *> s y st - nat - 8 ( 1735 ); u *™> Gen - p 1 - 47 ( 1737) - 

iMiiyction, Quamoclit, Aniseia.) 
(CaTslT 1US ' Tournefort ' Inst 82 > *" 17 ( 170 °)- 
Polymeria, R Brown, Prodr. 488 (1810). 


Breweria, B. Brown, Prodr. 487 (1810). 
Evolvulus, Linne, Sp. pi. ed. secund. 391 (1763). 
Dichondra, B. et G. Forster, Char. gen. 39, t. 20 (1776). 
Cressa, Linne, Amoen. acad. 1, 121 (1747). 
Wilsonia, R. Brown, Prodr. 490 (1810). 

Cuscuta, Tournefort, Inst. app. 652, t. 422 (1700) from G. Bauhin 


Haller, Enum. stirp. Helv. Praef. 34 (1742). 
Physalis, Linne, syst. nat. 8 (1735); Linne, Gen. pi. 51 (1737). 
Solanum, Tournefort, Inst 1 is. r. 62 (1700) from Celsus. 

Nicotiana, Tournefort, Inst. 117, t. 41 (1700), from C. Bouto 

Anthotnx-lm, Endlicher, Nov. stirp. Mus. Vin i 
Anthocercis, Labillardiere, Nov. Holl. pi. spec. II, 19 (1806). 
(Cvpliantliera, Eadesm.) 
buhoi.M;,, l;. ill-own, Prodr. 448 (1810). 

Mirbel, Elem. II, 879 (1815). 
Mimulus, Linne, Act. Soc. UpsaL 82 (1741). 

Mazus, Loureiro, Fl. Cochinch. II, 385 (1790). 
Adenosma, B. Brown. Prodr. 442 (1810). 

Stemodia, Linne, Syst. ed. X, 1118 (1759). 
(Moreania, Limnophila.) ., . nonrn 

Ibr;, -tk K. K. < Wner, de Fruct. Ill, 186, t. 
Gratiola, Ruppius, Fl. .Lmens. 241 (1718) from KjiMM • ' 
Doparrium, Hamilton in Benth. Scroph. rev. 4 (W 
Artan.-ma, I). Don in Sweet, fl. ganl. t. 234 (182y). 
Vandellia, Browne in Linne, Mantiss. 12 (1767). 
( I ! vs; i i ] r !i i ■:->, Bonnaya. ) ,_ _„,.,. 

bam, Fl. Austr. IT, 518 (1869). 

P.-i-Iidium. Drills VI Aegypt. 148 (1813). 

I:. Brown, Prodr. 135 (1810). ^ 

.. Amott in Nov. Act. Leop. XVIII, 6M I* 

l.indorn, opusc. plant. Argentorat ,156, t. 5 (^ ' 

IVntham in Hooker's Comp. Bot. May. !. 
R. Brown, Prodr. 438 (1810). 
iltoil in 1). Don, Prodr. fl. Nepal. (1825). 
nm>. Hurt. Cliffort 501 (1737). 

Bulliard, FL Paris, ed. sea I, 26 (1796). 

nnann 'in d-r lit. Zeit'. Halle 109 (1844). 

Muril,,-. Fragm. VII, 151 (1871). 

oarck, Diet. I, 401 (1783). 

Ventenat, Tabl. II, 402 (1799). 
L- de Jussieu, Gen. 139 (1789). 
me, Fenzl in Ann. nat. hist. X, 31 (1862). 
partly. Dolichandra partly.) 
ia, F. v. Mueller, Fraspn. IV, 148 (1864). 
i. R. Brown, Prodr. 449 (1810). 

A. L de Jussieu, Gen. 102 (1789), from B. de Jussieu (1759> 
Jhunbergia, Retzius. Phvsiogr. Saellsk. Handl. I, 163 (1776). 
-Jelsoma, R. Brown, Prodr. 480 (1810). 
tbermayera, N A , rar . Ill, 75 (1832). 

^ygrophila, R. Brown, Prodr. 479 (1810). 

Ruellia, Plumier, N"ov. Gen. 12, t. 2 (1703). 


Acanthus, Tournefort, Inst. 176, t. 81 (1700). 

(Earlia, Thyrsatanthus.) 

A. L. de Jussieu in Ann. du Mus. IX, 267 (1807). 

Hypoestes, Solander in R. Brown, Prodr. 474 (1810). 
Eranthemum, Linne, Fl. Zeyl. 6 (1747). 
R. Brown in Edw. Bot. Regist. t. 242 (1817). 
Hydrolea, Linne, Sp. pi. ed. sec. 328 (1762). 

Haller, Enum. stirp. Helv. Praef. 34 (1742). 
Cordia, Plumier, Gen. pi. 13, t. 14 (1703). 
Ehretia, P. Browne, Civ. and nat. hist, of Jamaic. 168 t lb 

( 1756 )- 
Tournefortia, Linne, syt. nat. 8 (1735) ; Linne, Gen. pi. 55 (1<<W- 

Linne, Amcen. acad. ed. prim. 119 (1747). 
(Lobophyllum.) /m . . A . 

Heliotropium, Tournefort, Inst. 138 t. 57 (1700). (Tiaridium, 

Heliophytum) from Theophrastos, Dioscorides and Phnius. 
Halgania, Gaudichaud in Freyc. voy. Bot. 448 t. 59 (1826). 
Pollichia, Medicus, Beobacht. 247 (1783). 

Myosotis, Ruppius, Fl. Jenensis 9 (1718). 
(Exarrhena.) . 

Eritrichum, Schrader in Commentat. Goett. IV, 186 (1820). 
Lappula, Rivinus in Rupp., Fl. Jenensis 12 (1718). 

Rochelia, Reichenbach in FL Regensb. bot. Zeit. I, 243 (1824} 
(Maccoya.) _. ■!& 

Cynoglossum, Tournefort, Inst. 139, t. 57 (1700) fromDioscon 

Labiatae. m 

Adanson, Fam. II, 180 (1763) from B. de Jessieu (U /^ 

Ocimum, Tournefort, Inst. 203, t. 96 (1700) from Theop 
and Dioscorides. 

Moschosma, Reichenbach, Conap. 115 (1828). 
" 1802.) 

Orthosiphon, Bentham, Labiat. 25 (1832). 

r, Stirp. I, 85 (1785). 
Coleus, Loureiro FI. Cochinch. II, 372 (1790). 
Pogostemon, Desfontaines in Mem. du Mus. II, 15-1, t. 6 (1815). 
Mentha, Toumefort, Inst. 188, t. 89 (1700) from Hippocrates 

and Theophrastos. 
Lycopus, Toumefort, Inst. 180, t. 83 (1700) from Plinius. 
EWhria, Linne, gen. 6 (1737) from Plinius. 
Brunella, l'Ecluse rav. stirp. List. II, 42-43 (1576) (Prunella). 
Scutellaria, Hermann, Hort. Lugd. Bot. catal. (1687). 
Anisomeles, E. Brown, Prodr. 503 (1810). 
Leucas, J. Burman, thesaur. Zeyl. 140 (1737). 
Depremesnilia, F. v. Mueller, Fragm. X, 59 (1876). 
Pr- -' mtliera, Lahillardiere, Nov. Holl. pi. spec. 18, t. 157 (1806). 
(Chilodia, Cryphia, Klanderia.) 
Wrixonia, F. v. Mu.-lVr, Fra-m. X, 18 (1876). 

R. Brown, Prodr. 502 (1810). 
(Hemiandra, Colobandra, Atelandra.) 

I:. Brown, Prodr. 502 (1810). (Anisandra.) 
,JJ «>tringia, Smith in Vet. Acad, llandl. 171 (1797). 
Murium, Toumefort, Inst. 207, t. 98 (1700) from Dioscorides. 
Ajuga, Linne, Gen. pi. 167 (1737). 


Adanson, Farm II, 195 (1763) from B. de Jussieu (1757). 
L; l'i'i-i. Houston in Linne, syst. nat. 8 (1735); Linne, Gen. pi. 

347(1737). (Zapania.) 
v "vU-na, Tom-uffort. Lust. 200. t. 94 (1700) from l'Ecluse (lo76). 
' ''•■' ^,,] lV -. Ho. k« r, Icon. pi. t. 414 (1842). 
/' ' ttm, Pycnolachne.) 

-Wea.tlia, F. v. Mueller in Hooker's Kew Miscell. IX, 22 
p, ( 185 ')- 
^jwpaa, Turczaninow in Bull, de la Soft Mosc. XXII, 34 

XT ( 1849 )- 

Jallophora, Endliehor in A.m. des Wien. Mus. II, 206 (1838). 


^icnwtylis, Drummond and Harvey in Hooker's Kew Misc. \ II, 

(D . c 157 (1855). 

- R. Brown, Prodr. 513 (1810). 
gWwd*, Quoya, Dasymalla.) 

SS^\ F - v - Mueller ' Fra ^ IX - 13 < 1876) - 

eniSOma ' F - v. Mueller, Fragm. I, 124 (1859). 

Cyanostegia, Turczaninow in Bull. Soc. nat. Mosc. XXII, 35 

(1849). (Bunnya.) 
Spartothamnus, Cunningham in Loudon's Hort. Brit, suppl. (1830). 
Callicarpa, Linne in u-t. S... I { 1. 80 (1741). 

H, 1 54 (1771). 
ClerodendruiiK I ley] tn. 66, i. 29 (1737). 


Gmelina, Linne, Gen. ed. sec. 526 (1742). 
Vitex, Tournefort, Inst. 603, t. 373 (1700) from Plinius. 
Faradaya, F. v. Mueller, Fragm. V, 21 (1865). 
Avicennia, Linne, syst. nat. 8 (1735) ; Linne, Gen. pi. 27 (1737). 

R. Brown, Prodr. 514 (1810). 
Myoporum, Banks k Solander in G. Forster, Prodr. 
A idivwMa, L'ogu .in, Disoon). 


nophila, R. Brown, Prodr. 518 (1810). 

(Pholidia, Stenoclilus, Krcmodeml Ph lopn< i<l • 

Duttonia, Pkolidiopsis). 

R Brown, Prodr. 519 (1810). 
Jo ppltinin, Ventenat, Jard. do la Malmais. t. 103 (1804). 

R. Brown, Prodr. 535 (1810). 
-'■ lander i 
(Epacris, Forst, (1776) partly, Stiphelia, Ardisia, 

Cyathodes, Stenanthera, Leucopogon, Peroa, Pei -.,--_, 

rhena, Pentataphnin, M.-sotriclj.', Ph:\wY.< 

Pentaptelion, Aadr 
Con<^t.-pl,i-;m. P-uiLmi in Huegel. Enum. pi Nov. Roll, a 

oce. 76 (1837). (Coa . MnsC 4 

Col. anthn 1, 8 . .' , i i;,,l . de la Soc. des. nat. de Mosc. 

(1859). (Michiea.) 
Trochocarpa, R. Brown, Prodr. 548 (1810). 
(Decaspora, Pentacliondra.) . n) 

Brachyloma, Snud-r in L-lnnann. PI. Preisa. I, 304 (Ik&r 

Needhamia, R. Brown, Prodr. 549 (1810). 
Oligarrhena, R. Brown, Prodr. 549 (1810). 

K lis. C Lill. -. i n.l V, 25, t. 344 et 345 (1797). 


Woollsia, F. v. Mueller, Fragm. VIII, 52 (1872). 

Lysinema, R. Brown, Prodr. 552 (1810). 
Prionotes, R. Brown, Prodr. 552 (1810). 
Cosmelia, R. Brown, Prodr. 553 (1810). 
Ponceletia, R, Brown Prodr. 554 (1810). 

Sprengelia, Smith in Vet - : 't). (Poiretia.) 

Amlersonia, R. Brown, Prodr. 553 (1810). (Atherocephala, 

Homolostoma, Sphincterostoma.) 
Ricliea, R, Brown, Prodr. r>^:, (1> ! i >). f * 'v-Mntbe, Pilitis.) 
Dracopbyllum, Lid. ii.-i.-.] . . V..y. I !. 211, t, 40 (1798). (Epacns, 

Forst, 1776 partly.) 
Sphenotoma, Sweet, Fl. Austral, t. 44 (1828). 
A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 159 (1789). 
Pernettya, Gaudichaud in Ann. des. sc. nat. V, 102 (1825.) 
Oaultitir,. Kahn in Liime, nov. plant, gen. fig. 6 (1751). (Gaul- 

Wittsteinia, F. v. Mueller, Fragm. II, 136 (1861). 


Mueller in Woolls's plants of the neighb. of Sydney, 40 


Haller, En. stirp. Helv. I, 145 (1742). 
otaxis, D. Don in Transact. Linn. Soc. XVIII, 171 (1839). 
•ns. Ventenat, Dec. nov. gen. 10 (1808). (Frenela, Acti- 

Hwwspha. -. Archer in Hooker's Kew Misc. II, 52 (1850). 
" SSke'r in Bond. Joum. of Bot. IV, 149 (1845). 
pam-a him partly.) 

^■\ 'Ihrm. S„Ia, 1 in , F, t , Fl es ul M) (1786) 
iualamia, Syvon^l. Anlcit. zur. Kenntn. derGew. II, 218, Zweit. 

Ausg. (1817). (Phyllocladus.) . 

^gei^Gaertn,,. 1788> (Podocarpus.) 

±***na,JLL.<\. J,..;.,,.,;, .. ,i:W17^>. (i 'olymbea Eutassa.) 
^anamara. RmmA™ tt«U A m y n II. 174, t. 54 (1<41 

L. C. Eichard in Persoon. Synops. 630 (1807). 
Cycas, Linne, Hort. Cliffort. 482 (1737). 
Eucephalartos, Lehmann, Pugill. YI, 9, t. 1 et 3 (1834). 

(Macrozamia, Zamia partly, Arthrozanna, Lepulozanua, 

Bowenia, Hooker, Bot. Mag. t. 5398 (1863). 


Bay, Method. Plant, emend. (1703). 


F. v. Mueller in Woolls's plants of the neighb. of Sydney, 41 


Haller, Enum. Stirp. Helv. Praef. 33 (1742). 
Sturmia, Eeichenbach in Moessler's Handb. II, 1552 (1828). 
(Liparis, Eichard (1818), not of Zoologists (1738). 
Oberonia, Lindley, Gen. and sp. of Orchid, pi. 15 (1KW| 

Act. Upsal. YI, 82 (1799). (Thely- 
108 (1822). 

(Bolbophyllum, Thelychiton partly.) aW v 

Phreatia, Lindley, Gen. and sp. of Orchid, pi. 63 (18«W.j 

Pholidota, Lindley in Hooker's exot. fi. t. 138 (1825). 
Sarcochilus, B. Brown, Prodr. 332 (1810). (Thrixspennum, 

Gunnia, Cleisostoma.) 
Taeniophvlluni, Blume, Bijdr. 355 (1825). -jj 

Omithochilus, Wallich in Lindl.-y's On. arid sp. Orchid. pL - " 

(1833). (Saccolabium partly.) 
Geodorum, Jackson in Andre v.-,s lN-p.-ir. t. 626 (1810). . 

Eulophia, B. Brown in Edwards Bot. Eegist. Q8G (io— J 

(Eulophus 1822.) 

K. Brown, Prodr. 330 (1810). 
Cymbidium, Swartz in Nov. Act. Upsal. YI, 70 (1799). 
Spathoglottk Ilium.', lOu ( 1S25). 
Phajus, Loureiro, Fl. Cochinch. II, 529 (1790). 
Calanthe, B. Brown in Edwards Bot. Begist. 578 (1821). 
Galeola, Loureiro, Fl. Cochinch. II, 520 (1790). (Erythiorc -, 

Epipogum, Gmelin, Fl. Sibir. I, 11 t. 2 (1747). 
Gastrodia, B. Brown, Prodr. 330 (1810). 
Pogonia, A. L. de Jussieu, Gen pi. 65 (1789). 

Corymbis, Petit-Thouars, Orchid. Afric. t. 37 (1822). (Corymb- 

Etaeria, Hume, Bijdrag. 409 (1825). (Hetaeria, Ramphidia.) 
Microstvlis, Xuttall, Gen. Americ. II, 196 (1818). 
Goodyera, R. Brow,, in Alton's II. .rt. Kew sec. ed. V, 197 (1813). 
Spiranthes, L. C. Richard in Mem. du Mus. IV, 40 (1818). 

is, 1807.) 
Thelymitra, R. et G. Forster, Char. gen. 97, t. 49 (177G). 

Bnblema, R. Brown, Prodr. 315 (1810). 
Bums, Smith in Transact. Linn. Soc. TV, 222 (1798). 
nrthocoras, R. Brown, Prodr. 316 (1810). 
Caloohilus. R. Brown. Prodr. 320(1810). 
Cn-j.t.^rvlis, B. Brown, 317 (1810). (Zosterostyhs). 
Prasophvllum, B. Brown. Prodr. 3,17 (1810). (Genoplesium.) 
Microtis, R. Brown, Prodr. 320 (1810). 
I'oiysanthes, B. Brown, Prodr. 328 (1810). (Nematoceras, 

Cory has.) 

lis, R, Brown, Prodr. 326 (1810). 
Sullivania, F. v. Mueller, inedited ; characters of Cahya, except 

genoplesoid labellum. 
Caleya, R, Brown in Aiton's Hort. Kew sec. ed. V, 204 (1813). 
(Caleana, 1810.) 

Drakaea, Lindley, Bot, Regist. XXV, append, p. LV (1839). 
(Spiculaea, Arthrochilus.) 

. B. Brown, Prodr. 321 (1810). 
. P. Brown. 323 (1810). 
Lvpmiitlms, R. Brown. Prodr. 325 (1810). (Burnettia.) 
( yi'tostylis, R. Brown, Prodr. 322 (1810). 
taladenia, R. Brown, Prodr. 323 (1810). (Leptoceras, Adeno- 

ls, R. Brown, Prodr. 322 (1810). 

'•I'-^odia, R. Rrown, Prodr. 325 (1810). 
Habenaria, Willdonow, Spec, plant. TV, 44 (1805). 
■M ,f,s tasia, Bluino, 423 (IS25). (Xiemeyera.) 

Linne, Phil. hot. 27 (1751). 
* Exotic, libri decern 229 (1605). 

, . C n. pi. 3 3 -J ( 1737), from Hermann (168<). 
™mu m , Linne, Gen. pi. 330 (1737). __ 

^ettana, White and Matton in Transact. Linn. Soc. X, 
), from Rheede ( 

(1809), from Rheede (1692). 
ff a V Linn ^ Gen - Pi 332 (1737). (Hellenia.) 
T a °t US > <{• Bauhin, Pinax 36 1623. 
^pemocheilos, Miquel in Ann. Mus. Lugd. IV, 101, t. 4 


Ventenafc, Tab! II, 188 (1799). 
Diplarrhem., ilia di.'.i. \ < 1. 275 t 15 (1799). 
. If. Brown, Prodr. 303 (1810). 
. 1801). 
Iris, Tournefort, Inst. 358, t. 186-188 (1700) from Hippocrates, 
Tbaoprastogj ins. (Moraea partly.) 

. Lumi, Gen. pL 273 (1737). 
(Libertia, ; :- nia )' iaai , 

Campynema, Labillardiere, Nov. Holl. pi. spec. I, 93, t. 121 (1804). 


Sprengel, Syst. veg. I, 125 (1825). 
Burmannia, Linne, syst. nat. 8 (1735); Linne, Gen. pi. 100 
(1737). ' 

Presl, Reliq. Haenk. I, 149 (1828). 
Tacca, B. et G. Forster, Char. Gen. 65 (1776). 


Du Mortier, Analyse ties fam. des pi. 57 (1829), from B. Brown 

( 1810 )- ., , 

Dioscorea, Plumier, Gen. 9, t. 26 (1703). (Dioscondea). 
Petermannia, F. v. Mueller, Fragm. II, 92 (1860). 

De Candolle, Flore Francaise, III, 265 (18: 
Hydrocharis, Linne, syst. nat. 8 (1735) ; Linne, Gen. p 
! (1811). 

. Petit-Thouars, Gen. Madag. n. 6 (1809). 
Ott.'lia, P r .»'..u, ^.-nops. pi. I, 400 (1805). 
(Damasonium partly). , nQ , 

Blyxa, Nor= ! ! < 1> '-" v Gen. 12, t. 10(1729). 
Hydrilla. CI. Richard in Mem de l'lnst. II, 61 (1811). 

J. St. Hilaire, Expos. Fam. I, 134, t .21 (1805). 
Haemodorui . Linn. Soc 213 (uv^j- 

Phlebocarya, R. Brown, Prodr. 301 (1810). 
Tribonanth. p. Dec. I, 2/ («»»)' 

Conostylis, R. Brown, Prodr. 300 (1810). 
(Blancoa, Androsteroma.) 

Anigozanthos, Labillardiere, Voy. I, 411 (1798). 
(Macropodia, Schwaegrichenia.) 


Ooealigo, Gaertner, de Fruct. I, 63, t. 16 (1788). 

Hypoxi's, Linuo, Syst. ed. clociin. 986 (1759). 

Dorvanth. . < ■ ■>. Soe. VI, 211 (1802). 

Crhm.n. Linne, Gen. 97 (1737). 

Eurvrl.-s, - lisl,ur\ luTi n.. K, I. 337 (1812). 

CWoetemma, R. Brown, Prodr. 297 (1810). 


F. v. Mueller in Woolls's plants of the neiglib. of Sydney, < 



Haller, Enum. stirp. Helv. I, 279 (1742). 

Smilax, Tournefort, Inst. 654, t, 421 (1700), from Theophrast 

and Dioscorides. 
Rhipogonum, R. et G. Forster Char. Gen. 49, t. 25 (1776). 
i: u<S Amooii, Acad. :!96 (1747). 
J (1810). 
Dianolla. Limarck. Illustr. t. 25«! (1786). 
Asparagus, Tournefort, Inst. 300, t. 154 (1700). 

i, from Theophrastos, Dios >rides . 1 Plinius. 
! (1810). 
' ,.,i in Bot. Mag. t, 3131 (1832). 
Dracaena, Yamlelii, Diss. Dvac. t. 1 (1762). 
Cordyline, Commerconin Heclwiff, Gen. 243 (1800). 
- ith. Exot. bot. I, 5, t. 4 (1804). 
. Hooker, Icon. pi. 858 (1852). 

Prodr. 291 (181 

. Hooker in Kew Misc. V, 296, pL IX (1853). 
^unahea, Thunberg, Xov. gen. I, 18 (1781). 
(An-'uillavia, Melanthium partly.) 

..!. IV, 212 (1843). 
i! i i >w\ , lV>dv. 273 (1810). 
^ysiuia, P l(J i, lu,ul.,afh, Minla-iliing. 68 (1829). 

• K. Brown, Prodr. 272 (1810). 
ttdbme, Linne, Hort. Cliffort. 122 (1737). 
(thry S obactron, Anthericum partly.) 
Agrostocrinmn. V. v. Mu, II. r. I-Y.-u. II. '■'•'' (I860.) 
Afaysaiiotus, R. Brown, Prodr. 282 (1810). 

J^soniola, P. v. Mueller, Fragm. [I, 176 (1861). 

Caesm, R. Brown, Prodr. 277 (1810). _ , n 

Chamaescill ,. F \\ r ^L VII, 68(18-0). (Ca< 


Corynotheca, F. v. Mueller, Fragm. VII, 68 (1870). (Caesia 

Tru-myne, R. Brown, Prodr. 278 (1810). 
Stypandra, R. Brown, Prodr. 278 (1810). 
Arthropodium, R. Brown, Prodr. 276 (1810). (Dichopogon.) 
Chlorophytum, Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 1071 (1808). 
Herpolirion, J. Hooker, Fl. New Zeal. I, 258 (1853). 
Sowerbaea, Smith in Transact. Lin. Soc. V, 159 (1800). 

Albania, Endlicher, Gen. 151 (1837). (Alania ) 
Baitlmcna, F v. Mueller, Fragm. VII, 88 (1870.) (Laxmannia.) 
Stawellia, F. v. Mueller, Fragm. VII, 85 (1870.) 
Johnsonia, R. Brown, Prodr. 287 (1810). 

Arnocrinum, Endlicher & Lebmann in PI. Preiss. II, 41 (1846). 
Borya, Labillardiere, Nov. Holl. pi. spec. 81, t. 107 (1804). 


Lindley in Wallich, PI. As. rar. Ill, 50 (1832). 
Roxburghia, Jones in Roxburgh, PI. Corom. I, 29, t. 32 (1795). 


Humboldt, Bonpland & Kuntb, Nov. gen. I, 265 (1815). 
Monochoria, Presl, Reliq. Haenk. I, 127 (1827). (Limnostachvs.) 


R Brown, Prodr. 268(1810). 
Zygomenes, Salisbury in Transact. Hort. Soc. I, 271 (1812). 

Commelina, Plumier, Nov. gen. 48, t. 38 (1703). (Commelynia.) 
Aneilema, R. Brown, Prodr. 270 (1810). 
Floriscopa, Loureiro, Fl. Cochinch, I, 192 (1790). (Floscopa, 

Pollia, Thunberg, Nov. gen. I, 11 (1781). 
Cartonema, R. Brown, Prodr. 271 (1810). 
R. Brown in App. to Flind. voy. II, 578 (1814). 
Philydrum, Banks in Gaertner, de Fruct. I, 62 (1788). (*** 

Pritzelia, F. v. Mueller, Papuan plants 13 (1875). (Hetaerla. 

Philydrella.) 'PI * 

Helmholtzia, F. v. Mueller, Fragm. V, 202 (1866). 
Salisbury, in Transact, hort. Soc. I, 326 (1812). 
Xyris, Linne, Gen. pi. 11 (1737). 

A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 25 (1789). 
sfort, Inst. 530, t. 301 (1700), fr< 
3S & Plinius. 
BfMganiom, Tournefort, Inst. 530, t. 302 (1700). 

La, Tournefort, Inst. 530, t. 301 (1700), from Theopliva*tos, 
Dioscorides & Plinius. 

A. L. de Jussiei 
Typhonium, Schot 

Amorphophallus, ] 
Colocasia, Ray, ]\: 
Rhaphidophora, 1«««~. 

hys, R. Brown, Prodr. 337 (1810). 
Pothos, Linne, Amoen. acad. I, 410 (17'" 

J. E. Gray, Nat. arrang. of Brit. pi. II, 729 (1821). 
Lemna, Linne, syst nat. 9 (1735) ; Linne, Fl. Lappon. 351 (1737). 
(Telmatophace, Spirodela.) 

Wolffia, Horkel & Schleiden in Linnaea XIII, 3S9 (1839). 

Ventenat, Tabl. II, 157 (1799). 
AEffla, Rivinus in Ruppius, Fl. Jen. 54 (1718), from Dioscorides 

& Plinius. 
JWsonium, Tournefort, Inst. 256 (1700). (Actinocarpus.) 
^enagocharis, Hoch.,totti-r it: Fl. Regensb. 369 (1849). Buto- 



Ventenat, Tabl. II, 80 (1799). 

Tnglochin, Linne, Gen. pi. 106 (1737) from Rivinus (1718). 

Aponogeton, Linne f., Suppl. 32 (1781). 
^omatogeton, Tourm-f-rt, [.,.:. 2:12. r. 103 (1700). 

; , . !ll( '., Gen. pi. 277 (1-3,). 

f^Zf Ann - of bot IIj 95 ' L 6 (1806) " 

<W? Lilm ^ Waesgoeta-Resa, 166-168 et fig. (1747). 
^vmoaocea, Koenig, Ann. of Bot. II, 96, t. 7(1806). (Amphibolis). 

Lepil i< na, D uiu a id a II n _> in IIool i Iv< \v. Misc YII, "'7 

(1855). (Zannickellia partly, Hexatlieca.) 
Najas, Linne, syst. nat. 9 (1735); Linne, Gen. 278 (1737). 
((' ilinia i irtly.) 

R. Brown, Prodr. 340 (1810). 
Pandanus, Eum . IV, 139, t. 74 (1750). 

Freycinetia, Gaudichaud in Ann. Sc. Nat. Ill, 509 (1824). 
Nipa, Wurmb in Verhandl. Batav. Genootsch. I, 349 (1779) from 
Camellus, Ray & Rumphius. 

Ray, Method, pi. emend. 135 (1703). 
Calamus, Linne, Sp. pi. 325 (1753). 

Baeulavia, i". i. 103 (1870). (Linospauix.) 

Kentia, Blume in Bull. Neerl. 64 (1838). 
(Grisebacliia, Hydriastele, Hedyscepe, Kentiopsis.) 
Clinostigma, Herm. Wendland in Seemann's Bonplandia X, 1»° 

(1862). (Cyphokentia.) ^ ^ ,, 

Ptychosperma, Labillardiere in Mem. de l'lnst, aim. 1808,1, :ol, 

pi. X (1809). 

' :. Archontophoenix). 
Areca, Linne, Sp. pi. 1189 ( 1753) from Ray (1688). 
Cocos, Linne, Sp. pi. 1188 (1753). 
Caryota, Linne, Gen. pi. 355 (1737). 
Licuala, Runiphiu,, W!». Ai il I, 44, t. 9 (1741). 
Livistona, 1 1. Brown, Prodr. 267 (1810). (Corypha partly) 


R Brown, Prodr. fl. Nov. Holl. 257 (1810). 

Lomandra, Labillardiere, Nov. Holl. pi specim. I, 92 (U s( - > 

(Xerotes.) _ , .,,_ 

Acanthocarpus, Lelimann, PI. Preiss. II, 274 (1847). ( 

maexeros.) .,> 

Xanthorrhoea, Smith in Transact. Linn. Soc. IV, 219 (17w> 
Dasypogon, R. Brown, Prodr. 263 (1810). 

Kingia, R Brown in App. Kin-'s vov. bot. 529 ( 182b j,- vtH 
Baxteria, R. Brown in Hooker's Loud. Journ. Bot. II, 49-, *■ - 

XIV, XV (1843). 
Calectasia, R. Brown, Prodr. 263 (1810). 

Luzula, De Candolle, Fl. franc. Ill, 158 (1805). j. 

Juncus, Tournefort, Inst. 246, t. 127 (1700) from Cameras 

& C. Bauhin, Ray & Morison. 

Humboldt, Bonpland & Kuntli, Nov. Gen. I, 251 (1815). 

Eriocaulon, Linne, Gen. pi. ed. sec. 35 (1742). (Electrosperma.) 


R. Brown, Prodr. 243 (1810). 

Trithuria, J". Hooker, Fl. Tasman. II, 79, t. 138 (1860). 

ffamOa, 1854.) 

Aphelia, R. Brown, Prodr. 251 (1810). (Brizula.) 
Centrolepis, Labillardiere, Nov. Holl. pi. spec. I, 7 (1804). 
( 1 ». *\ auxia, Alepyrum.) 

•, odr. I, 248 (1810). 

Her, Fragm. VIII, 236(1874). 
Anarthria, R. Brown, Prodi-. 248 (1810). 
- IX. Rrown, Prodr. l'47 (1810). 
Restio, Linne, Syst. vdh. XII. 735 { 17-^). (Megalotheca.) 
Loxocarya, R. II,-, \ n. 1Y< -..-. i'iv> (1810). 
Calostropkus, Labillardiere, Nov. Holl. pi. spec. II, 78 (1806). 
(Calorophus, Hypolaena, Desmocladus.) 

. C. Brown, Pi odr. 2 .i0 (1810). 
i partly.) 
Lepidobolus, Nees in Lebmann, PI. Preisa II, C6 (1846).' 
Chaetanthus, R. Brown, Prodr. 251 (1810). 
Onycbosepalum, Steudel, syn. pi. glum. II, 249 (1855). 

Mueller in Woolls's plants of the neigbb. of Sydney, 

Haller, Enum. stirp. Helvet. I, 234 (1742). 
J^Umgia, Rottboell, descr. et. icon. t. 4 (1773). 
^J-perus, Tournefort, Inst. 527, t. 299 (1700) from Hipp 

Theophrastos and Plinius. 
'/ycreus. Mo 

imbristyus, Vahl Enum. II 285 (1806 
^ldgaardxa, Tricbelostylis, Oncostyle. 

Scirpus, Toumefort, List. 5i8, t. 300 (1700). 

( I solepis. Malacochaete.) 

Lipocarplia, Nees in Linnaea IX, 287 (1834). 

(Hypaelyptum. ) 

Fuirena, Rottboell, Descr. et icon. rar. ]>1. illustr. 70 (1773.) 

Hypelytrum, L. CI. Richard in Persoon, Synops. I, 70 (1805). 


Exocarva, II. i chain in Hooker, Icon. PI. t. 1025 (1877). 

\I ipn ia. Aui •. Mist. PI. Guian. 47, t. 17 (1775). 

Scirpodendn.u, Zipp. lias in Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng. XXXVIII, 
85 (1869). 

Lepironia. L. CI. Richard in Persoon, Synops. I, 70 (1805). 


Chorizandra, R. Brown, Prodr. 221 (1810). 


Oreobolus, R. Brown, Prodr. 235 (1810). 

Remirea, Aublet, Hist. pi. Guian. I, 41, t. 16 (1775). 

Rhynchospora, Vahl, Euum. 1 1, 220 (1806). 

Cyathochaete, Nees in Lehmann. PI. Preiss. II, 86 (1846). 


. Lumd, CorolL Gen. 2 (1737). 

(Chaetospora, Carpha, Elvnai.ihus. Trhostularia, Helothnx, 

Isoschoenus, Gymnochaete, ( J\„ 1 hik M«-.,m.-b .ia, 

Discopodium.) , 

Lepidosperma, Labillardiere, Nov. Holl. pi. spec. I, U (1>0*J; 

Cladium, P. Browne, Civ. and nat. hist, of Jamaic. 114 (lf&ty 

(Gahnia, Bam npocarya). 

Canstis, R. Brown, Prodr. 239 ( 1 s 1 >. (Eurostorrlnza.) 

Arthrostylis, R. Brown, Prodr. 229 (1810). (Arthrostyles.J 

Reedia, F. v. Mneller, Era U .n. !, 2 PL r. 10 (1859). 

Euandra, R. Brown, Prodr. 239 ( is 10). ( Evandra.) 

Scleria, Bergius in Vet. Ac. Handl. 149, t. 4 (1765). 

(Diplacrctm, Sphaeropus.) 

Uncinia, Persoon, Synops. I, 534 (1807). 

Carex, Ruppius, Fl. Jenens. 306 (1718). 

Haller, Enum. stirp. Helvet. I, 203 (1742). 
Leersia, Solander in Swartz, nov. gen. et spec. 1 et 21 (1< b h 
(Asprella Asperelhi.) rn.-nnlirastos 

Oryza, Tourneforfc, Inst., 513, t. 296 (1700), from Theopan» 

and Dioscorides. 
Potamophila, R, Brown, Prodr. 211 (1810). /1779) . 

Ehrharta, Thunberg in Vetensk. Acad. Handl. 216, t » G' > 
(Tetrarrhena, Microlaena, Diplax.) 

Leptaspis, R. Brown, Prodr. 211 (1810). 

Hierochloe.. J. G. Gmelin, Fl. Sibiric. I, 100 (1747). 

(Hierochloa, Linne, syst. nat. 8 (1735). (Disarrhenum.) 

Alopecuras, Linne, Gen. pi. 18 (1737). 

(Perhaps immigrated.) 

Amndinella, Raddi, A-iw -ranh. Lr.edl. 37 (1823). 

Krinehloa, Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. gen. et sp. pi. I, 

94, t. 30 (1815). (Helopus.) 
l':i>l';dum, Linne, Syst. ed. decim. 855 (1759). 
Pameiun, Counicfort, lust. 515, t. 298(1700). 
1 ii u> i iphis, ( )], mi mi !>_ iria Held i 1 i. ' nidocldoa, 

i h-tliopogon, Isachne.) 
^taria, Palisot, Agrost, 51, t. 13 (1812). 
r--:iuis,.tum, CI. Milliard in IVrsuon, Svnops. I, 72 (1805). 
(Plagiosetum, Gymnothrix.) 
r '--d,m«. Linne, Coi-oll. 20 (1737). 

fi'a-us, Haller, Hist. strip. ILlv. n. 1413 (1768). (Lappago.) 
Xerochloa, R. Brown, Proclr. 196 (1810). 
Thuarea, Persoon, Syn. I, 110 (1810). (Thouarsea ) 
fepmifex, Linne, Mantiss. II, 163 (1771). 
. R. Brown, Prodr. 196 (1810). 
Pentapogon, R. Brown, Prodr. 173 (1810). 
! 'l kW, Endlidier, Prodr. fl. Norfolk. 20 (1833). 
] I ■ I- -ii-..-. S P . p l. 78 (1753). (Streptachne.) 
■ 8p. pl 82 (1753). 


■ pl. 5 (1753). (Ecliinopogon. 
Blowh, Prodr. 169 (1810). (Vilfa.) 

Agrostis, Linne, syst." t. s',173.", 1 (Ion pl. 19 (1737). 

P j;„ e ^ e . uxia > J^ymochaeta, Bromidium. % 

Arundo, Tournefort, Inst. 526 (1700). 
l^ragnutes), from Q Bauhin {U23) [ 

I- Brown, Prodr. 176 (1810). (Dipogonia.) 
• (1810)/ 
/ - - ' ^ ,: ..; .. .. 

fepWm, 8,l ilvl „,,,;,„,. [ I. 7 s 7 (1791). 

1810). (Trirapbis.) 

"■. I'l. A.i tr. \ II, 634(1878). 
•du.dlor, Fr,. lu ,n. V, 21)8 (1866). 
Era^ff' 5\ BlWn > Prodr - 18 " ^1810). 

I (1812). (Poa partly.) 



Distichlis, Rafinesque in Journ. de Pbys. I, XXXIX, 104 

Triodia, R. Brown, Prodr. 182 (1810). 

:<; (1812). 

Fostm-a, Dill.-niuN Nov. ,, t -u. <'<>. r. 3 (1710). 

Bromus, Dillenius in Lb ne, > L. nat. 8 (1735) ; Linne, Gen. pi. 15 

Agropyron, J. Gaertner, Nov. coram, Petrop. XIV, 539 (1770). 
(Agrop} r rum, Triticum partly, Vulpia.) 

1.t, G< ii. ]!.' i. 231} (1789). 
Eleusine, J. Gaertner, de Fruct. I, 7, t, 1, f. 11 (1788). 
(Leptochloa, Dactyloctenium. ) 

J ") (1805). 
Clitoris, Kwavtz, Nov. Gen. et sp. pL 25 (1788). 

3 (1810). 
Aira, Linne, Gen. pi. 335 (1737). (Deschampsia.) 
Tri- inn, Persoon, Syn. pi. I, 97 (1805). 
Anisopogon, 11. Brown, Prodr. j 70 (1810). 
Eriacbne, II. Brown, Prodr. 183 (1810). 
Danthonia, De Candolle, Fl. franc. Ill, 32 (1805). 
fAi ' ; LbromU8 -) T * AO /t«*i, F. v. Mueller in Bi-ntbam's Fl. Austr. YII, 602 (1874 

' Brown, Prodr. 207 (1810). 
Ophiuros, K. F. Gaertner, de fruct. Ill, 3, t. 181 (1805). 

Hemartbria, R. Brown, Prodr. 207 (1810). 
Rottboellia, Linne f., Gram. gen. 22 (1779). 
Mani.suris, L nm , M; ntks. II, 164 (1771). , 

Chionachne, R. Brown in ■ ^ ^- } \\ , w ilk] i a N rift 1 Fi iindezu Berl m, 

Dimeria, R. Brown, Prodr. 204 (1810). 
Imperata, Cyrillo, PI. rar. Neap. II, t. 11 (1792) 
Erianthus, Ridia d in M i !, ., ,. Fl. bor. Ainer. I, 51 (lN*y 
(Saecharum parti therum.) 

Elioniirus, Willdr-now, Spec, pi. 1 V, 941 (1805). 
Linne f., Gram. gen. 35 (1779). 

Andro] ogon, Royen, Prodr. exbib. pi. hort. ac. Li 

(Hetr-.ponon, I-. ! :,,,,,!„. C!, v.pogon, «l ,od ^Sriiin-) 
partly, Sor-lium. Ilolo-.uiiimn, Arthraxon, Batratnc , 
Apluda, Linn-, Sp. pi. 82 (1753), 


A. L. de Jussieu. genera plantarum 1 (1789). 


L C. Richard in Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. gen. An 

I, 45 (1815). 
Chara, Vaillant in Act. acad. Paris 17 & 23, t. 3 (1719) ; fi 

Rav (1670). 
Nhdla, Agardh, Syst. Alg. XXIV (1824). 
Berkeley, cryptogamic Botany, 424 (1857). 

Weber, Primit. fl. Holsat. 74 (1780). 
A 11 . Lamarck, Diet, encycl. I, 343 (1783). 
Maisika, Linn,', Gen. pi. 3:26 (1737). (Marsi-lia.) 
1 *' I i a, Vaillant, Bot. Paris 159, t. 15 (1727). 
Isoetes, Linne, Skanska Resa, 420 (1751). 
Swartz, Synops, filic, XV (1806). 
Swartz in Schroder's Journ. II, 109 (1800). 

'a Journ. II, 131 (1800). 
. (1718). 
S , - i- Pali, t, Prodr. Aetheog. 101 (1805). 

i partly.) 
™ioglossum, Kunze in der Bot. Zeitung 721 (1843). 

Linne, Gen. pi. 322 (1737). 
'' -\< smn, Tournefort, Inst. 548, t. 325 (1700). 

;godium, 8w j y L - & 106 (1800). 

^'^I^um, Lygodictyon.) 

l Mem. Acad. Turin. V. 149, t. 19(1791). 
\ opirtuim, Actinostachys.) 

toffinann in Comment Goett. XII, 29 (1796). 
rte, Nov. gen. et sp. pi. 8 & 128 (1788). 
(Pa k • ' Bron g niart in Bull, de la soc. philom. 186 (1821). 

Smith in Mem. Acad. Turin. V, 418 (1791). 
^KrS^l^tnk (XT00). (Todea.Lep- 

to pterig.) 


Tricliomanes, Linne, Hort. Cliffort. 476 (1737). 

Hymenopliyllum, Smith in Roemer's Archiv. I, 56 (1797). 
Smith in Mem. Acad. Turin, V, 416 (1791). 

(Hemitelia, Amphicosmia.) 

Alsophila, E. Brown, Prodr. 158 (1810). 

Dicksonia, L'Heritier, Sert. angl. 31 (1788). 

(Cibotium, Patania, Dennstaedtia, Deparia, Balantium partly.) 

Davallia, Smitl. in Mem. Acad. Turin. V, 414 (1791). 

Vittaria, Smith in Mem. Acad. Turin. Y, 414 (1791). 

Lindsay a, Dryander in Mem. Acad. Turin. Y, 413 (1791). 

(Lindsaea, Isoloi Schizoloma.) 

Adiantum, Tournefort, Inst. 543, t. 317 (1700), from Hippo- 
crates, Theo] and Plinius. 

Cheilanthes, Swartz, Syn. Fil. 126, t. 3 (1806). 

(Notholaena, Nothochlaena.) ,,„*<* 

Pteris, Linne, svst. nat. <> ( 173.V) ; Linne, Gen. pi. 322 (1/3/). 

( Pellaea, Choi lo] Lit obrochia. ) 

Lomaria, Willdenow in Berl. Mag. Ill, 160 (1809). 

(Stegania, Plagiogyria.) 

Blechnum, Linne, Sp. pi. II, 1077 (1753). ^ 

Monogramina, Commereon in Schkuhr's Kryptog. Gew. 8-, t. <■ 
(1809). (Monogramme.) , ,_ ,. v 

Woodwardia, Smith in Act. Acad. Turin. Y, 411 (1791). (DojJul) 

Asplenium. Linne, Gen. pi. 322 (1737), from J. Bauhin, lb&l- 

(Scolopendrium, Allantodea, Diplaziun. 

Thamnopteris, Neottopteris, Darea, Coenoptens, Atnjr , 
Diplora.) . nmfi) 

Cystopteris, Ber neuem Journ I, 2b (leu /• 

Aspidium, Swari !I. t29 (1800). 

(Nephrodium, Nephrolepis, Polystichum, Lasti ea ^ 

PolyToZm^Toumefort, Inst. 540, t. 316 (1700) ; from Theo 
phrastos \> 3- „, ^pteris, 

.Vi- ;.■■:■ . ...-.■! ' 7 - 

Phymatod. ia, Dictyoptens, Art ^ F 

Xif.hopteris, M .„- ium V rth : from 1>< ' 
Bauhin, Morison, Ray, Plumier and particularly re 
Polypodium.) TT 04 H806). 

Hypolepis, Bernhardt in Schrader's neuem Journ. 11, - V 

Grammitis, Swartz in Schrader's Journ. II, 3 & 17 (low/. 

(Gymnogramme, Selliguea.) 

Antrophyum, Kaulfuss. Enum. filic. 197 (1824). 

Acrostichum, Linne, Gen. pi. 322 (1737)— indicative. ^ 

(Elaphoglossum, Stenochlaena, Lomariopsis, Hymenolep , 
nopteris, Chrysodium.) . 2l3 (1827). 

Platycerium, Desvaux in Mem. soc. Linn. Par. v x, a \ 



Linne, Gen. pi. 323 (1737). 
Bridel, Bryologia universa I, p. XLVI (1826). 
Cyathophoram, Palisot, Prodr. Aetheog. 33 et 52 (1805). 
Catharomnion, J. Hooker & Wilson in II X. Zeal. II, 119 (1855 
Lopidium, J. Hooker & Wilson in Fl. K Zeal. II, 119 (1855). 
Hypopterygium, Bridel, Bryol. univers. I, XLYI (1826). 
P u Via, Mitt, n in the Journal of the Linn. Soc. X, 187 (1868). 
Rhacopilum, Palisot, Prodr. Aetheog. 36 et 87 (1805). 


Bruch, Schimperet Guembel, Bryol. Europ. fasc. XVII (1843). 
Conomitrium, Montagne in Ann. des sc. nat. sec. ser. VIII, 245 

Rsndens, Hedwig, Fundam. II, 91 (1782). 

Bruch, Schimper et Guembel, Bryol. Europ. V-VI (1855). 
Glossophyllum, C. Muelk-v, Svnops. muscor. II, 229 (1851). 
IB R fchamnium, Mitten in the Journ. of the Linn. Soc. XII, 503 

I>'-'ptery ? iuw, Mitten in the journ. of the Linn. Soc. XII, 21 


limper & Guembel, Bryol. Europ. fasc. 

57(1853). * 

Acrocladium, Mitten in the Journ. of the Linn. Soc. XII, 503 

Plagiothecium, Bruch, Schimper & Guembel, Bryol. Europ. fasc. 

48(1852). F 

^HAlystegium, Bruch, Schimper & Guembel, Bryol. Europ. fasc. 
H 56 (1853). P 

Jjpnum, Dillenius, Nov. gen. 85, t. 1 (1719). 

partly, Limnobium.) 
-^niodendron, Lindberg in Oefvers of kongl. Vetensk Acad. 

Fcerhandl XVIII, 375 (1861). 
^chythecium, Bruch, Schimper & Guembel, Bryol. Europ. fasc. 

^^K^escherelle in Ann. des Sc. nat. cinq. ser. XVIII, 239 
Rh apHdoste g iutn, Bruch, Schimper & Guembel, Bryol. Europ 
BfcvnT' 51 < 1852 )- (Rhynchostegium partly.) 
^ynchostegium, Bruch, Schimper & Guembel, Bryol. Europ 
ksc. 51 (1852). 

Bruch, Schimper et Guembel, Bryol. Europ. fasc. XLIV & XLV 

Daltonia, Hooker & Taylor, muse. Brit. 80 (1818). 


C. Mueller in der Linnaea XXI, 190 (1848). 
Pterygophyllum, Bride], Bryol. Univ. II, 341 (1827). 
Hookeria, Smith in the transact, of the Linn. Soe. IX, 275, t. 23 

Distk-h.-tplivllmn, ! >■ zy ,v Molkenboer, Muse, frond, archip. Ind. t 

33-35 (1846.) (Mniadelphus). 
Eriopus, Bridel, Bryol Univ. II, 339 (1827). 
Bruch, Schimper & Guembel, Bryol. Europ. V (1852). 
Thuidn.m, Bruch, Schimper & Guembel, Bryol. Europ. fasc. 45 

Leskea, Hedwig, Fund. hist. muse. II, 92 (1782). 

Braithwaitea, Lindherg in Act. Soe. sc. Fennic. X, 250 (1870). 
(Dendro-Leskea partly, Isothecium partly.) 
(Pseudo-Xeckeraceae, Hampe.) 
Entodon, C. Mueller in Mohl & Sclechtendal's Bot. Zeitung, 710 

Trachyloma, Bridel, Bryolog. Univ. I, pag. XLVT (1826)- ^ 
Lepyrodon, Hanme in annal. des Sc. nat. cing. ser. IV, 

(Leucodon partly.) 

Hampe in Lehmann, PI. Preiss. II, 118 (1846). 
Fabronia, Raddi, Atti Acad. Sien. IX, 230 (1811). 
Hampe in der Linnaea XX, 90 (1847). 
Trichomitrium, Reichenbach, Consp. 32 (1828). 
Ptychothecium, Hampe in F. v. M. fragm. phytogr. Austr. 

suppl. 50 (1880). 
(Leskea partly.) , ^ gfr 

Endotrichum, Dozy et Molkenboer in Ann. des Sc. nat. 
II, 303 (1844). 

< .: urliii, Endlicher, Gen. pi. 57 et 1451 (1836). 

Kuntv.-iiium. Schimper in Nov. Act. Acad. Caes. Leop. Corol. 
XXXII, 4 (1866). 

C. Mueller in Mold & Schlechtendal's Bot. Zeitung 767 (1848). 
Cryptogonium, Lindberg in Oefers. af Kongl. Vetensk. Akad. 
Foerhandl. 603 ( 1S73). ( Phvllngonium partly.) 
■ (1804). 
N'.rk.-ra, Hedwi- Fund. Inst. muse. II, 93 (1782). 
(non Neckeria, Scopoli. 1777.) 

Univ. II, 325 (1827). 

Papillaria, C. Mueller Synops. muse. II, 134 (1851). 

. ('. Min-llt-r, Synops muse. II, 129 (1851). 
'M - 1 ivtlv, Xet-kera parth ) 
M'-tooriuui, Bri.U-1, Brvol. Univ. II, 244 (1827). 
Umptochaete, IJi-i,-; : ,»,;■. j u A-r !!.-U.> <ler Novara, Bot. Then, 190 

lil: ' l »"nium, Brueh, Soliimp.-r et Guombel, BryoL Europ. fasc. 48 
(1852). (Flabelhria.) 

Wgw and Sauerbeck in den Verh. den St. Gall., Naturf. Gesellsd. 

II, 131 (1875). 
Vyrtopus, Bridel, Bryol Univ. II, 235 (1827). 

(Acrophyllaceae, Hampe). 

irriS" in Kov ' Act ' Acad " Caes ' Leop ' CaroL XI ' U1 *" 

!; V ('i^!- :1 " >Dulj 7 ** Bull, de la Soc. bot. de France 130 t. XX 
CUdomnion, J. Hooker & Wilson in Fl. N. Zeal. II, 99 (1855). 

. Hampe in der Linnaea, XX, 82 (1847). 

ov. Magaz. 69, 1095(1781). 

HSZ >80 ?i Schim P er in der Bot. Zeitung 377 (1843). 
HedS? Adanson > Families des pi. II, 491 (1763). 

{, Europ. fasc. 
" 9et 30(1810,. ( S,-l,Midiuiu partly.) 


C. Mueller in der Bot. Zeitung 775 (1843). 
Herpodiuni, Bridel, Bryol TJniv. I, pag. XLVI (1826). 
(Erpodium). , , . , -,, , v 

Goniomitrium, J. Hooker & Wilson in Lond. journ. of Bot. V, 
142 t. 3(1846). TT ... 

Leptangium, Montagne in C. Mueller, Synops. muscor. 11, 180 

Hampein der Linnaea XIII, 44 (1839). 
Dawsonia, B. Brown in Transact. Linn. Soc. X, 316 (1811). 
Psilopilum, Bridel, Bryol. Univ. II, 95 (1827). 
Catharinea, Ehrhart in Hannov. Mag. 933 (1780). 

PolXich^delphus, C. Mueller, synops. muse. I, 301 ( 18 * 9 )- ,. 
Polytrichum, Dillenius, Nov. pi. gen. 85 (1719), from C. Bauhin 

Pogonatum, Palisot, prodr. aetheog. 39 (1805). 


Greville & Arnott in Mem. of the Werner Soc. V, 72 (1824). 
Buxbaumia, Haller, Enum. stirp. Helvet. 1, 10 (1*4:.). 
C. Mueller in der Bot. Zeitung 802 (1847). 
Hymenodon, J. Hooker & Wilson in Lond. journ. of Bot. 
548(1844). VTVTns , 6 \ 

Bhizogonium, Bridel, Bryolog. Univ. I, W^i^&Brt 
Mniopsis, Mitten in the proceed, of th« 1 - ,;'/,. t . 

Leptobryum, Bruch, Schimper & Guembel, Bryol. Luiop. 
and 47 (1851). 

C. Mueller, Syn. Muse. I, 152 (1848). 
Mnium, Dillenius, hist. muse. 230 t. 31, f. 1 U 1741 )' ag24) . 
Leptotheca, Schwaegrichen, Suppl. sec. I, ldD *■ w , ,]-H 

Bridel, Bryolog. Univ. II, pag. XLIV (1 * /^ ^ lgg 
Orthodontium, Schwaegrichen, sp. muse, suppl. sec. , 


Brachymenium, Schwaegrichen, Suppl. sec. I, 131 t. 135 (1824). 
Bryum, Dillenius, hist. muse. 392, 396, 398, 400, t. 50, fig. 62, 

66, 67, 69 (1741). 
(Bryon Doliolidiuni). 
Webera, Hedwig, fundam. muscor. II, 95 (1782). 


Bridel, Bryolog, Univ, II, XLIII (1827). 
Zygodon, Hooker & Taylor, Muse. Brit. 70 (1818). 

■ rum, Bridel, Bryol. Univ. I, 746 (1826). 
Orthotrichum, Hedwig. Descr. muse, frond. II, 96 (1789). 
Hon. 31,, In in F, WYImt. iaUil. muse, gener. (1813). 
Macromitriura. Bridel, Meth, muse. 132 (1822). 
Sclilotheimia, Bridel, Muscolog. recentior. suppl. pars II, 16 (1812). 

Bruch, Schimper & Guembel, Bryol. Europ. fasc. II & III (1836). 
Brachysteleum, Beichcnbach, Conspect, 34 (1828). 
(Ptychomitrium, Glyphomitrium, partly). 

Bridel, Bryolog. Univ. II, XLIII (1827). 
Guembelia, Hampe in der Bot. Zeitung 124 (18 16). 
Grimmia, H,. muse. II, 89 (1782). 

; rirtlv). 
Bhacomitrium, Brid.L M-th-.d. niust-. 78 (1822). 
(Raeomitrium, Dryptodon partly). 

Bridel, Bryolog. Univ. II, pag. XLV (1827). 
%phocarpa, R Brown in Transact. Linn. Soc. XII, 575 (1817). 
(Mulonotula, Bartramia partly.) 

Unostomura, s u. journ. I, 24 (1806). 

^ilonotis, Bridel, Bryol. Univ. II, 15 (1827). M .. 

^reutelia, Bruch, S-l'n m r ,, Guembel, Bryol. Europ. fasc. 4o 
n et 47 (1851). 

frond. Ill, HI (1792). 
^eesia, Hedv.i, Kuiidan.. l.i.i muse 11,97(1782). 


B *wh, Schimper et Guembel, Bryol. Europ, pasc. 33-36 (1846). 
^geria, Bruch, Schimper et Guembel, Bryol. Europ. fasc. 33-36 


Hampe in den Yerhandl. der nat. Ges. von St. Gallen I, 330 (1870). 
Blindia, Bruch, Schimper et Guembel, Bryol. Eur. Fasc. 33-3G 

Holoinitrium, Bridel, Bryol. Univ. I, p. XLIII et 22G (1826). 

Campylopus, Bridel, metli. muse 71 (1822). 
Eueamptodou, Montaime in Ann. do.s. sc. nat., trois ser. IV, 119 

Dicnemon, Schwa, ... 1.. . S I. s.v. I. 226, t. 32 (1824). 
Dicnemonella, 11 F. v. M. fi-asmi. XI. suppl. 

47 (1880). 
(Leucodon partly.) 

Cynontodium, Hedwig, Spec. muse. 57 (1801). 
(Cynodontium, Tricliostomum partly.) 
Dichodontimn, Bruch, Schimptr et" Guembel, Bryol. Europ. fasc. 

46 & 47 (1851). 
Dicranum, Hedwig, Fundam. II, 91, t. 8 (1782). 

, synops. muse. I, 415 (1848). 
tuunp. in der Linnaea XVI, 41 (1842). 
(Bruchia partly.) 
Ecciviiddium, J. Hooker and Wilson in Lond. Journ. of Bot 

250 (1846). 
Ditrichimn. Tinnn, Fl. XI< -;•}. I. mini. 7i 7 ,1788). 
Zophiodon, J. Hooker & Wil-nm I, ■:,!. Journ. of Bot U 

543 (1844). 
Si.ruei ... Wilson in J. Hooker, Fl. Antarctic I, 128 (1844). 

Fuernrohr in 

der Regenst 

.. hi 

. II, Erga 

,-]!/. ITT, ^ 

Gymnostomum, Hedwig, fun< 

hist. muse. II, 87 (1 


R Brown 


Weissia, Hedwig 

, Fund. hist. 

sc. II, 83, 

90 (1782). 

Ill, 58 (1829). 

Trematodon, L. C. Richard i 

Ceratodon, Bridel, Bryol. un 


Hampe in Lehmann, PL Preiss. II, 116 (1846). 
mpoivs, Swart/, in Sohwaegrichen, sp. muse. Suppl. prim. I, 
SJ Mitten in the journ. of the Linn. Soc. X, 188 (1868). 

• .pi. II, r.v.i (17yi>. 

) (1824). 
Eucalypta, Schi 

C. Mueller, Synops. Muse. I, 73 (1848). 
Octoblepharum, Hedwig, spec. muse, frond. Ill, 15, t. 6 (1792). 
Leucobryum, Hampe in der Linnaea XIII, 42 (1839). 


Bruch et Schimper, Bryol. Europ. II, pag. HI ( 1843 )- 
Pottia, Ehrhart, Beitraege I, 175 (1787). n/>x 

['.■u-. ...;.„!. h.-ul. ,'„->,. i. ,.-■ nr. s t . i(i<96). 

is Moose, 108 (1800). 
ausc II, 90 (1782). 
Barbula, Hedwig, Fuiidam 11. 92 (1782). 

(Tortula partly.) ♦» m/iok»A 

Streptopogon, Wilson in Hookers Kew Gard. Misc. Ill, 51 (lbol.J 
Desmatodon, Bridel, meth. muse. 86 (1822). 

Greville and Arnott in^leim Weni. Soc. V., 442 (1826). 
SpWhnum, Linne, amoen acad. II, 263 (1750). 
I»i- kIou, Gm ill. I At r M, in. Wern. Soc. V, 461 (1S-W- 

• l' ar tly.) „„ ,<)! 

lr: •!'"<!•.!.. Bruch et Shimper, Bryol. Europ. Fasc. 23 et - 



Bridel, Bryolog. Univ. II, pag. XLV (1827). 
%scomitrium, Bridel, Bryolog. Univ. I, 97 (1826). 
Amphoritheca, Hampe in Ann. des. sc. nat. cinq. sen Ill, 340 

^tostbodon, Schwaegrichen, spec. muse, suppl. II, 441 t. 113 

(1823). & l 

F unaria, Scbreber, Gen. pi. II, 760 (1791). 


Seville and Arnott in Mem. Wern. Soc. IV, 139 (18Z3J. 

Sphaerangium, Schimper, synops. 
Tetrapt<Tum, Hampe i 

351 (1874). 
Pleuvidium, Bridel, Method. Muse. 10 (1822). 
Pleurophascum, Lindberg in Trimen's Journ. of Bot. vol. IV, 
167 (1875). 

Du Mortier, Comment, bot. 08 (1822). 
Sphagnum, Dillenius, Nov. gen. 86, t. 2 (1719). 


Mathieu, Fl. Belg. II, 74 (1853) ; from J. E. Gray (1821). 
Jungermannia, Ruppius, Fl. Jen. 345 (1718). 
Plagiochila, Du Mortier, Revis. des Jungerm. 14 (183o). ,. 

Leioscyphus, Mitten in J. Hooker, Fl. Nov. Zeal. II, 134 [Vim ■ 
Lophocolea, Du Mortier, Revis. des Jungerm, 17 (1835). 
Cheiloscypho.s. I , --' 1 )- ,. 

Psiloclada, Mil . h .1. Hooker, Fl. Nov. Zeal. II, 1 ! : > i 1 '^' ■ 
Gymnanthe, Tavl-.riu B-I.mami. X«\. pi. puu'. <x-t. I'^ 1 ;; 
Podanthe, Taylor in Hooker's Lond. Journ. bot. V, 413 (lo«V- 
Lepidozia, Du M< rti. >■. \i> :• d- - Jungerm. 19 (1835). 
Pleuroschisma, Du Mortier, Revis. des Jungerm. 19 (1»*>)- 
(Mastigobryum.) . l0 

Isotachis, Mitten in J. Hooker, Fl. N. Zeal. II, 1«» l - 

Kc;»p.mi-.. Du Murti.r, B'«vk d<-> .lun^-rm. 14 ( 1835 )' , 
Sehi>tuchila, Du Mortier, B-vk des Jungerm. 15 (1835). 
(Gottschea.) . (vy&k 

Polyotus, Gottsche, Lindenberg & Nees, Syn. Hepat. -« I 
Schisma, Du Mortier, Comm. bot, 114 (1822). 

Trichocolea, Nees, Eur. Leberm. Ill, 101-103 (1838). 

Radula, Du Mortier, Comm. bot. 112 (1822). 
Bellii, i, i:.. B ddi i i Ari ., Modem XVIII, 18 (lb-U> 


Du Mortier, Comm. bot. 112 (1822). 
Lejeunia, Libert in Ann, gen. sc. phys. VI, 372, t. 5 (1820) 

di in Atti soc. Moden. XVIII, 17 & 20 (1820) 

. XVIII, 17 .t K)(1S20). 
Zoopsis, J. Hooker & Taylor in Fl. antarct. 167, t. 66 (1845). 

u-en. 14, t. 7 (1729). 
Dilaena, Du Mortier, Comm. bot. 114 (1822). 
(Blyttia, Steetzia, Pallavicina.) ,.„„ 

Podomitrium, Mitten in J. Hooker, Fl. X. Zeal. II, 164 (1855). 
Umbraculum, Gottsche in Mohl & Schlecht. bot. Zeit. 3 (1861). 
Hymenophyton, Du Mortier, Revis. des Jungerm. 25 (1835). 

Aneura, Du Mortier, Comment, bot. 115 (1822). 

Mkz,, ria. lUddi, Atti soc. Moden. XVIII, 45 (1820). _ 
Maivhautia, Micheli sec. Marchant in Act. Acad. Paris. 229 

Asterella, Palisot de Beauvois in Diet. Ill, 257 (1804). 

Fimbraria, Nees in Hor. phys. Berol. 44 (1820). 
• -'■ uia. Micheli, Nov. pi. gen. 3, t. 3 (1729). 
Jjftoceros, Micheli, Nov. pi. gen. 10, t. 7 (1729). 
Jjocia, Micheli, Nov. plant, gen. 107, t. 57 (1729). 

m — "a partly). 

i '.■■■'.:,. i 


Hoffmann, Botanisches Taschenbuch 98 (1795). 

Nylander, Synops. Lichenum 65 (1858). 
Lichina, Agardh, Syn. algar. 9 (1817). „.. 

^enopsis, Nylander in Mem. Soc. Cherbourg II, 13 (18o4). 
pT ma ' Massalongo, nea g< • 

Woblastus, Tr„ k m . < ',•,, d. tr. nov. gen. Collem. (1853). 
^Ptogium, Acharius Lichenogr. Univ. 654 (1810). 
Ubryzum, WaUroth) FL crypt ^ g German . I, 295 (1831). 

Nylander, Synops. Lichenum 65 (1858). 
%mngW Montague and Berkeley in Hooker's Lond. Journ. 
of Bot. IV 72 H845V 



Nylander, Synops. Liclienum 6 
us, Persoon in Usteri's Annal. I 

5 (1858). 
23 (1794). 


Xylaml< ■. - 65 (1858). 

Thysanothecium, Montagne and Berkeley in Hooker's Loml 

Journ. of Bot. V, 257 (1846). 
Trichocladia, Stirton in Transact. Royal. Soc. Vict. April (1*81). 
Cladonia, Welter in Wi-vn, I'l-h,,. tl. H..! 90 (1780). 
Bieomvees, Ehrlmrt. Beitraege IV, 149 (1789). 
Stereocaulon, Schreber, Gen. II, 768 (1791). 
Heterodea, Nylander, svnops. lichen. Nov. Crdendon. 9 (1868). 

Nylander, Synops. Lichenum 65 (1858). 
Eumitria, Stirton in the Scottish Naturalist, July (1881). 
Usnea, Dillenius, Hist. Muse. 56, t, 11 (1741). 
Thamnolia, Acharius in Schaotvr ,-imm. lk-h Europ. 243 (1850). 
Euernia, Acharius, Lichenogr. Univers. St et 441 (1810). 

Platysina, Hoffmann, PI. Lichen, t. 31 (1789), from Adanson 
(1763). (Platisma.) 

Kamalina, Acharius, Lichenogr. Hnivers. 122 et 598 (1810.) 
Cetraria, Acharius, Method. Lichen., p. XXXV et 292 (1803). 

Nylander, Synops. Lichenum 66 (1858). 
Nephroma, Acharius, Lichenogr. I'm vers. 101 et 521 (1810). 
Peltig ra, Willdenow, FL Berol. 47 (1787). 
Sticta, Schreber, Gen. II, 768 (1791). 
Stictina, Nylaad 333 (1860). 

Ricasolia, Notaiis in Giorn. bot. Ital. II, 178 (1851). 
Parmelia, Acharius, .U,,th. li.-h. ,,. P . XXXIII et 153 (1803). 

Schreber, Gen. IT, 768 (1791). 
Pyxine, Fries., PI. homonem. 267 (1825). 

Nylander, Synops. Lichenum G6 (1858). 
Psoroma, Acharius, Lichen. Suec. 21 (1798). 

Diet, classiq. XIII, 20 (182 

- liiiiiui,,, PI. Li.-h- n. r. 35 (1791). 

ry of Plants 96 (1751). 

Gyalecta, Acharius, Lichenogr. Univers. 30 & 1 

Psora, Hoffmann, PL Lichen, t. 22 & 41 (1789). 

LWuearpia, Persoon in Froyc. voy. hot. 206 (1826). 

Lecanora, Achai rs. 77 & 344 (1810). 

( Xotaris in GioriL liot Etui. II, 198 (1851). 

Thelotrema, Acharius, Method. Lichen, p. XXXII & 130 (1803). 

Ascidium, Fee, Cryptog. ecorc. 96, t, 1 (1824). 

Urceolaria, Acharius, Lichen. Suec. 30 (1798). 

Pmusaria. De Cai tl, 319(1805). 

Interna. Massa] 573 (1852). 

I'- < r.. Aci rius, Lich. no»i\ IX ivers. 49 & 273 (1810). 

Lecidea, Acharin-. M.tI.,.1 I : I -,. . XXX a- 32 (1803). 

Oppfn-apha, Persoon in [XtnXs Annal. I, 23 (1794). 

Graphis, Adanson, Famill. II, 11 (1763). 

Coenogonium, 1; X !'-,rol. 120, r. 27 (1820). 

Chiodecton, Achai i. Soc. XII, 43, t. III (1815). 

Nylander, Synop.s. Lichenum 67 (1858). 
Endocarpon, Hedwig, Stirp. cryptog. II, 56, t. 20 (1789). 

Wrucaria, Yv'e , „,- 1 - in Wi^rrs", pri.'mt. flur. Hnlsat, 85 (1780). 
Sarcographa, Fee, Crypto- «v,..v. :>X t. Hi (1*21). 

in Konur]. Acm.1. ii,;,il. Li. 323(1821). 
£VMvula, Acharius. Lkh.-no-r. Univers. 64 & 314 (1810). 
Plagiothelium, Stirton in Transact. Boy. Soc. Vict. XVII, 75 
(1881). J 

Massalongo, Miscell. Lichenolog. (1S56). 
Abrothallus, Notaris in d'Orbigny, Diet. Univ. d'hist. nat. VII, 
350(1849). * " 


B - ^ Jussieu in Mem. de l'Acad. Paris 377 (1728). 
Fries, Syst. mycol. I, p. LIII (1821). 
SS? 1116111 " 8 "* LW ' Byst nat> 9 ( 1735 )' fr0m I)iosc0rideS ' 
S,1W US ' ?, ersoon > Tentaro. dispos. meth. fung. 62 (1797). 
^ort^Jp 0011 ' *W- m «tk fnng. p. 16 & 276 (1801). 
aS5 Fries ' Genera Hymenomycet. 8 (1836). 
SST' F; 338). 

* nus ' De Candolle, Fl. fran S . II, 141 (1805). 


Russula, Persoon, Observ. my col. I, 100 (1796). 

Cantharellus, Persoon, Tentam. dispos. fung. 26 (1797). 


Marasmius, Pries, Epicrisis 372 (1838). 

Lentimis. Fries, Plantae homonomeae 77 (1825). 

Panus, Fries, Epicrisis 396 (1838). 

Xerotus, Fries, Elench. I, 48 (1828). 


Sehizophyllos, Fries, Observ. mycol. I, 103 (1815). 


Lenzites, Fries, Epicrisis 403 (1838). 

Strobilomyces, Berkeley in Hooker's Kew Misc. Ill, 78 (18ol). 

Boletus, Dillenius in Linne, Syst. nat. 9 (1735) from Plrmus. 

Polyporus, Micheli, Nov. pi. gen. 129, t. 70 & 71 (1829). 

Trametes, Fries, Epicrisis 488 (1838). 

Fung. . XVII & 109(1801). 
Hexagona, Pollini, PL Nov. Veron 35 (1816) 
( Hexagon ia.) 

Pavolus, Fries, Syst. mycol. I, 342 (1821). 
Lascliia, Fries in Linnaea Y, 533 (1830). 

Merulius, Haller, Enum, stirp. Helv. I, 33,J1742), from Boerliaave. 
Porotheleum, Fries, Observ. mycol. II, 272 (1818). 
Hydnum, Linne, Syst. edit, secund. 32 (1740). 
Irpex, Fries, pi. homonem 81 (1825). 
(Xylodon. ) 

i, Persoon, Tentam 28 (1797). 
Phlebia, Fries, Syst. mycol, I, 426 (1821). 
Kneiffia, Fries, Epicrisis 529 (1838). 
Grandinia, Fries, Epicrisis 527 (1838). 
Odontia, Persoon, Tent. disp. 30 (1797). 
Craterella, Persoon, Observ. mvcol. I, 39 (1796). 

Ukdoderris, Persoon in Freycinet, voy. Bot. 176 (1826). 
(Cymatoderma.) „ ,-,0^9) 

Lachnoi ladium, Leveille in d'Orbigny Diction VUl, , «H ^ 
Thelephora, Ehrhart in Roth. Fl. German I, 538 (1 jety 

T ,d,., fun:* M< Ik! i. ! . ■ -Wt. t. 6 (1790). 
Stereum, Persoon, Observ. mycol. I, 35 (1796). . 

Hymenochaeta, Levoill, in Aim. dcs sc. nat. V, 151 (1846). 
(Hymenochaete.) qQ (l1 tf). 

Auricularia. Bulliard, Flerbier . 1, - la France, I, 3b, t. -»" \ 
Corticium, Fries, Epicrisis 5 ."if, (ls.SS). 

Hypochnus, Fries, Observ. mycol. II, 278 (1818). CoroL 

Dkfccmemia, Blume et Nees in Nov. Act. Acad. Caes. x# v 

XIII, 11 (1826). (Dictyonema.) 
Cyphella, Fries, mvcol. II, 201 (1823). 
Solenia, Hoffmann, Bot. Taschenb. t. 8 (1795). 

Clavaria, Vaillant, Botanicon Parisiense 39, t. 8 (1727). 

Calocera, Fries, syst. mycol. I, 485 (1821). 

TremeUa, Hudson, Fl. Anglic. 565 (1762). 

Exidia, Fries, syst. mycol. II, 220 (1823). 

Hirneola, Fries, pi. homonem. 93 (1825). 

Guepinia, Fries, pi. homonem. 92 (1825). 

Gyrocephalus, Persoon in Mem. de la Soc. Linne Paris, III, 

Dacryomyces, Nees, syst. der Pike 89 (1816). 
Sebacina, Tulasne in annal. des scienc. nat. cinq. ser. XY, 22; 


Fries, syst. mycolog. I, pag. XLVIII (1823). 
Dictyophora, Desvaux, Journ. de Botanique II, 92 (1809). 
Phallus, Dillenius, Nov. gen. 74 (1719) from Dalechamps (1587). 
Cynophallus, Fries, syst. mycolog. II, 284 (1823). 
li, Nov. pi. gen. 213, t. 93 (1729). 
Aseroe, Labillardiere, Voy. a la rech. de La Perouse I, 44, t. 12 

(1798). (Aseiroe.) 
Aathurus, Kalchbrenner in F. v. Mueller, Fragm. XI, 89 (1880). 
Lysurus, Fries, syst. mycol. II, 285 (1823). 
Heodictyon, Tulasne in Ann. is. B&-. H, 114 

<^ (1844 >- 

feecotmm, Kunze in Regensb. fl. 321 (1840). 

Aylopodium, Montague in Ann. dessc. nat. trois. ser. IV, 364 


•.col. Ill, 62 (1829). 
HieUorinia, Berkeley in Hooker's Lond. Journ. of Bot. II, 421 

Uusseia, Berkeley in Hooker's Lond. Journ. of Bot. VI, 508 

fcit rsoon ' Tentam - dispos - 6 (i797) - 

Joyces, Nees, Syst. der Pilze 136 (1816). 

OSSOp' Berkehy in Journ. of the Linn. Soc. XYIII, 386 


iderma, Persoon in Usteri's Ann. IX, 134 (1795). 
S*™» Pereoon, SynoiN. Fun- ,. XIV • • I -JH (1801). 


g^/^oon, Tentam, disposit. 6 (1797 from Scopoli. (1777). 

Crl 011 ' Tourne f<>rt, Inst. 563 t. 331 (1700). 

^ceaas ru m; Desvaux . & , A , XV II, 143, 


Arachnion, Sehweinitz in Schrift. der nat. Ges. Leipzig 14 (1822) 
Hymenogaster, Vittadini, Tuberac. 30 (1831). 

in Corda, Icon. fung. V, 28 (1842) 
Gautiera, Vittadini, Tuberac. 25 (1831). 
Octaviana, Vittadini, Tuberac. 15 (1831). 
Paurocotylis, Berkeley in J. Hooker, Fl. N. Zeal. II, 188, t. CT, 

fig. 9 (1855). 
Cyathus, Haller, Hist, stirp. Helvet. 

I, 89 (1844). 
Sphaerobolus, Tode, Fung. Mecklenburg. I, 43 (1790). 

Wallroth, Fl. crypt. Germ. II, 333 (1833). 
,<; «•'"" *'«■. "■•""> 1^-ri-sA. IX. .(1795). 
Bm [ham ta .Berkeley in Transact. Linn. Soc. XXI, 148 and 150 

Craterium, Trentepohl in Roth, Catalecta bot. II, 224 (1800). 
Leocarpus, Link in Berl. Mag. Ill, 24 (1809). 

mm. veg. Scand. II, 454 (1849). 
!-i»fc in Berl. Mag. HI, 24(1809). 
'• Hi r. ..i,,, li,.!vet. Ill, 110(1768). 
"■ ; " -'• '• -V>\. • . n. p| •>} t 5 (1797). 

in Mem. Acad. Berl. 153(1751). 
Linnaea XXIV, 140(1851). 
dispoeit. 11 (1797). 
A>.-wi.,. IliiJ. <.,,,.,-. ma. i Li r. 47(1751). 
Lycogiilu, Mid.eli, Xov. pi. ,, n . 210, t, 95 (1729). 
Tnchia, Haller, stirp. ||. \ -. Hi (1708). 
Penchaena, Fries, PL Homonem. 141 (1825). 
!,'" : - s ' : ' ''•■ Xov. gen. pi. 10(1797). 
Hemiarcyria, Fries, Syst. mycol. Ill, 183 (1829). 
Umproderm M der Mycetozoen 

(1873). J 


Martius, Fl. crypt. Erlang. 308 (1717). 
Sphaeronema. V 187(1815). 

Phoma, tries, Xovit. fl. Suec. 80 (1819). 

■''■:-. >yst. ]uVr uI. |[. M> , |>1'3). 

TJsteri's Ann. IX, 25 (1795). 

Fung. .IH, 69 

Nematogonium, Desuiazieres in Ann. dessc. nat. sec. ser. ft 69 

Aecidium, Persoon in J. F. Gmelin Svst. nat. II, 1472 (17^ 
-Kispora, Corda, Icon. Fung. I, 9, t. 2 (1837). 

tbentisch, Prodr. fl. Neomarch. 350, t. 2 (1804). 

< :-:,u'tnnn, Fries, OWi-v. mvcol. I, 220 (1815). 

L XII, 786 (1849). 
k in Berl. May. V ! I. 28 (1816). 
Fredo, Persoon in Usteri's Ann. IX, 16 (1795). 
Piuvinia, Micheli, Nov. pi. gen 213, t. 92 (1728). 
Mrlampsora, Castagne, Catal. des. pi. de Marseille 206, t, 5 

Hie in Ann. des sc. nat. trois. ser. VIII, 371 

Sorosporium, Rudolphi in Linnaea IV, 116, t. 2 (1829). (Scliizo- 
derma partly.) 

.'- eaphora, Fingerhut in Linnaea X, 230 (1835). 

TillKia, I, Ch. Tulasne in Ann. des .sc. nat. trois, ser. VII, 112 

Oraunm, Link in BerL Mag. Ill, 21 (1809). 

Martins, Fl. lT yp r. LYlang. 334 (1817). 
Isaria, Persoon, Tent. disp. 41 (1797). 
-ii-'imi. lode, Fung. Meckl. select. I, 10, t. 3 (1790). 

i'->de Fun- Meekleul,. select. I, 25, t. 5 (1790) 
: ir i»". AlL.uini Mnwimtz. (' -n^p. Fm.y. Limit. .V»8 (1MJ.V). 

Eefte 1, 5 (1817). 
•*> ■^'/•■tia, Berkeley and F. Mueller (inedited). (Thozetia, 

J"J*»™> Link indemBerl. Mag. IIT, 10 (1809). 

. ;i"T-i_il-.N. Mi.-lu-li. y., v . pi. -,u. 21 J, t. 91 (1729). 
v'";'". 1 ,:"" 1 - ^'n-tiu.s Fl. ervpt." Frkny. 325 (1817). 

, " *• • Lnik in dera Berl. Mag. Ill, 16 (1809). 

Senium, Link in] 

"idmin, L: " 

' ' ' M . 'i-i 

rliu. Mayaz.. Ill, 16, (1800). 
' May. II L 18 (1809). 
l Berl. May. VII, 37 (1816). 
■ Pern q, M, L Fur. I, 17 (1822). 
&:"?' -t. 3 (1837). 

tC ' ^! nk in dem Berl - Ma s- m > 18 ( 180y )- 

iJZ? Pereoon > 0b ^rv. my col. I, 99 (1796). 
CWii,?.* V 1 - homonem - 3 64 (1S24). 
« *VU 298 (1873) 

HelleolS 11111 ' r Link * *» Berl. Mag. Ill, 12 (1809). 
^ZX-^?° rda > lcon - F ™S- V, 18 & 55, t. 2 (1842). 
' Jllchell > N ov. pi. ge n . 215, t. 95 (1729). 

Phycomyces, Kunze, Mycol. Hefte II, 113 (1823). 

Antennularia, Reiehenbach, Consp. 5 (1828). 


Endogone, Link in dem Berl. Mag. Ill, 33 (1809). 


Fries. PL homonem. 50 (1825). 

Helvella, Linne, Spec. pi. edit. sec. 1649 (1763). 

(Elvela, 1737). 

Leotia, Hill, General, nat. hist. II, 43 (1751). 

Mitrula, Fries, Syst. mycol. I, 491 (1821). 

Geoglossum, Persoon in TJsteri's Ann. IX, 11 (1795). 

Peziza, Ray, Hist. pi. Ill, 18 & 479, t. 24 (1704). 

Phillipsea, Berkehy in the journ. of the Linn. soc. XVIII, 388 


Helotium, Tode, Fung. Meckl. select. I, 22, t. 4 (1790). 

Chlorosplenium, Fries, Sumra. veg. Scand. II, 356 (1849). 
i Vies, PL homonem. 154 (1825). 


Cyttaria, Berkley in the Transact, of the Linn. Soc. XIX, 40, t. 

IV (1841). 
Ascobolus, Persoon in J. F. Gmelin, Syst. nat. II, 1461 (1791). 
Bulgaria, Fries. Syst. mycol. II, 166 (1823). 
Ombrophila, Fries, Summ. veg. Scand. II, 357 (1849). 
Cenangium, Fries, Syst. mycol. II, 158 (1823). 

Hysterium, Tode, Fung. Meckl. select. I, 30, t. 6 (l^ 90 ); Ql ox 
Glouium, Muelilenberg, Catal. pi. Amer. septentr. 101 (lolty 
Stictis, Persoon, Observ. mycol. II, 73 (1799). 
Cordyceps, Fries, Svst. mycol. II. 323 (1823). 
(Cordilia, 1818.) 

Hypocrea, Fries, Syst. mycol. II, 323 (1823). 
Nectria, Fries, PL homonem. 105 (1825). , 1R4t j 

Xylaria, J. E. Grav, Xat. urmn^m. of Brit. pi. I, 510 (lb- 1 /- 
Poronia, Gleditsch, Sv.r. plant. :i03 (1764). .003) 

Hypoxylon, Li ,, der Gew. 111,348 (1W 

(Xylaria, Hill, 1751.) 

u is. < lenno Pirenom. (1844). 
Melogramma, Fries, Summ. veg. Scand. II, 386 (1849). 

. PL lioinonem. 110 (1825). 
Dothidea, Fries, Observ. mycol. II, 347 (1818). 
L>iatry,,a ; Fries, PL homonem. 106 (1825). 
Valsa, Adanson, Families des plantes II, 9 (1763). 
Sphaeria, Halh.-r, Hist, stirp HAvet. Ill, 121 (1768). 

Sphaerella, Fries, Summ. veg. Scand. II, 395 (1849). 

Ceratostoma, Fries,' Observ. mycol. II, 337 (1818). 

Astrrnui, Leveille in Ann. des. sc. nat. trois. ser. Ill, 59 (1845). 

Pries, PI. homonem. 111(1825). 
Rytisma, Fries, Syst. mycol. II, 565 (1823). 


Roth, Tentam fl. German III, 438 (1800). 

J. Agardh, Alg. mediterr. 24 (1842) from Agardh (1817). 
(Melanospermeae largely.) 

J- Agardh, species, genera et ordine's Algarum, J, 180 (1848). 

from Agardh (1824). 
fcargassuin, Agardh, Spec. Alg. I, 1 (1821). 
fwrocaulon, Carpacanthus, Fucus partly.) 
Jurinnaria, Lamouroux in Diet, class. VII, 161 (1825). 

. p. XXXIV (1830). 
(Lystoseira partly, Fucus partly.) 

Urpophyll um) Greville, Alg. Britannic, p. XXXII (1830). 
^ytothaha, Greville, Alg. Britannic, p? XXXIV (1830). 
l^sto Seira) par%j Fucug 

uardh in Act. Acad. Caes. Leop. XIX, 311 (1839). 
s Seville, Alg. Britannic, p. XXXVI (1830). 

^locystis, Areschoug in Act, Ups. ser. tert. I, 334 (1855). 

partly.) P 
(Bio? ,?' J - A § ardh ** LS ™»» XV > 3 ( 1841 )' 

W f' Pla *7loWnm, Cystoseira partly, Fucus partly, Phyl- 

Acri- ha \ Sa ^ assum P ar ^0 

Areschoug in Act. Ups. ser. tert. I, 335 (1855). 
(SiiS y v' J ' A S^dh, Spec. Fucoid 228 (1848). 

-ardh, Spec. Algar. I, 50 (1821). 
fi "I 01 ; 18011 & Bobart, pi. hist, univers. Ill 646-648, t. 8, 

*WW t'a 13 ' St. 9 ' % - x < 1699 >- 

(XicW?' A S ardh > Spec. Alg. I, 200 (1848). 

(°ystoS * ni } lch ™> Gen. pi. 10 (1836). 
C VKrW Par il y < ' form*.) 

XVII, 98 (1843). 
* £ a ' ^ytoseira, Fucus and Myriodesma partly.) 

Myriodesma, Descaisne in Archiv. du Mus. II, 148 (1*41). 
(Dictyopteris 1809, Rhodomela partly, Dictyomenia partly.) 
Durvillaea, Bory in Diet, class. IX, 192 (1826). 


Notheia, Bailey & Harvey in J. Hooker, fl. K Zeal. II, 215, t. 
109 (1855). 

J. Agardh, spec. gen. et ordin. Alg. I, 160 (1848), from 
Menegbini (1838). 
Carpomitra, Kuetzing in Linnaea XVII, 97 (1843). 

us partly.) M 

Bellotia, Harvev'in Ann. ,v Mag. of nat, hist. sec. ser. XT, 332 

Encyothalia, Harvey, Phycolog. Austral. II, t. 62 (1859). 
Xereia, Zaii.-mlini in Ginm. Lot. ital. II, 41 (1851). 
Spon,-hmi,, A._ r.lli. Syu„p,. Al u .,r. h ,,. \ I i et 10 (1817). 

Desmarestia, Lamouroux in Ann. du Mus. XX, 43 (1813). 

J. Agardh, spec. gen. et ord. Alg. I, 121 (1848), from Bory (1832)- 
Macrocystis, Agardh, Spec. Alg. I, 46 (1821). 
Ecklonia, Hornemann in Act. Acad. Hafniens, III, 3/9 (18-ty 


J. Agardh, spec. gen. et ord. Alg. I, 68(1848), from Greville, (18»> 

\uio.-n. Ital. 31 -I (1819). 
Padina, Adanson, Families des plantes II, 13 (1763). 
Zonaria, J. Agardh in Linnaea XV, 444 (1841). 
(Stypopodium, Dictyota partly, Phycopteris.) 
Lobospira, Areschoug in Act. Ups. ser. tert. I, 363 (1855/. 

Taonia, J. Agardh, Spec. Fucoid. 101 (1848). 

Cutleria, Greville, Alg. Britan. 60 (1830). /1809)- 

Dictyota, Lamouroux in Desvaux, Journ. de Bot. II, «*° \ 
Stilophora, :. I lora II, 642 (1847). 


Dictyosiphon, Greville, Alg. Britannic, 55 (1830). ,, 

Asperococ-cu s ; Lamouroux in Ann. du Mus. XX, 277 (1813> 
Hydroclathrus, Bory in Diet, class. VIII, 419 (1826). 
(Halodictyon, Encoelium.) 


J. Agardh, spec. gen. et ord. Algar. I, 45 (1848), from Harvey 


Adenocystis, J. Hooker and Harvey in Fl. Antarct. I, 179 (1845). 

(Aperococcus partly.) 

kJurase in Ann. du Mus. XX, 46 (1813). 
Liebmannia, J. Agardh, Alg. Mediterr. 34 (1842). 
Mesogloia, Agardh, Synops. Algar. pag. XXXVII et 126 

( '■ ■' 'i-'sij.hrm, Kuetzing in der Linnaea XVII, 96 (1843). 
Uiordana, Agardh, Svnops. Al-ar. pag. XII et 12 (1817). 

oaeaXV, 48 (1841). 
••;-ithesia, J. E. Gray, Arrang. of Brit. pi. I, 301 (1821). 
Hyfcfflwma, Greville, Scot. Crypt. Flor. t. 300 (1827). 


J- Agardh, spec. gen. et ord. Alg. I, 7 (1848), from Agardh 
Cladostephus, Agardh, Synops. Algar. pag. XXV (1817). 
bphacelaria, Lyngbye, Tentam. hydrophyt. Dan. 103, t. 30-32 

ECt Tl8m L y n S h Je> Tentam. hydrophyt. Dan. 130, t. 42-44 

Heterophycus, Trevisan, Saggio delle Alghe. coccotalle 101 (1848). 


J - Agardh, Alg. Mediterr. 54 (1842) from Lamouroux (1813). 
(Rhodospermeae largely.) 

J - Agardh, Spec. gen. et ord. Alg. II, 1 (1851) from Bonnemaison 

S? w ni ° n ' lyngbye, Tent. Hydroph. Dan. 123 (1819). 
Gri&- ^ in Hiker's Journ. of Bot. II, 191, t. 9 (1840). 
PtZ, T Agardh ' S y n °P s - A1 S ar - P a ?- XXVIII (1817). 
SK&*£^^ Algarr P ag P XIX * 39 (1817). 
^ t ^3 Harvey in Hooker, Icon, plant. DCLXII (1844). 

Gulsonk' TT Agardh ' Al & Mediterr. 83 (1842). 
0ma ' Har ™y, in Ann. & Mag. of nat hist. 

XV, 334 (1855). 

Dasyphila, Sonder in Mohl et Schlechtendal's Bot. Zeit. 52 

Haloplegma, Montagne in Ann. des sc. nat. sec. ser. XVIII, 258 


Ua, Sonder in Linnaea XXIII, 514 (1854). 
Ceramium, Agardh, Synops. Algar. p. XXVI et 60 (1817). 
Centroceras, Kuetzing in Linnaea XV, 731 & 741 (1841). 

J. Agardh, spec. gen. et ord. algar. II, 223 (1851), from Decaisne 

Platymenia, J. Agardh in Kongl. Vet. Akad. Handl. 87 (1847). 

Nemastoma, J. Agardh, Alg. Mediterr. 66 et 89 (1842). 

Halymenia, Agardh, Synops. Algar. p. XIX et 35 (1817). 
Polyopes, J. Agardh, Oefves (1849). 
Grateloupia, Agardh, spec. Alg. I, 221 (1822). 
Priomtia, J Agardh, Spec. gen. et ord. Alg. II, 189 (1851). 
Cryptonemia, J. Agardh, Alg. Mediterr. 100 (1842). 
Thamnoclonium, Kuetzing in 1 ; Linnaea, XVII, 101 (1843). 


J. Agardh, spec. gen. et ord. alg. II, 229 (1851), from Boxy 

Iridaea, Bory in Diet, class. IX, 19 (1826). o /iC7 m 

Rhodoglossum, J. Agardh, Spec. gen. et ord. Alg. Ill, 183 (1W 
Gigartina, Stackhouse in Mem. Soc. de Mosc. II, 6o et ' 

Gymnogongrus, Martius, Enum. pi. Brasil. I, 27 ( 18 ^)' 
Stenogramma, Harvey in Beechey's voy. Bot. 408 (1841). 
(Delessertia partly.) 

Kallymenia, J. Agardh, Alg. Mediterr. 98 (1842). 

Polycoelia, J. Agardh, Oefvers (1849). 
Callophyllis, Kuetzing in der Linnaea XVII, 102 (1843). 

from Raben- 

J. Agardh, spec. gen. et ord. algar. II, 160 <»~~, 

horst (1847). nTV et ISO 

Dudresnaya, Bonnemaison in journ. de Phys. XCi 

Nizzophlaea, J. Agardh, Spec. gen. et ord. Alg. Ill, 253 < 187 '' 
(Dasyphlaea partly.) n ~ nailS 

Halosaccion, Kuetzing in der Linnaea XVII, 106 (1843). 

J. Agardh, spec. gen. et ord. algar. II, 327 (1851), from Sonder 

J. Agardh, spec. gen. et ord. algar. Ill, 273 (1870). 

i. Sonder in iler Linnaea XXV, 691 (1852). 
Areschougia, Harvey in the Transact, of the Roy. Irish Acad. 

XXII, 554 (1855). 
(Halymenia partly.) 

Thysanocladia, Endlicher, Gen. pi. Suppl. II, 44(1843.) 
(Sphaerococcus partly, Gelidinm partly.) 


J. Agardh, spec. gen. et ord. algar. Ill, 290 (1876), from Kuet. 

zing (1843). 
Horea, Harvey in Transact. Roy. Irish Acal. XXI I. •"'■"■" (1-55). 
Jauchea, Bory & Montana I 6 (1846). 

Chylocladia, Gr ,. Fl. sec. ed. II, 297 (1833). 


Champia, Desvaux, journ. de Bot. I, 245 (1808). 

J- Agardh, spec. gen. et ord. algar. Ill, 307 (1876), from Harvey 

Hymenocladia, J. Agardh, spec. gen. et ord. alg. II, 772 (1863). 

a, Harvey, Phycol. Austr. II, t. 83 (1859). 
(Halosaccion partly.) 

. Al- Median-. 1-5(1842). 
(wastroclouium ) 
Cordylecladia, j. Agardh in Harvey's Ner. Bor. Am. II, 155 

J&odymenia, Greville, Alg. Britannic, 84 (1830). 

■. FL n. 31 (1874). 
J-Pymema, Ku,-t,;..,, >:,,,, \\-. :<l (1849). 
«ocami um) Lamon?oux in Ann. du Mus. XX, 137 (1813). 
lihamnophora, Thamnocarpus.) 
E^^ 6 ' Tent - Hydrophyt. Dan. 33 (1819). 
S°kW Hs ' K^^tringm Eegensb. Bot. Zeit. 23 (1847). 
(UUiblepharis partly.) 
"«%op8is, Sonder in der Liimaea XXVI, 519 (1854). 

dini (1842). 
Cruoria, Fries, Fl. Scanica, 31 (1835). 
Peyssonelia, Decaisne in Archiv. du Mus. II, 168 (1841). 
Rhodopeltis, Harvey, Phycol. Austr. V, t. 264 (1863). 


J. Agardh, spec. gen. et ord. alg. II, 506 (1852), from Meneghini 

Melobesia, Lainouroux, Polypiers flex, corallig. 315 (1816). 
Lithothamniu m, , fuer X 1 aturg. Ill, 

387 (1837). (IAthothamnion.) 
Mastophora, Descaisne in Ann. des. se. nat. sec. ser. XVII, 359 

et 365 (1842). 
Amphiroa, Lamouroux in Bullet philomat. (1812). 
Cheilosporum, Decaisne in Ann. des. sc. nat.' see. ser. XVIII, 125 

Arthrocardia, Decaisne in Ann. des. sc. nat. sec. ser. XVII, lo9 

(1842). (Amphiroa partly.) 
Jania Lamouroux in Bulletin philomatique (1812). 
Corallina, Tournefort, Inst, rei herb. 570, t. 338 (1700). 

J. Agardh, spec. gen. et ord. Algar II, 577 (1852), from D* 

Mortier (1822). 
Nizymenia, Sonder in der Linnaea XXVI, 520 (1854). 
(Areschougia partly.) 9Qn 

Phacelocarpus, Endlicher & Diesing in der Bot. Zeitung, W 

(1845). (Ctenodus, Spha< ru«'<.e.-u> p.n-tlv.) . „« 

Curdiea, Harvey in Ann. & M ,. of i it. List., sec. ser. XV, *w 

(1855). , , , % 

Melanthalia, Montagne in Ann. des sc. nat. sec. ser. XX, - 

Dicurella, Harvey, Nereis Austral, t. 50 (1849). 
(Cystoclonium partly.) 

Corallopsis, Greville, Alg. Britannic, p. LIV & 121 (1830). 
. p. LIV & 121 (1830). 
(Plocaria, Sphaerococcus partly.) vYTT boO 

Sarcocladia, Harvey in Transact. Roy. Irish Acad XAi-i, - 

(1855). _,, 

Tylotus, J. Agardh, Spec. gen. et ord. Alg. Ill, 428 (18vb>. 
(Gymnogongrus partly, Rhodomenia, Curdiea partly.) 
Sarcodia, J. Agardh, Spec. gen. et ord, AL' II. '''-'- < ^;': " 
Calliblepharis, Kuetzing in der Linnaea XVII, 102 (184^- 
(Rhodophyllis partly, Rhodymenia partly.) 

Du-rawma, Sender in Mold A- Schlecht. Bot. Zoit. 45 (1845). 
"irarilaria partly, C'v^oelonium parti v. Kpha.-r- .cordis partly.) 
Henngia, J. Agardh, Alg. Mediterr. 68 (1842). 
Stenocladia, J. Agardh, Spec. gen. et ord. Alg. Ill, 438 (1876). 
J. Agardh, spec. gen. et ord. Alg. II, 650 (1852), from Bory 
(1828)., Greville, Alg. Brit. p. XLVII (1830). 

Rwdoseris, Harvey, Nereis Austral. 22 (1847). 
1,1 / ■';.'. (jn-vili,., Alg. Brit, p. XL\ II cV 7L (1830). 
I' —na. Chauvinia, Hemineura, Hypoidossum.) 
1 - - >. Harvey, Xer. Bor. Americ. II, 98 (1853). 
J. Agardh, spec. gen. et ord. Alg. II, 410 (1851). 
Jh-hnmthoeladia, J. Agardh, Spec. gen. et ord. Alg. II, 412 (1851). 

U'ardh, S; v. r-vn. et ord. Alg. II, 415 (1851). 
Wlion, Targioni in A. Bertoloni, Amoen. Ital. 300 (1819). 
Wpiophlaea, J. A 3 -, Mo. te Lund 28 (1870). 

; ' iia ; Bivona in Iride Palermo^, icon. (1822). 

bakxaura, Lamouroux in Bullet, philomat (1812). 

A,tinotricliia, Deeaisno in Ann. des sc. nat, sec. ser. XVIII, 118 

J - Agardh, spec. gen. et ord. alg. II, 456 (1851), from Trevisan 

^'.anlinia. J. Agardh, Spec. gen. et ord. Alg. Ill, 533 (1876). 
.l\v,,,L Au.r, CXI (1859). 
hon.) V 

^haetangium, Kuetzing in der Linnaea, XVII, 101 (1843). 
£<*oty us, J. Agardh, Oefvers, Stockholm (1849). 

" the Transact of the Roy. Irish Acad. 

XXil. ;,;,, 

• A gardh, spec. gen. et ord. Alg. II, 464 (1851), from Trevisan 
T> (1848). 

(Pfff' J - A & rdh > S P<*. gen. et ord. Alg. II, 482 (1851). 
~ partly, Sphaerococcus partly.) ' 

PtilS;- A J ardh ' A %- Mediterr. 68 (1842). 

264 census op plants indigenous 

J. Agardh, Spec. gen. et ord. Algar II, 430 (1851). 
Gattya, Harvey in Transact. Roy. Irish Acad. XXII, 555 (1855). 
Hypnea, Lamouroux in Ann. du Mus. XX, 131 (1813). 
Rhododactylis, J. Agardh, Spec. gen. etord. Alg. Ill, 566(1876). 
(Chondria partly.) 

Dasyphlaea, Montagne, Prodr. phyc. antarct. 8 (1842). 
Mychodea, J. Hooker & Harvey in Lond. Journ. of Bot. VI, 407 

(1847). (Lecithites, Acanthococcus.) 
Ectoclonmm, J. Agardh, spec. gen. et ord. Alg. Ill, 573 (1876). 


J. Agardh, spec. gen. et ord. Algar II, 721 (1852). 
Oelinaria, Sonder in Mohl & Schlechtendal's Bot. Zeitung 53 

.(1845). (Halymenia partly.) 
Menstothttca, J. Agardh in Physiogr. Saellsk. Moete, Lund 36 

(1870). (Kallymenia partly, Kalymenia partly.) 
Catenella, Greville, Alg. Britannic. 1G6 (1830). 

Rhabdonia, J. Hooker & Harvey in Lond. Jour, of Bot. VI, 408 

(1847). (Dumontia, I , .clonium, Grig 8 *' 

tina, Soliera all partly.) 

bohera, J. Agw 156(1842). ^ E 

Eucheuma, J. Agardh, Oefvers. Kongl. Vet. Ak. Forh. IV, 5 

(184/)- (Gigartina partly.) 

J. Agardh, spec. gen. et ord. alg. II, 701 (1852), from TrevisaE 

Monospora, Solier in Casta"m\ Catul. !>!. Marseille 212, t ' 

(1845). * ' l 

Bornetea, Thuret in Mem. Soc. des sc. nat. Cherbourg III (1855). 
(Gnffithsia partly.) 

Wrangelia, Agardh, spec. Alg. II, 136 (1828). 
(Phlebothammion, Dasya partly.) 

Lomextarieae. i 

J. Agardh, spec. gen. et ord. alg. II, 724 (1852) from Naege' 

Lomentaria, Lyngbye, Tent, hydrophyt. Dan. 101, t. 30 (l 8l9 >' 

J. Agardh, spec. gen. et ord. Alg. II, 7l6 J} 85 ^ Q ( 
(Chondria partly, Chylocladia partly.) 

«. xxyaruu, spec, gen. et oru. ^ig. xx, . »~ \- - _« 
Coeloclonium, J. Agardh, spec. gen. et ord. Alg. HI, 639 { 

Coryneehulia, J. Agardh, spec. gen. et ord. Alg. Ill, 642 (1876). 

(Laurencia partly, Chondria partly.) 

Laurencia, Lamouroux in Ann. du Mus. XX, 130 (1813). 

(Chondria partly.) 

Asparagopsis, Montagne in Webb et Berthelot phytogr. Canar. p. 

XV (1840). 
Delisea, Lamouroux in Diet, des sc. nat. XIII, 41 (1819). 
il'"»niii-niaisonia, Bowiesia, Calocladia.) 

•.. Xcn-is Au-tr. 124 (1847). 
Leptophyllis, J. Agardh, spec. gen. et ord. Alg. Ill, 675 (1876). 
(Cladhymenia partly.) 

J. Agardh, spec. gen. et ord. alg. 787 (1863). 
mouroux in Ann. du Mus. XX, 121 (1813). 

Martensia, Hering in Ann. of nat. hist. VIII, 90 (1841). 

Dictyurus Bory in Belanger, Voy. aux Ind. Or. 170 (1836). 
Hanowia, Sonder in Mohl & Schlechtendal's Bot. Zeitung o2 


a, partly.) 
Uiftonaea, Harvey, Phycol. Austr. t. 100 (1859). 

Aniansia, Lamouroux in Desvaux, Journ. de Bot. II, 123, (1809). 
(Delessertia partly, Kuetzingia partly.) 

Levedlea, Decaisne, in Ann. des. sc. nat. sec. ser. XI, 3/ o (1839). 
(Amansia partly.) 

Polyzonia, Suhr in der Regensb. Flora, 739 (1834). 
^eurymenia, J. Agardh, sp 1 1 U ( 1863 )" 

^alia, Lamour $22). 

kuetzingia, Son I I bendal's Bot. Zeitung 4o 

(1845). " 
Wiphlaea partly.) „ . rA 

^normandia, Sonder in Mohl & Schlechtendal's Bot. Zeitung oi 

^midaria, Lamouroux, Essai sur les gen. des Thalassiophyt. 
T -'3, t. VII (1813). (Polyphacum.) tD; -^ 

J <*nner e tn, J Hooker & Harvey in Lond. Journ. of Bot, VL 

(Bobl 98 i (1847 >- 

^try gl ossumj Delessertia partlv .) ' „ Q -,v 

gjUn oseris, Zanardini in der Regensb. Flora n. 31 (18/4). 

(18?' HarV6y in H °° ker S L ° nd - ^^ 
^aenia, Sonder in Mold & Schlechtendal's Bot. Zeit 56 

Dictymenia, Greville, Alg. Britannic pag. L (1830). 
(Epineuron, Amansia partly, Delessertia partly.) 
Heterocladia, Decaisne in Archiv. du Mus. II, 178, t. 5 (1841). 
Trigenea, Sonder in Mohl & Schlechtendal's Bot. Zeitung 54 

Rhodomela, Agardh, spec. Algar. I, 36 (1823). 
Rhytiphlaea, Agardh, Synops. Algar. pag. XX V (1817). 
(Halopithys Rytiphlaea.) 

Alsidium, Agardm, in der Regensb. Flora, 639 (1827). 
Chondriopsis, J. Agardh, spec. gen. et ord. Algar. II, 794 (1863). 
Digenea, Agardh, spec. Algar. I, 388 (1823). 
Bostrychia, Montagne in de la Sagra, Hist, de Cuba IX, 39 


Agardh, Synops. Alg. pag. XXVI (1817). 
Dasya, Agardh, System. Algar. num. 78 (1824). 


J. Agardh, alg. mediterran. 1 (1842). 
(Chlorospermeae, largely.) 


Harvey, Nereis bor. Americ. Ill, 9 (1858). 
Caulerpa, Lamouroux in Desvaux, Journ. de Bot. II, 1*1 ( lb 7 
(Ahnfeldtia, Ghauvinia partly.) 

Halimeda, Lamouroux in Bull, de la Soc. philom. (1812). 
(Halymeda, Flabellaria.) ort , x 

Codium, Stackhouse, Nereis Britannic, Praef. 24 (1801). . } 

Chlorodesmis, Bailey & Harvev, Nereis Bor. Am. Ill, 29( J"j 
Vaucheria, De Candolle in Vaucher, Mem. sur les gra^ 5 

Conf. 25 (1800). 133 t . 3 

Bryopsis, Lamouroux in Desvaux, Journ. de bot. U, ' 

Udotea, Lamouroux, Hist, des polyp, corallig. flex. 311, pi. 


Dasycladeae. ^ 

Harvey, Nereis bor. Americ. Ill, 33 (1858) from Kuetzmg^ ' 
Polyphysa, Lamouroux, Hist, des polyp, corallig. flex. 

VI11 ( 18 16). „. « px 244, pi 

Acetabularia, Lamouroux, Hist, des polyp, corallig- ne*. 

VIII (1816). . flex . 241 

Neomeris Lamouroux, Hist, des polypiers corallig- 

(1816). (Bornetella.) 

Chlorocladus, Sonder, Alg. des trop. Austr. 35, t, V (1871). 
Pleiophysa, Sonder in F. v. M. fragm. phytogr. Austr. XI, 39 
(1880). (Polyphysa partly.) 

Kuetzing, spec. alg. 507 (1849) from Zanardini (1843). 
Penicillus, Lamouroux in Ann. du Mus. XX, 297 (1813). 

ICcrodictyon, Decaisne in Archiv. du Mus. II, 115 (1839). partly.) 

Struvra ; So'iuUt in M>hl ,'c ScUhvhi.uidals Bot. Zeitung 49 (1845). 
Apjohnia, Harvey in Ann. and Mag. of nat. hist. XV, 335 

KotyoBphaeria, Decaisne in Ann. des sc. nat. sec. ser. XVII, 328 

Anadyomene, Lamouroux, Hist, des polyp, flex. 365 (1816). 

Harvey, Nereis bor. americ. Ill, 51 (1858) from Lamouroux 
Porphyra, Agardh, Spec. Algar. I, 404 (1823). 
I- lva, Lamouroux in Ann. du Mus. XX, 277 (1813), from Eay 

Jjnteromorpha, Link in Hor. phys. Berol. 5 (1820). 

• Kuetzing in Linnaea XVII, 89 (1843). 
: . - • Lyngbye, Tentam. hydroph. Dan. 84, t. 24 (1819). 
ietraspora, Link in Schrader's Xeuem Journ. Ill, 9 (1809). 

Harvey, Nereis bor. Americ. Ill, 61 (1858), from Agardh (1824). 
Batrachospermum, Roth, Tent. fL genu. Ill, 450 (1800). 
i*manea, Bory in Ann. du. Mus. XII, 181 (1808). 

I as. XII, 399 (1808). 
. Ha.) 
^igeoclonium, Kuetzing, Spec. Alg. 352 (1849). 


Hwvey, Nereis bor. Amer. Ill, 69 (1858), from Stackhouse 


^Pongockdia, Areschoug in Oefvers. Vet. Acad. Foerh. X, 201 

^ophora, Kuetzing in der Linnaea XVII, 91 (1843). 
(Aplon? 0rpha ' Kuetzin S> Phycol. German. 203 (1845). 

Conferva, Kuetzing, Phycol. German. 201 (1845), 

Oedogonium, Link in Hor. pliys. Berol. 5 (1820). 

Harvey, Nereis bor. Americ. Ill, 92 (1858), from Fries ( 
Mougeotia, Agardh, System. Algar. p. XXVI et 83 (1824). 
Mesocarpus, Hassall in Ann. and Magaz. of Nat. Hist. X 1 

Zygnema, Agardh, System. Algar. p. XXIII et 77 (1824). 
I partly.) 

Kuetzing, phycolog. gener. 231 (1843). 
Mastichothrix, Kuetzing in der Linnaea XVII, 88 (1843). 
Schizosiphon, Kuetzing "in der Linnaea XVII, 88 (1843). 


Harvey, Nereis bor. Amer. 96 (1858), from J. E. Gray Q& 
Hydrocoleum, Kuetzing in der Linnaea XVII, 86 (1843). 
Leibleinia, Endlicher, Gen. pi. 5 (1836). 
Lyngbya, Agardh, Aphorism, hot. 9 (1821). 

• Roth, Catalecta bot. I, 212 (1797). 
Heteractis, Kuetzing in der Linnaea XVII, 89 (1843). 
Tolypothrix, ' . 88 (1843). 

Calothrix, Agardh, spec, algar. XXIV et 70 (1824). 

. Agardh, System. Algar. p. XXIV et 70 (1824). 
Conferv. t. 15(1803). 

Leptothrix, Kuetzing in der Linnaea XVII, 86 (1843). 
Vibrio, O. F. Mueller, vermium histor. 39 (1773). <,,-> 

Scytonema, A , \ X X IV et 113 (-iw I- 

in der Linnaea XVII, 87 (1843). 

Harvey, Nereis bor. Amer. Ill, 110 (1858), from ^^j^ 
Nostoc, Vaucher, Hist, des Conferv. 203 (1803), irova 
Sphaerozyga, Agardh in der Regensb. Flora, 634 (18-';- 

Protococcus, Agardh, System. Alg. pag. XVII et 13 (1824). 
Pediastrum, Meyen in nov. act. acacl. Caes. Leop. Car. XIV, 772, 

t. XLIII (1829). 
Scenedesmus, Meyen in nov. act. acad. Caes. Leop. Car. XIV, 775, 

t XLIII (1829). 
Trichodesmium, Ehrenberg in Poggendorf's Annal. 506 (1830). 
(Anabaena partly.) 

Chlamydomonas, Ehrenberg, Infusor. 64 (1833). 
Volvox, Linne, syst. nat. ed. derim. (1758). 

Kuetzing in der Linnaea VIII, 591 (1833). 
Penium, Brebisson in Ralfs' Brit. Desinid. 150, t XXV (1848). 
ttzsch in den Scbrift. der nat Ges. zu Halle I, 
Plenrotaenium, Naegeli, Gattung. einzell. Alg. 104 (1849). 

uarium, Corda, Animalc microsc. aupres de Carlsbad 111 


Agardh in der Regensb. Flora II, 642 (1827). 
Meyen in Nov. Act. Ac. Caes. Leop. Carol. XIV, 


777 (1829). 
Arthrodesmus, Ehrenberg, Infus. Tpierck. 152 (1838), 

Agardh, Conspect. Diatom. I (1830). (Transit to the animal 
forms of life). 
Cyclotella, Kuetzing in der Linnaea VIII, 535 (1833). 
Loscmodiscus, Ehrenberg, Kreide-Thierchen (1838). 

!ierchen57 (1840). 

^mpylodiscus, Ehrenberg, Bericht, Berl. Akad. 11 & 205 (1839). 


githemia, Kuetzing, Phycol. German. 57 (1843). ,„„_;« 

Hunantidium, Ehrenberg Beri . . I ". 1 Vk . I. 17 & 212 (1840). 

^bella, Agardh, Consp. Diatom. 1 (1830). 

^conenia, Ehrenberg, Infusion's Thierchen, t. XIX (1838). 

^phora, Ehrenberg, B« d '5(1 840). 

(S V ° n£ : ma - 1; -.. VIII, 589 (1833). 

^eis, Ehrenberg, Infus. Thierch. 193 (1838). 

gSfct^Kie- 20(1844). 

bathes, Bory 2 Diet, class. 79 & 593 (1822). 


Fragilaria, Lyngbye, Tent, hydroph. Dan. 182 (1819). 
Synedra, Ehrenberg, Infus. Thierch. 212 (1838). 

in der Regensb. Flora 693 (1833). 

Navicula, Bory in Diet, class. XI, 472 (1826). 
Pinnularia, Ehrenberg, Ber. Akad. Berl. 213 (1840). 
Orthoseira, Thwaites in Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist. Sec. Ser. I, 

167 (1848). 
Hyalodiscus, Ehrenberg, Ber. Berl. Akad. 71 & 78 (1845). 
Pleurosigma, W. Smith, Synops. of Brit. Diatomac. t. XXI 

XXII (1853). 
Stauroneis, Ehrenberg, Verbreit. des microsc. Lebens. in Amer. 

134-135, t. I & II (1843). 
Gomphonema, Agardh, Syst. Alg. p. XVI & 11 (1824). 
. Ehrenberg, Ber. Berl. Akad. 217 (1839.) 
iora, Ehrenberg, Kreide Thierch. 74 (1840). 
Hydr - ■ ,. Wallich in the Journal of the Microsc. Soc. U t 
XIII (1838). 
The generic synonymy of the Acotyledoneae is largely omitted. 
Further tri!.al Mibdi\i,i<,n ,,f Zn/.^-nnea.- and Diatomaceae 
admissible from Rabenhorst, flor. Europ. alg. aq. dulc. et sul> 

With a future supplement of such genera of plants 
hereafter yet be proved to exist likewise in this part of tl 
Jill also be given a list of all the genera of fossil plants 
found in Australia. 

>ditioxs to the Census of Genera of Plants 
hitherto known as indigenous to Australia, hy 
Baron von Mueller. 

Podopetalum, F. v. M. in Mclb., Chemist, June (1882), after 

Emilia, Cassini, in bullet, de la soc. philomat. 68 (1817), after 

Fitzgeraldia, F. v. M. in Wing's South. Science Kecord, II, 56 

x (1882), after Lyperanthus. 

Xeuropogon, Nees et Flotow in Linnaea IX, 496 (1834), after 

typhis, Acharius, synops. lichen. 106 (1814), after Chiodecton. 
Arthonia, Acharius in Schrader's neuem Journ. I, 3 p. 1 (1806), 

after Opegrapha. 
Trypethelium, Sprengel,. Anleitung zur Kenntn. der Gew. Ill, 
to .350, t. 10 (1804), after Strigula. , • 

JWophora, Cooke, Grevillea YIII, 20(1879),afterHymenochaete. 
1 ; ' luu.l,nui, Uu.tatins' - 
tlathroptychium, Wallroth in Rostaf. Sluzowce 122 (1875), after 

Prototrichia, Rostafinski, Sluzowce suppl 38 (1876), after Lam- 

^haerostilbe, Tulasne, carpol. fung. I, 30 (1861), after Hypocrea. 
Wbitaria, J. E. Gray, Arrangm. of Brit. pi. I, 508 & 519 (1821), 
„ after Sphaeria. 

^osphaeria, Cooke, Grevillea VII, 84 (1879), after Sphaerella. 
, ^Pluui-ia, Cooke, Grevillea VII, 84 (1*79), aft* i N dsa > 
1 • ■ - h& J t . ( ia di class. Sphaer. 5o (1803), 

-, after Valsa. 

Wopleura, W Smith, Diatom. I, 37 t. 10 (1853), after 

Surirella. ± 7TT 

^otia, Ehrenberg, Verbreit, des microsc. Lebens in Amer. t. Ill, 
n . 0843), after Epithemia. „ .. . 

^ma , Candolle, fl. francaise II, 48 (1805), after Fragdana. 
^Phoneis, Ehr. r k. Akad. der W»* zu 

**Kn 87 (1844), after Fragilaria (Doryphora). 


Biddulphia, J. E. Gray, arrangement of Brit. pi. I, 294(1621', 

after Grammatophora. 
Barteriastrum, fc?hnl,olt in Priichard, lust, of Infusoria 863 (I860), 

after Hydrosera. 
Auliscus, Ehrenberg in Monatsberichten 77 (1844), after 

Bictyocha, Ehrenberg, Kreidethierchen 68-70, t. IV (1838), after 

Triceratium, Ehrenberg, Kreidethierch. 79 (1840), after Hydrosera. 




Actinodium ..."' 



AglaophyJlum . 


216 Alchornea ., 








;;;";;;; 233 

AneUema ma 







Alphitonia 3 ...;'.'."^!]! 











'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 204 




.. 265, 266 






- - 





Amphibolis . -\']3 


Amphirotheca " 



'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 247 













Aadreaeaceae 248 

Basil/cum ".....'.'.'.'.'.'. 

Bati rh^ V , ni-:u 










Bu-oiu'Hiia .'..... ".'.'.'.'. 



;.'•' ■ ■: 

Beyeria ^ 


H.-m« i 

Botrychium ... 

Brachycome ... 

Brachynema ... 
Brachysema ... 

Carpacanthus ......... 







Caryodaphne. . . _ 

".'.'.'.'.'.'. 231 

'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 205 




= 1 

.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 20.". 














i 1 

■ ■ ■ . '.... V 

. .... 

.. .'..'." " 



< ,: ; ^ v :;:::: 

: 2 

ins .;; 

: - 

' j -./}'';■ lu 

Clinostigma 234 

Cloezia ZZZZZZZZZZZ..Z 208 
Closterium '2159 

Coocoearpia 2~>I 

Oxvonema 2(59 

Cocculus 188 

Cochlospermum 190 

Cocos 234 

Codiaeum 1% 

Codium 266 

rm 245,247 

Codonocarpus 201 

Coelachne 237 

(Wlebouvne 190 

Coelospermum 213 

Coenopteris ZZZZZZZ 240 

Coffea 213 

Coldenia 224 

Coleanthera 228 

Coleostylis ~]^ 

( 't.Ik'iiiaccae 2 ^9 

Colletia 2W 

< loMnln ■ • • 22j> 
Colobanthus 200 

co!ui,nnta :::::::::::::::::::::::: gi 

•_ : 

Commeliiia 23~ 

7 ■:} 

Compositae ~J* 

Conanthodium -j£ 

Concilium -j.'- 

Conferva 268 

Conferveae 267 

Coniferae ~Z\ 

Coniomycetes £* 

Connaraceae <*■ 









Conyza 215 






















... . 232 





gosmelia 227 





■ f !■ 

; ::rv :' 

Crotalana 203 

Crouania 25!) 

!'•"• :" :: ' : ■ 

^loph ium .; 

is**. - - 


Dolichandra * ' M 

\'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 201 

"!""!.'!." 187 


Donatia 21 


Z'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 222 


1). '» }* 

"'. l 


Svmoph™ I 

•2<X\ Dryptodoii.. 

; ; ) r ' 





; -'-:'l- i 

fcthodon 24 r I ^ ucal : 



Floi-iscpa .. 


Euxolus 201 

Evandra 236 

Everma 250 I Freirea 

224 i Freycinetia... 

Exarrhena .. 

Gasteromycetes' '. 



•'iaphaiX :::::::: 

Gastrolobium "..'." 


£|£ '... 

.'..'.' 200 




Grandmia" !"'.'.'!."!!." 





►... 230 

°«ophiia ;:; 


GiCi aeae ■;••••••• - 

ft* ;; 



X, lIlb f a ' " 









'.'.. 237 


: ':":'"- " 




P 212 


20 ), 202 

. . 




Gymnoschocnus ... 











i . . 



tadi\ s 


■ ^ 

Half 01, ha 

Halimeda 266 




Halopleuma .... 










Harpulfia "" Jos 


Harrisoria ' «>.ri 





Hedera ma ..'.'.";;:.';.';;;:' 



Si KFe 

P 253 




Illipe .. 






lentiopS ::::::::"" 















Isana . 

.::::::::::: ;>:■* 

1 Kuetzingia"!.'" 


| Kuoxia 



:::::::::::. 21? 

.... *« 



;; !]J' ; 

! LacSephalus ... 

■;;;;■ -^ 







Ixiolaena .. 


ixo°d?a or T... :::::::.": 

'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.''. 216 








fei a te3 231 

fp^r ki .»:: 





...lis!). 221, 227 

\['.\'.'.'.' .'.'.'. 233 




Leontopodiiim on 

L«pia ;;;;; 19 ^ 

LePHlium ;; 

■ ■ •.':.. 

;- : :--.a :: 


[-!''-'Wia ,.. 



f- l 'i'ifiiL-na";.' 

Lqmonia ... 






J- "-■Ulna 

..'..".'.' 220 



. 1 



Leptotriche .... 


C ski a :eat-!." 

Leucobryaceae . 
Leucobryum .... 


Leucodonteae . 


Leucophyta .... 

!.: .". : 


Limnophila .... 



Linschottenia . 



Liparophyllum .. 

gppa.-- e 








:::::::::; 1 

■ •■ 

. >2W 




'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 207 


::::::::■ fn 

lii^ tf0 


:.: : 




L^ia 8 Um " " 

Lyfodium on . ::::::;:::: 






Lys?mach ia 





" . 'J.!'! 

'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 20S 

'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 200 




Meeaia 1! 

. ... - ,. 

Melano?^ [Z":Z:. 












Nematoceras .. 

3 SC&T: 

260 Ochrolasia .. 

™-!^; % 






] nhmh% 210 


'.'.'.'..::: ItS 



0Z ° thamnlIS 

>!•'-•; hila 


1'haeomeria . 

« Ivies 
illia ... 






gS n ."::::::::: 

!!""!'. 2sb 




. . . 








K$r ha 

■•■•tropia . 











Philydrum - 



Memphis * 


Phlebocarya - 

Phlebothamnion % 


Pholidia f 



Pholidota | 



'...''.'.'. 203 

Phragmicoma j 



Phargmitea g 

Phreatia J 



Phycomyces £ 




Phycoptens - 


■■■•■■■••■• .. 


Phyllanthus J 





Phyllodeae t 


Phylloglossura 2 




Phyllopappus ~ 



Phyllospora ^ 

Phyllotncha .y 

Phymatocarpus % 


Phyraatodes >> 



I'l.v-cia 9 




Physolobium fl 







I'ilukm .... 3 

Piint-U-a 5" 




1'iper ; » 








::::::::::: "IS 



kS^ 31 * 


Pittosporum Z.Z. 

Poecilodermis "'.'.'.'.'. '. 


FUcodium ... 

.!"!!!!!!! 250 







226. 22S 

g-Bjofownm :: 

riagiosetum .... 

.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 237 


Plagiothelium . 05 j 






Platisma.... '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.' .'.'.' 
HatycSm 11111 


'.ZZZZ. 238 



!.' 200 

plates.::; ::: 


• 2S 





geiococca ' 


• *l 









Polypompkolyx .... 




'.'.'. 24S 

ZZZZ 237 


Polyatfchum ZZZZ. 

ZZZZ. 266 

gearotaenium )[ 


Polytrichadelphus . 

S ?** :;:;;;;;- 



.... 207 





Pomax ZZZZ 



".'. 199 


P °docarpu s . " 



294 censi 



Portulaceae ... 




Prasophyllum . 


Prionosepalum . 

Pronaya ' " '. 


Pseudalangium . 


Psora \... '..'.'.'.'.'.'... 

ptS tI0n .;::;:::; 






Pterygopappus .. 



[■■' ' !,'>"■".' 

1: - ■i-v.-if'i'.us' 

;: -' '■■-.: :;[-.i 
■ ■".' 





Senedo ra ' ' 

Scbizofoma . 






Scboberia . 










.".".'.'." 230 


:' ^ , : '. ' : ' : : :::.. 




.'.".".". 200 

s ler< t m nus 






;:::::: 203 


Scutellaria Z'Z'.".. 



Soliera « 

*° liva ;;;; I 



H:: 7 

Sparganium . 




... 22G 










... -'(is 


Thamnium » 

... 21! 


... 2I<I 





... \<M 



' liypogynae .. 



Thely chiton 


Therogeron " | 

.. 230 



Talinum ... 

" % 


. IS 

.. 205 


' ' .>!,] 





.. I'M) 


" •"-",'» 













. 2fti 




Tilletia ... • 

.. 20!i 

Tetracera ... 


'.'. 201 


Tetragonella „ 


P 239 


• :>- 

Tournefortia .. 


Tra.hyionia ..zzzzzz:. 2I2 

1- llV.HL-110 




. I- 

i rematodon . 


fnaathema -»01 

Tn Wilis ' J ' 5 

ZZZZ 193 




'ZZZZ 201 



Trichodenna '" 



Tricholea SimUin 




Trich° SptheS ■•••••• 

fl: 1 



= 1 

f!8«nea ZZ" 


Tnodia . 

Jnpetelus I". 


Tripiadenia ZZZZ 

ZZZZ 207 

^Pterococcus ' 

ZZZZ'. 237 


Trochocarpa .. 
Tryblionella .. 

-.:: ':.:.:'". - 


Typhonium ... 








Notes on Wool. 
By P. N. Trebeck. 

[Abstract of a Lecture delivered on November 2nd, 1SS1.\ 

Mb. Trebeck commenced Ids subject by giving a descriptic 

vool, and showing the difference between it and 1 

it by several well executed microscopic drawings by Mr. Hirst and 

Mr. Ebsworth, after which he gave its history from the earliest 

days to the present time, alk 

ment and development of the n 

proceeded as follows:— 

"To show how well our Colonies are adapted for sheep and the 
growth of wool, I will quote from the Statistical Returns for 1880 
fished by the Registrars-General of Victoria and our own 
<fW- It appears that we head the return with 32,399,547 
"»«ep (our Stock Inspector* ivtuni an estimate of 35,000,000), 
ajd the total for Australia and \ * Zealai I. 72,239,343 sheep. 
u w Chief Inspector of Stock estimates that 5 lbs. 7 ozs. is the 
average weight of clip. I consider that too high ; but supposing 
™*t each sheep cuts 5 lbs.— that is even too high, I fear— an-1 that 
*e shall this year shear 35,000,000 sheep, our New South Wales 
Produce of wool, at lOd. pe .7.291,666, and 

**> produce of all our Colonies and New Zealand— say 80,000,000 
at the same price would come to .£16,666,666, bee 
Sn ItJ ° f fellmon gered wool, which may be fixed at about 
-.000,000. Australasia is essentially a pastoral country, and I 
J™?* « our gra,.: ine they would 

«« improve their runs bv fencing and water supply that we should 
^double or even treble our present number of sheep and -row 
^tf\ ? ualities o£ w ° o1 as cheaply and as well as any country 
r proceed to describe the various kinds of wool, but 
myself principally to those used in our ordinary 
The kind we are most interested in here is the 
see before you some of the fines* 

ol in the world. We can for this description 

■ against any country. The 

5 and Germans 


fine quality clothing, such as you see on the table. 
i appear to have left off growing clothing wool, as 


the combing gives a heavier and a more profitable fleece. Those 
who have imported and used Austrian and German rams find that 
the tendency of the country and climate is to gradually add to the 
length of the staple, without much increasing the st. 
**"■■>, retaining at the same time its soui 

i improving in that lustre and freen. - V 

1 specially valuable. Keeping up the d 
le greatest trouble, espeeiu" 
suituusn districts. .For growing the highest qua 
the pastures must be moderatelv generous and succulent, and the 
climate not too arid. I would point <„if such eountrv as Sir 
S.uih!,.! A\ i;,,„,\ K;vi! ; r;iisseH's Carngham, 

m . Xl,, «"™- 'I'''- rieli.-r parts of the Mudgee district. 31.-.-rs. 
Olive and Hamilton's Collaroy, and generally, the sheep country 
on our western slopes, from 1,000 "to 2, .'500 feet above the sea. 
should also grow high-class wools. In Tasmania the pasture : 
Messrs. Gibson, Kermode, and Taylor, give very excellent results. 
_ I would here add that the Murrumbidgee district., which at one 
time was considered unfit for uTowini: u'ood wool, now produces a 
very large quantity of the highest class of combing wool. Most 
of the flocks have been est,, 1 h h, ,1 f, . ,,. , n \, jr-, and an h< ■ 
culled by experienced sheep «•!;,.. > , .< ..,-, r> - W-.xr. Without a skil- 
ful and heavy annual cull [most useless to try 

- d wool. 
By means of this heavy culling, not only the quality but the 
average yield for sheep has been gradually increased. In l^ 60 

the avera-v v. a> .> !K. ,,f -r.w \ 1. v.b ikis now m tnr -^ '; 

it is estimated at from 4. 1 , lbs. to l| lbs., and up to 5 lbs. I™1 
add that many flocks cut an average of 6 lbs., and some reach I lbs- 
I would also bring under your notice a few of the prize SM®| J 
from the Melbourne Lit; Saving btf> : ; 

honor of being one of the pportmulf* 

examining the ■ ich a grand exhi- 

bition of the highest class of combing wools could not be V r f n T 
anywhere else; at any rate, it was generally so i 
visitors from all countri, s who sav. it. I regret to say our Coio^ 
did not make a creditable ■ < : nd other leaai^ 

flockmasters did not exhibit You will see in r 
samples of both washed ai id can be P^f^L, 

any part of the world. The following gentlemen I 
prkes:— Sir Samu , V, ! . ,. Messrs. J. Gibson, W. Gibson 
Sons, PhilipRus>ell. .J. L. Cum-, T. Shaw. A. U. \^f\[ 
Pitts, and Austin and Millear. The thanks of the ™ lo ^* to 
due to these and other stud flockmast 

their present state of perfection, and so adding very mater . 
our national wealth. 

1 ou also see a sample of German clothing wool. The staple is only 
about half an inch long, and in comparing it with Mr. T. Cummings's 
and the other samples of long combing wool, it appears almost 

1 "''I'' ^^t our present leading flocks are descended from 

j i imported from Germany many years ago. 
Next to the merino wool, the Lincoln, Leicester, and Cotswold 
types are the most valuable. Only a very limited number of pure 
xht'tp are kept in our Colony. Mr, Higgins and Mr. Willsallen 
•'Pl'iar to have the greatest number of crossbred Lincoln and 
merino sheep, and consider tl . to keep. The 

s l ,e,la] quality of lustre, so valual 1 ■ in these coarse wools, appears 
*' 1, fairh veil maintained. The pure Lincoln sheep has been 
mm to cross better with the merino than Leicester or any other 
lied type. 

_'..•,. i samples. I must not forget to 
say that frequently wool comes to our market in a very different 
'"'"u theni. in one von will see the spear grass from the 
■ l \ country within 100 miles of Eockhampton. From its 
L'-a-matinn ii will yo right through the skin and 
--hand kill the Ja.n.p uud lewiUm a f. w days." The spread of 
* " - 1 '; ! ; '- quite- dii> . u sl„ np o Y ,, lV f rom the coast district of 
^•aislaiul. Also, some - . from our own 

tolony. In other, vou will see the two different kinds of burr, 
V 2 -, the Bathurst burr and the clover <>r tr -foil burr. The former 
j? now easily extracted by machinery, but the latter is much more 

There is also a small kind of carrot-seed which is difficult to get 
°*rt- All these spoil the wool f.>r hi^li-elass coods, and detract 
y m *Jj e valu e from 2d. to 5d. per lb. 
^dl now brieti some foreign wools, which 

a Ppear in strong contrast with our delicate liigh-class merino :— 
No. I. East India, Marwar, grey. 
2. Adrianople, unwashed black. 

8. Upper Egyptian, yellow fleece. 

]l'- f % h l ^ been kindlv lent to me bv Mr. Chard. 
W ' Ebsw orth has been good enough to let me have a dozen 

re*gn samples, a ., various kinds of clothing 

*he ma ?l ni actures ' whi <* are placed before you. You will observe 

:e per 

;i:he 1 

b. in the London market in 1878. In the 
ire are all picked out from the wool singly 

by hand. Each goat does not yield n 
kind of down or wool which is wovei 
shawls, which sell in London up to 2 

3 than 3 ozs. of the delicate 
to the celebrated Cashmere 
and 400 guineas. 



w,.« gro „. 



Vicuna fleece 

Mohair fleece 

Turkey '.'. 

1-2348 1 36i 

1-807 21 
( Wool ) 


White Cashmere 

Cashmere ... 

j Hair [\ ** 
(1-299 ) 


Brown Cashmere 


(1-349 V 
( Wool 


China white Cashmere 

Cashmere ... 

Haf 18 




China fair washed sheep's wool . . . 

Cape super snow white ... *" 



Silesian Reindor:. 

Mosuran, Upper Silesia 

Cape '.'.'. '.'.. 


1-322 * 

1-1434 3«' 
1-1510 SH 

1-uio :>; 


Islay alpaca fleece 

W. Coast, S.A. 

\ 1-1331 / u 
i Black ^ 

Treasurer, has kindly measured for I 

some German wool, and also some of the choice samples of < 
colonial wool, with the following results :— 


Wfce re ,,„,„. 

Me— nt 



German clothing greasy 


1-767 to 

-1041 1 1-1 

Mudgee clothing washed 

i ' wool greasy 


•>— Victoria greasy 
Australian merino— Victoria ewes' 

1-1250 to 

j 7!(i to 


. «i rieece 

1-270 to 1 


1 1 in now proceed with the qualities of wool. A good merino 
combing wool should possess— 

1. Fineness of fibre and length. —The finest we have measures 
under the micrometer unwashed, 1-1 227th inch, washed, 
l-1405th inch. The length should be 2J to 3.', inches. 
-• Softness and elasticity.— These are necessary for producing 
the highest quality goods. When a few fibres are 
stretched they should recede to their original length. 
You may have obsers • om \\\ A l|V( |, 

non-elastic wool soon get out of shape and l.ul-v *l t(V 
knees and elbows. 

3. Soundness and freeness.— All combing wools must be 

strong and separate freely like a skein of silk, or there 
is so much waste or noils when they are passed through 
the combs that maims | to rive long 


4. Colour and lustre.— The wool should be bright and light- 

co loured, so as to be capable of receiving the most 
delicate and brilliant dyes. For alpacas and many other 
manufactures, lustre is indispensable. 

tU i 6 ff et t0 sa y man y of our finest woc-ls are much injured by 
«* Bathurst bur, . , reading . Even in Virgil's 

me she epowners had similar trouble : 

^ : - I-iireta." 

uncW S , h0Uld be an Act un der which the Government would 
S k t t0 kee P tlie roads and reserves clear of these noxious 
*g»«Bd compel 1 , to exterminate 

" e s m fr °m their holdings. 

nnmp? are sometim es annoyed with ticks, which are occasionally 

-' to irritate the sheep into a feverish state, and 
fill th y fl 6 Sllki] - : colour it, and 

, «•-, 

effectual dips which don 
he Ws used a complicated one as follows :- 


Woeas qU e pices et pinguis unguine ceras, 
^ g SciU amque> elleborosque gravis, nigrumque bitumen." 

butCfo f artS ° f Scotland tfa ey smear the sheep with tar and 
from ft; , p 0ut tlie col d. The wool, however, suffers in value 

* «us dressing to the extent of 25 to 35 per cent, 
for kJ^ d ^ e ntion that a moderate quantity of yolk is essential 
a soanv g x W0Gl in a so .This yolk is 

P7 matter, consisting of animal oil in combination with 


potash and carbonate of potash. It appears to be produced in 
small glands fur the -fecial nouri-dnnent of the wool. Lincolnand 
Leicester wool contain only about 20 per cent., our Australian 
merino from 40 to 55 per cent., and German and Saxon wod fro 
55 to 75 per cent. The wool in box 14 would probably contain 
nearly 80 per cent. 

The yolk is the best substance we know of for washing or 
scouring wool, leaving it in a soft and silky state, or what is known 
as good condition. Flockmasters who wash their wool would do 
well not to waste a single gallon of the water containing this 
valuable detergent. Some flocks from our arid western plains are 
deficient in yolk, and consequently in soundness and softness of 

The quality of wool varies on different parts of the body. The 
best is produced on the shoulder, and the worst on the breech. 
The perfection of breeding is to produce a sheep with a heavy 
fleece of good wool of even quality all over its body. I hare 
been told that the French manufacturers spin 13 miles of yarn 
from one pound of our Mudgee wool. 

Sometimes kemp, which is a white lustrous hair, about half an 
inch long, makes its appearance in the fleece. TLi 
take a dye, and consequently wool containing it is unfit for tne 
manufacture of the highest class of goods. 

Uses of Wool. 

I will now proceed to show vou some of the uses to which wool 

is applied The manufacture "of our clothing is, without down, 

the most important. Mr. Yicars, the well-known tweed -^r~ 

iurer, who has table industry here vnW 

I am informed that much of our strongest wool is now o^ 
for working up shoddy and jute. Our high quality woo 
capable of taking very brilliant dyes, and you will observe °J 
patterns before you that the colours are as bright and as cten^ 
as those of silks. Wools retain their dyes well, °" d V* f^e 
when other materials are mixed with the goods that tney 

qUicklj - u In tk 

Carpets take a good deal of the strong coarse ^ 00ls> , ^ 
Brussels the weaving i . • I < I]ffer f \,° e In 

to make the patt- rns : whn-ea , "in the tapestry carpets ■* $# 
is printed in different colours, in a 

- -ught out by the contraction < t the yam '- 1 
The Kidderminster carpet is supposed to be all wool. 

Our Australian merino wool possesses the quality of felting 
Zl *a?^ ^ and is theref ore well adapted for milled goods, 
adcloths, &c. _ It is also made into fine felting for slippers, 
vermgs and other parts of pianos ; hats of all kinds 

foremost Colonies of 

'oS idlypl! 

On the importance of a Comprehensive Scheme of 
Water Storage and Canalization for the future 
welfare of this Colony. 

By F. B. Gipps, O.E. 

[Read before the Royal Society of N.8. W„ 7 December, 1881.] 

; engineering for this Colony suggested itself to I 
| proposed to describe tl Jj and meteoro- 

logical features of the country, and to design therefrom an 
elaborate scheme of water u As however 

J proceeded in my task its difficulties became more and more 
evincible, owing to iin - limitfl knowledge of our river system, 
woner, however, than allow such an obstacle to deter me altogether 
trom my purpose, I determined to initiate it under the above 

: • ; 
appreciated i 
members o: 
^rested i 
might collect re] to found a safe base < 

ions. The importance of such a scheme on the industries and 
welfare of a country can only be fully realized by a careful study 
j* ancient and modern history, and I shall therefore make no 

P^ogy for commencing my paper by a liberal reference to their 
5? u. PlUms of i ks are to be seen in the 

JXr )Urhood of the capitals of those ancient empires whose 
*wth _and might excited the envy and terror of the world for 
juries, but whose very sites are now only known to us through 

lP a ges of history, or by the desolate grandeur of their ruins, 
pit* numerou s remains of huge tanks, dams, canals, aqueducts, 
Pw'- a - nd P um P s > in Egypt, Assyria, Mesopotamia, India, Ceylon, 
?«?t and Italy, p ~ ve that the ancients had a far more 
Utel»7l* led & e of hydraulic science than most people are 
^ea to cr e C H t them with. To this experience it seems to me 
and t7 T nbute d the construction of many of those monuments 
the aa+ • unmort alized by their gigantic and imperishable rums, 
as f toms hment and admiration of the ancient historian as well 
assnm *• modern traveller. I am partially warranted in this 
their? h ? the fac * that the Egyptians ran canals through 
quarries, by which when filled by the inundations of the 

Nile, they transported on rafts proportioned to their weight huy 
masses of stone for columns or obelisks to the positions they were 
required at, the whole country being inte sected with numerous 
canals. Without doubt too the Egyptians, Chinese, and East 
Indians have from time km both for irriga- 

tion and turning mil!-;, and it is therefore highly probable that, 
understanding its property as a motive powvr, u.> y applied it iu 
the construction of some of their magnificent temples. What but 
a skilful application of hydraulics could have raised those mighty 
columns of the Temple of the Sun at Baalbec, 21' 8" in circumference, 
58 feet high, and weighing 272 tons, to their position 20 feet 
from the ground, or could have moved the column at the bottom 
of the neighbouring ouarrv 70 feet long, Id feet broad, 14' 6" 
thick, weighing 1,130 tons/ Aft a a r ■•-, iul j. aiKilof the records 
of history, ir :; to assert with confidence 

what particular nation originated the construction of reservoirs, 
canals, and water machinery. It is certain, however, that Egypt, 
India and China, followed by the Romans, were pre-eminent in 
ancient days for j tee ring science. 

The priests of Eg are composed of 

water, whilst Thales, the Milesian, taught that all things origi- 
nated from water. The first artificial lake of whi : * there is 
reliable record was called Lake Maris. The historians Herodotus, 
Diodorus, and 1 it, on the testimony of the 

inhabitants of the country, as one of the noblest work- of the jfWj 
from its enormous dimei.- ity for extensive 

irrigation for the benefit of mankind. According to them it was 
about 3,600 stadia, or 413 miles in circumference, and 300 feet 
deep. Two colossal statues on two pyramids raise.! then' heads 
300 feet above the lake and in the midst of if, '■■ dl>: the founda- 
tions of these monuments were fixed on the base of the reservoffi 
300 feet below the water-level. Modern travellers have e 

inference and depth ol 

3 than 50 miles, but 
ment it must have been a magnificent engineering - :/ * ul . 11 '; 
of the admiration of all ages. It was constructed, some hist onau 
say, by King Maris, others by King Amenemhet III, in the i- 
dynasty, 2084 years B.C. Its principal object was to reguw 
the inundations of the river Nile, with which it commnm 
cated by a canal about 12 miles long and 50 feet broso- 
When the inundation rose over 24 feet, and was hkejyj »> 
disastrous to the crops, the 1 the 7 1ake - 

relieved, owing to their drainage through the canal into the w > 
whilst when the Nile rose only 12 feet, and drought threaten^ 
the crops, the dearth was a< 

lake. As the Egyptians were so dependent on the ^ un . da ? ho0 d, 
the Nile for their welfare, even for their very means of live"" 


they made careful observations by fixed measures of the height of 
it in It evt i Img over a long series of years, from which 
I M tm :;. lined that if the flood rose only 16 feet a famine 
was threatened, or if over 24 feet a disastrous flood might be 

An ancient historian thus bears record to the fertility of 
the Valley of the Nile : — " The same land bears in one year 
three or four different crops. Lettuces and cucumbers are sown 
first ; then corn, and after harvest several sorts of pulse which 
are peculiar to Egypt. As the sun is extremely hot in this 
country, and rain falls very seldom in it, it is natural to suppose 
that the earth would soon be parched and the corn and pulse 
burnt up by so scorching a heat were it not for the canals and 
reservoirs with which Egypt abounds, and which by the drains 
from thence amply supply wherewith to water and refresh the 

Sesostris, one of the most illustrious kings of antiquity, 
vho reigned in Egypt 1491 B.C., was renowned alike for his con- 
quests as for th I He works. He had a great 
number of canals cut for the purposes of trade ; 
^ is said to have deigned flu- lirst canal which established 
communication between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea. 
this work was co :,., abandoned it because he 
3 a was higher than Egypt, and would 
therefore deluge the whole i ^Uy completed 
Jww the Ptoleiuir., Jn-u;iti..u canals are so numerous in 
jm>t, and irrigation is conducted on such an extensh . s, ate, thai 
« * calculated only ■& of the water in the Nile which enters 
W passes through to the Mediterranean Sea. 
J? a r T aluabl e little work cal ■ F - S - ^PP er ; 
««ne , C.E., states that in the reign of the late Khedive (Ismail 
Jfcha) upwards of one hund ^ smaU - have 
,cnt in the country no less 
J* (06 non-navigable canals, or such as are used solely for 
3Jon and 62 canals thai -^J 1 an ? St 
5j of goods and produce, making a total in 1879 «E 818 
ZT 8 - Out of a cultivated area of 4i million acres, 2,500,000 

V"\" : ' . - ^ ■;.■-■■■ 

»* Assyrians were equally renowned with the Egyptians from 
2 0St remote Periods of h - 1 ingenuity in 

l^^tion of hydraulic works. Through the foresight, 
moZ nSe , and ener gJ of their rulers, perhaps largely impelled by 
«*Z? ° fa w °rthy ambition to leave lasting monuments of their 
" ■ sterile country m the 
bich was the 


theme of wonder and admiration of the ancient historians. The 
country below Hit, on the Euphrates, and Samarra, on the Tigris, 
was at one time intersected with . numerous canals ; one of the 
most ancient and important of which, called the Nahr Malikah, 
connecting the Euphrates • :>u ted by tradition 

to Nimrod, King of Babel. I'.i'iH B.C., whilst other' historians 
assert that Nebuchadnezzar constructed it. The latter king is 
also by some considered the author of the most prodigious 
artificial lake ever constructed. It seems that during June, July, 
and August the volume of the river Euphrates increased so 
rapidly that it threatened to overflow its banks and cause con- 
siderable damage to Babylon and its neighbourhood, and it was 
therefore considered necessary to raise high banks on both sides 
of the river, built of brick, cemented with bitumen, to protect the 
city. To facilitate this purpose, a big lake was dug out 42 
miles in circumference and 35 feet deep, into which the whole 
river was turned by an artificial canal. When the embankments 
were completed the river was restored to its original channel, 
whilst the lake served as n ,t,,ra ui - re-uwoir for collecting flood- 
waters and distributing them for irrigation. With the destruc- 
tion of Babylon, the glory of the empire departed, the canals 
were neglects I . j bed b y I ierodotus as being 

prolific before all other lands in its production of corn, wheat, 
and barley has become so dr\ and barren that it cannot be culti- 
vated. The pri led b y the Euphrates were the 
Nakr Malikah or Fluvius Regius, the Kah-raga, the Nahr Sares, 
the Kutha, and Pallacopns. The Tigris supplied the Nahrawan 
and Dyiel, besid J& The whilom great im- 
portance of theXahrawan. 1 .. .t K rW cmm- :ve and agriculture, and 
its great antiquity, are test iti 1 to bv tie ruins of numerous towns 
and cities on both of its banks. It started on the right bank or 
the Tigris, where the river debouches from the Hamrine Hills, ana 
flowed at a distance of six or seven miles from the river towW* 
Samarra, where it was joined by a second conduit. About 1« 
miles further on i ) le river at Gann, 
and continuing its cours .1. A few mf s 
lower down it flowed into the Diyalah or Shirwan River, whicn 
was rais< d b\ a 1 irge band or weir to a sufli. i< nt h. ight to i 
of its continuance. It r : 

mg all the streams from the Sour and Buckharee Mountains, an 
finally flowed i ..,, It was over 400 miles 

long and of immense dimension., it, width varving from -0" 
400 feet, and by numerous branches on both sides it i m =f; e " 
very extensive area of country, whilst at the same time it 
available for navigation. Few. if any, hydraulic schemes 
modern days equal in boldness of conception this stupen 
achievement of a generation of 4000 years ago. The pre 

Lsignitieant in comparison with tin- Xahrawan. 
Tli" remains of reservoirs in the neighbourhood of Hebron, 
which the Jews are said to have constructed in the days of 
Solomon, for the supply of Jerusalem, show that their designers 
were equally alive with most engineers of the present age to the 
great importance of an ample and constant supply of pure water. 
A large portion of the supply conduit consisted of earthen pipes 
1 ;<■! with stMii,^ h, \wi f ,ut t i tit them, vhi.-h again were covered 
with rubble in cement, thus the coolness and purity of the water 
was perfectly preserved. The Phoenicians in the zenith of their 
power were celebrated for their canals, both for the supply of 
Carthage with drinking water .-mil for the purposes of irrigation. 
Agathocles, the daring but unfortunate Syracusan general, who 
t taught by his invasion of Africa to force the < 
raise the siege of Syracuse, left this record of his disastrous 
invasion, that " the African shore was covered with gardens and 
large plantations, everywhere abounding in canals, by means of 
wnch they were plentifully watered. The lands were planted 
*!& vines, palms, and niaiiv other fruit-trees, and the meadows 
v -10 iill t .a with flocks and 'herd,.- When the Llomans invaded 
-" ' ^tlranuiiau dominions lim vears later, then hbfori m Poly- 
ps drew a somewhat similar 'picture of their fertility and high 
mate of cultivation, liut undoubtedly tlm , .1 ivl...-l, . j .• 1 
Urthage with drinking water was their most notable achievement 
JJ water-works. > ly from a spring about 60 

s d i«tant from th citv, tnd in its course cut through 
a: -:^- by tu nu-K ai I u. -- 1 \ dlcvs bv lofty and massive 
J^lucts in , [, h . ft was 4 feet wide at 

ml f aucI 6 feet hi g h > closing at the top in the shape ot a 
P^amid, and was sufficiently 1 ig for a man to * ci with ■ is. 
^^as covered throughout, for sanitary reasons, and was con- 
victed most sul internally with 
S ' Vhich has Preserved it from the attacks of time so well 
;/ ; p'' 1 » '*' a l ire- portion of it is used for the supply of Tunis, 
From the same source. 

, the ruins of large aqued 
ST ° Ut their country, appear from a very remote period to have 

- '":•'--:- ■ ■ • :; •' —' " 

ancient con, Luit i a channel 3 feet 

«*, and which pier, e,l' , hill with a i um -1 marly a mde long. 
Mder^ aSOnr >' :l «l"'"'uet near I'afara crossed a ravine 200 feet 
^sW.uf f eetdee P- It was constructed of masonry m cement; 
inched r° Cks •■■ la- centre of 13 

r, and joints were formed similar to a spigot and 

Wt Jomt by the annular end of one end of a block fitting into 

a recess of the opposite end of another block. The joints were 
secured by cement, and also by iron clamps ran with lead. This 
aqueduct bad a considerable depression in the centre, and appears 
to have been one of the first attempts to run water in an inverted 
syphon, proving that the an ; igh tnowledj.'.' 

of the principle that water will rise to the level of its source. 

Italy, that land of genius, the birthplace of the mathematicians 
and engineers who revived hydraulic engineering in modern times, 
was also in ancient days the scene of some of the most magnificent 
water-supply schemes ever conceived or constructed. The Romans 
haviu. vau.'juishe 1 all rival empires hastened to take advantage^ t 
the hnovl. due tin \ had a< qnn d m tin n < >nqu< ds\ and m the 
construction of nun', i u „iaud m H ut.: . - uMic works, became 
renown -d nor onlv for iheir prowess in arms but also for their 
high \i\n-i ■ t ition c f th< u s an 1 , ii in t s Tin y app. ar t«. 
been especiallv scrupulous as to the purity of their drinking-water 
and as to the cleanliness of their person. To ensure the first, they 
const ted the Aqua-Martia, which v 

to encourage the last they built numerous baths. In the reign ol 
the Emperor Nero, Rome was supplied by no fewer than mne 
large conduits, having an aggregate length of 2o-") i iles, which 
delivered are* I 

. gallons dail; , ■ pial to^ru '_.; 

alone supplied the drinking-water was 16 feet in dianw * M 

40 miles long. One of the principal aqueducts it i.v.ssid ^ 

remarkable for tin ^nd. a- ..f i^ dimensions, and for tue -a- 

fulness of its construction. It had to - 1 

the Julia, Sepula, and die Aqua-Martia, and ti 

tion was exercised to prevt ; 

lower one, and .waters. Strabo, m ahudmg 

to the skill of the Romans in the application of hydi 

that not only w< A Rome but 

all the houses had svphons „r v nun pipes uhich P robabl J.^ 

1 e I to xt u 1 cidental fires. But besides excelling 

th-ir sanitary measures to deliver a pure and ample supply 

of water to" their different cities, the Romans were e 1 u J 

renowned for their encouragement of trade, commerce, 

agriculture, and for improving the salubrity of their c ' ^ 

by the construction of numerous canals. Thus, they otum 

the Pontine marshes, and so improved the river system was 

according to their historians, there was no river in 

not made useful for the purpose of commerce and the t J" 

of troops and provisions. Not content with thus developing^ 

resources of their own country, they studied, w I 

led the way, to improve the condition of the vanqu*n .^ 

similar public works. They constructed a series of large rese 

ring on the Black Sea, from 
which they supplii i largi cov» ed 

I ream of water. In France they con- 
structed conduits to supph Lyons, Fre-jus, Sony, Metz, and 
Nismes. The firs s of its conception and 

the skilfulness of its construction, and because it is one of the first 
known instances of the use of metal pipes subjected to any great 
pressure, is worthy of more than passing notice. It was d .'signed 
•i'ri.dlv i'.r tli.- punioM' of supplying the palace of Claudius, 
* ' f ' | in th 1 Ja t \ u-t of the town. It was covered with an 
arch of rubble st« i s, fa ed with c ment, internally, U in. 
thick. 2 feet from the base iron ties were inserted at intervals 
of 30 inches, to hold the side walls together and prevent outward 
pressure. The valley at the foot of the Soucien heights is very 
deep, and in order to as-. id a h^h aoueduct the water was con- 
veyed over in nine 8-inch leaden pipes in the shape of an inserted 
sphon, which rested on masonry piers, which afterw; Is con- 
ducted it to the palace. Th trm-ted in the 
•did, 000,000 gallons daily, 
» celebrated for a magnificent aqueduct called the Pont du Gard. 
{lumber describes it as one of the »i-a . i.-c m.-.m.. . - the 

Romans b 

■ country. " 
: arches support™ ; eleven 

«* equal span in the centre tier, surmounted by thirty 
^er size, the whole constructed in a plain style of architecture. 
« is surmounted by the canal, shaped in section like the letter TJ, 
which is 2 feet wide and 5 feet high, and is covered at -he top 
*"& large stone slabs, so that it can be crossed on foot." The 
^rywasso carefully fitted ik.a . , - a atier the lapse of so 
^7 centuries it still spans the valley, and 
J** by the storms of time. Again, in i 
^ supplied the towns of Se<^ ia, Se\ ille, I 
4 ^ of wnduits of considerable length, 

e yS On aQUedliets nf rrvoot ivmrrn^iirlo whirl 

«. 7 u storms or. Lime. Again, m opam *^>- ->- 

ey supplied the towns of Segovia, Seville, Evora, and . 
' " ble length, which crossc 

dtude, which, hoi 1 e nt 

crossed deep 

m y^ry remarkable feature 
^a i s equall . for the great aninputy 

thel IiUmer0US canals - The Gl ' eat or I^pe rial Caual k 0M 0t 
I tis 7, S * stupendous public work, of ancient or modern tunes. 
ong, and connects the Hoaugho and Van. gta B -g 
drvZ. Its de l>th is seldom more than from 5 to G : 
viikdkS 8 Jt is considerably less. To regulate its fall it is pro- 
«*hJ?^, a number of solid «.„„U.n Juices, over whichi easels 
J^edbynne:; side. It takes 

^sometimes , rerage velocity 

oal^^h,,, .: large lakes 

m t0 P of enormous dv kes J t is available both for navigation 


and irrigation, and together with its numerous branches, irrigates 
an immense area of country, thus affording millions the means of 
livelihood and support. 

Again, in the Malay Archipelago irrigation is carried out to 
such perfection as to excite the astonishment of the distinguished 
naturalist Mr. Wallace, who thus describes it :— " It was here 
that I first obtained an adequate idea of one of the most wonderful 
systems of cultivation in the world, equalling all that is related of 
Chinese industry, and, as far as I know, surpassing in the labour 
bestowed on it any tract of equal extent in the most civilized 
countries of Europe. I rode through this strange garden utterly 
amazed, and hardly able to realize the fact that in this remote and 
little known island, Lombock, from which all Europeans (except 
a few traders at the port) are j< aluusly excluded, many hundreds 
of square miles of irregularly undulating country have been so 
skilfully terraced and levelled, and so permeated by artificial 
channels, that every portion of it can be irrigated and dried at 

Many ancient native writers testify to th 
entertained by the inhabitants of India for water supply for 
irrigation purposes. The "Vishnood" declares that "no satis- 
faction is felt without water in the three worlds, Heaven, Hell, 
and Earth ; therefore a wise and learned man should cause reser- 
voirs, tanks, and wells to be made." The Yama-poran teaches 
that "a person in whose pond or tank there is a constant supply 
of water obtains perpetual felicity without doubt"; and tne 
Bhewish-Yotura-poonan exclaims : " O thou son of Koonti, get 
large supplies of water made at the sacrifice of your whole 
property, for the man at who.,- rev rv,ir the cow slakes her thirst 
becomes the preserver of Lis family." ve 

Immense tanks or reservoirs and irrigating canals appear to na 
been constructed in India many centuries anterior to the advent 
Christ, and some of them are probably equally as ancient as tW 
Egyptian canak The ( !ui has an embank- 

ment 102 feet hi-h, and of n.i.siderabb length. The Naggar 
Sulikerrai has an embankment 81 feet high and 603 feet _widea 
base, which encloses an area of about 40 square miles. ln _, j 
bay the Lachu r, , in circumference. In ^ 

the Mincheri tank forms a beautiful lake, of over 20 lU1 . les 
circumference. The Kalavara tank is about 46 miles m '' 1UI ;. 
ference, and is formed by an embankment 12 miles long aes o*> 
the Kalaoga River. The Kalu. arri tank f ,rn s a lake 60 ' mU J de 
circumference by an embankment 15 miles long, and 300 tew 
at base. Many of these immense embankments consist only or ^ 
trodden clay resting on the surface of the ground, and . a1 ^ „ 
structed without the application of any particular eng 
no puddle walls having been used to render them more vatei- 

With this brief allusion to the ancient tanks of India I shall 
conclude my descriptions of the celebrated water-works of antiquity, 
whick^ as noble monuments of the skill, patience and perseverance 
of their architects and constructors, merit our highest admiration. 
The precaution 'of the ancients in covering conduits that supplied 
nimking-water proves that they were fully impressed with the 
importance of su< -are to preserve 

the coolness and salubrity of the water, whilst their construction 

thorough appreciation of such works for the development of their 

mnicrcr. and industries. 

The revival of hydraulic science in modern history may be said to 
have commenced in Italy about the tenth century, when several large 

■■I one of the most gigantic enterprises constructed 

OJ the lock system, and pre < mi.i -i t in the skill and science dis- 

i-'^'l m it. e .nstnu-ti.,1.. It was designed bv AndrtW. partially 

""')■ Riquet, and was perfected and completed l»y the 

trv engineer Marshal Vauban, for a total cost of 

nearly one million pounds sterling Its average breadth is 60 

JSrta depth I rth 148 miles. Its summit 

eve is at a lake I miles in circumference, and 600 feet above sea 

^Whence the wat-r. :.,-.■ di-l routed to the right until they 

to the left as far as the 

( '/ ll ■ *hieh is near the port of Cette in the Mediterra i 

/, y'" ,lls " ii ■■ i> excavations. 

.' n ''K an,] a,, ;. !- ul r;dn almost 

Juices. Its great import- 

- it shortens the naviga- 

Thpp etW ? en Bom ' ,l ' ,;l 'i^ ftnd Marseilles by nearly 2,000 miles. 

. LanaI _ duCentiv is aimth.r national work retlectiug.^ivat credit 


nil o In iches. Their chief object was, however, to develop 
by means of irrigation the great fertility of both banks of the Po. 
Numerous water ditches trending along the terraced sides of the 
mountains irrigate the plains of Tuscany, in the neighbourhood of 
Florence ; unfortunately I cannot obtain any information as to the 
results of their application. Returning to the north, one of the 
most recent irrigation -, -h t.\< s <Wi\ in- it- - urce from the Lago 
Maggiore, owing to the reliable statistics supplied by Mr. Jackson, 
O.E., of its character, cost, and returns, merits especial attention as 
affording some basis on which we may estimatetheadvantagesof such 
canals in this country. Its a 30 miles long, ha3 

a sectional area of 604 squa -e r . r. , ,d was constructed at a 
cost of £215,516. The whole scheme, embracing besides the 
main canal two large canals, 14v and 18* miles long respectively, 
and numerous secondary. fee length of 132 

miles, and all headworks, &c, cost £880,000. Its returns per 
annum average about £60,245 for irrigation, £ 12,000 for navi- 
gation, and £3,755 for motive power and other uses, which give 
a total of £76,000, whilst its maintenance costs only £10,000 per 
annum, so that its clear profit is £60,000, which "represents 71 
per cent, interest. It is estimated that in forty years it wul 
return £1,280,000, which will cover the cost of its construction 
and maintenance. It was executed by a small company of local 
shareholders in 1872, for the purpose of irrigating a very dry tract 
of land embraci:. . [,-h supports a population ot 

459,166. The country has Q of -75 of r tnnt 

from west t" 

The profit per acr 

is estimated as 

follows :_ 


as |sar| — | > 

*£lueof f | profit per 

For sandy soil 

For clay soil 







The indirect advantages of irrigation are also considerable, a 
reduces the labour of ploughing, hoeing, and harrowing. -, 

The complete scheme will irrigate 190,690 acr 
cubic feet per second out of the 2 825 cubic feet of full supp; 
At the same proportion it would irrigate, together ^ «j 
remaining supply of 353 cubic feet, 217,930 acres, or 6W b l 
miles, at a cost of about £2,600 per square mile. 

The kingdom of the Netherlands for its size contains a 
greater number of navigable canals than any. They were 
commenced partly for drainage, partly for navigation, as early 
as the 12th Century, and proved of especial advantage to'is, which, by their means became the entrepot of 
the commerce between North and • South Europe. At present 
they permeate the country in every direction, and have led to an 
enormous trade between Holland and every part of France and 
Germany. The yearly profits of the canals is estimated at £625 
per mile. They are generally 60 feet wide, 6 feet deep, and are 
nearly level. Their banks are very thick, as they are the 
ptM drainage arteries of the country, and any breach might lead 

rh'Mnu.t dis.i^t; .u*. coin ipi. ,.■< - from inundation of the net- 
work of channels at the mouth of the Rhine. The principal 
i from Amsterdam to Mendiep, and is cm ■ 

'■ ' ;ii a£, E >r the encouragement of commercial enterprise, con- 
structed the celebrated Holstein Canal, which provides communi- 
cation between the North Sea and the Baltic. It is 26 miles long, 
^lusive of 6 mil o ; 95 feet wide at water- 

level 51|- feet at bottom, 9A feet deep, and is navigable for 
T essek of 120 tons. It cost £500,000. 
A. large proportion of the Russian trade is dependent on the 
ensive communication of the seaports with the interior of the 
J^ry by means of rivers and , mals M. ehandise and all kinds 
g to the Caspian 
les, by water passage, whilst the iron and furs of 
» lb eria and the teas of China are even now to a certain extent 
^eyed to St. Petersburg through a similar channel. 
o{ England has no less than 2,300 miles of canal and 1,800 miles 
nver navigation ■ by means of which the opposite shores of the 
gdom are united, and all the principal rivers connected with 
^another. Ei Is received great impetus 

^construction of the Duke of Bridgewater's canal in 1761. 
« grand enterprise nearly received a coup de grace at Barton, 
dei„ a 11 Rivt ' r - M r. ' I Jrind lev, a self-taught engineer, who 
aqS, .o^ 1 °" ; to cross tlie river by "J 

ft 3 , 9fm - but the proposal 

Hai'i dat ' fi! iUs theKenn y 

th e d me for Sydney water supply. An eminent 

^ Mhe'a'ir ITt ne^Tw^ 1 ' ' ' 

to be erected." Notwithstanding the formidable'' array of 

professional opinion against the plan of his engineer, the Duke 
fortunately followed it, and his confidence was fully justified by 
its successful completion. The length of this canal is 29 miles, 
and in its course it traverses a very difficult country. 

In Scotland, the Caledonian and Forth and Clyde Canals have 
proved highly advantageous to internal traffic, and have served to 
shorten the coasting traffic in stormy seas for several hundred 
miles. The first, surveyed by James Watt in 1773, has a total 
length of 601- m il es , which includes 37 J miles of lake naviguti-m 
and connects Inverness on the east coast with Loch Eil on the 
west coast. Its summit level at Laggan is 102 feet above sea- 
level. It is 120 feet wide at water-level, 50 feet at bottom, and 
20 feet deep. The Forth and Clyde Canal connects Edinburgh 
with Glasgow. Its total length, including collateral branches, is 
38-j miles; u., width, .v, f iv t at top, 27 feet at bottom ; its 
depth ^ feet, and its summit level 150 feet above the sea 
Some few years ago it was proved on this canal that it was 
practicable to impel a large passenger and goods boat at the rate 

<;.■'■■!•,■■■■:. ■ 

The two principal [risk canals." called the Grand and the Royal, 
are noted more on account of their enormous cost than for the engi- 
neering skill exhibited in their design and construction. The Grand 
Canal connects Dublin with Limerick, has a total length of lb* 
miles, including its branches ; it is 40 feet wide, 6 feet deep, and 
its summit level is 164 miles above the sea; its cost was 
£2,000,000 sterling. Mr. Wakefield declares that the Compaii) 
who constructed it sank more money in carrying it through the 

i bog than would 1 

Limerick The Royal Canal is 92 miles long, and 2d feet wide 
at bottom; and its summit level is 322 feet above the sea i ts 
cost was over £ 1 , .100, 000. .... w 

In Canada the English Un eminent have, mti 1 ' llu 

purposes the Hi u- Lake Ontario wit h "^ 

river St. Lawrence through the Ottawa, and the Welland Ua* 
uniting Lakes Erie and Ontario. ._j 

The Americans have exhibited the same restless energy an 
enterprise in the construction of canals a. in their ^^y ^ ■•' 
and rtrings, The aggregate length of their canals is <* 
6,000 miles, more than half of which is confined to the tare 
States of New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. The Erie tana , 
which unites Lake Erie with the Hudson River, is 363 miles wg 
70 feet wide at surface level, 42 feet at bottom, 7 feet ?^ bout 
its .summit level is 202 feet above the sea. Its ■ 
£5,000,000 sterling. In the State of Ca 
resorted to, on account of the small average ran 
surprising profit. According to the State Sum 
statistics for 1871, California could boast of 915 irrigating* - 


supplying water to 90,344 acres. Experience quickly showing 
the great advantages of this system, which from 20 acres pro- 
duced in some instances as much as 2,000 acres had yielded without 
irrigation, has since led to their construction on a mud 

The San Joaquim and King's River Canal and Irrigation 
Company's canal irrigates ovei 15,000 acres, and when its 
extension to San Joaquin city is completed it is estimated that it 
•fflttrigate 325,000 acres, which at 20 bushels of wheat to the 
acre {a low average for this valley) would produce 6,000,000 
bushels of wheat from ground which before hardlv [.reduced 
60,000 bushels. In 1875 tin ..1 > ,,ule- long, 55 feet 

vide, 4 feet deep, and had a fall of 1 foot to the mile. It was 
then proposed to ext« id ir Hi n il< s, with a grade o 
flaile. The Kin >n foreman v's d 

The King's Paver Irrigation Company's Canal is 30 i 

n " ' deep, and has a fall of 1 foot to the mile. The sup 

sufficient for irrigating 300,000 acres. The Fre 

miles, 40 feet wide, mid has a grade of -fo foot t 

uj .li 1 t'n.n ivm 1 1 mil long, 100 feet wi 

tend, and ._ u 

ls 30 udl, :i i,. ;i .. .",;, feel .,;,],., and :'. feet deep, with 1 foot grade 
to the mile; it was estimated to irrigate 50,000 acres, and most 
*1»e land covered by i I ailders. Besides 

tu pe iu-ig ti ii Ji , lT , h . . Vll tt , in 1871, no fewer than 516 
: ll!ll " r <Kt< hes, ^th of 4,800 miles, supply- 

^'-.000 mi]Ii.,ii -.all usually. There are also numerous large 
(1 , lt011 ^ cmsti-uct. [,'at icostofov.-i £3,200,000, by different large 
^mpanies employed in hydraulic sluicing the celebrated Blue 
J?ad and other tt the western flank of the 

;- 1 ^ Xevad.-. )l„m;, hi . Some of these evidence considerable 
■^ uu.l my , lT1 ; tv ; u tli( , ir eloign anc [ construction, having been 
J"* *«* ma.^ itersected in places by deep 

J» almost precipitous gorge* The vast influence of these 
P 1 :^^ develops tie' hidden wealth of the deep drifts may 
litch alone in Todd's Valley 
Jjwed a return of 16,000,000 dollars of gold-dust. wbSta SB** 
1872 had returned over 70,000,000 dollars of 
FJ d «st. An„ ,uv washed 224,000 cubic 

^ ° Ji'-t in mx ,!;. ,.\ v ith a water supply of 4,000,000 gallons 
*W the din , t one farthing's worth of 

L le cubic fo °t; and though the cost of wages and water 

X7 ery hi § K the 7 realized a profit of 2,350 dollars-a proof ot 
S * sn *H qua ,m in such deep drifts by a 

u of hydraulic power. c ^ , 

*oZ! et me P ause in ~ m J h ™t and hurried review o£ l h ?-F > 

QUlneil ts of the past skill, industry, and enterprise of different 


great nations of ancient and modern history, and before proceeding 
let me ask you to take a swift glance behind. The vista presented 
to your gaze is indeed pregnant with reflections sad and mt lunch h . 
as you look on the distant scene of departed grandeur, but gratifying 
enough as you look nearer the halting ground — as you see how 
by the light of modern hydraulic science the health, comforts 
and necessities of so many more millions have been administered 
to through so many varied channels. In the distant horizon far 
beyond the Pyramids you see immense lakes and canals constructed 
for the purposes of irrigation, commerce and defence, fostering 
nay it might almost be said preserving great empires. Two 
thousand years later you see the Roman Empire in the full blaze 
of its glory, nobly striving to preserve its reputation, not only by 
i i rious armies, but by the construction of 

massive and enduring public works which should be lasting 
monuments of their high endeavours to secure the health and 
welfare not only of their own people but of all their subjects. 
Two thousand years later in the foreground you see most of the 
powerful nations vicing with one another in inventing machinery 
to whirli wate r may be applied as the motive power in adapting it 
on a far larger scale to ini-alion and navigation purposes, and in 
supplying it in its purest condition to the different centres of 
population, whilst we have much greater wonders to aniici[>an 
from its application as a motive power to electrical machine-. 
Such a scene reminds me of an eventful pa-re- in the history of 
by-one days when, at tin- ,■ y, [ gazed on 

the thin stream of the Eueiish army headed by its noble chiefs, 
the talented and kin-h Canning and the lierv gallant L lyuc, 
threading its wa hriven town of Lucknow, 

through an avenue of princes, kings, and emperors, blazing wittt 
jewelry and all the splendour of Eastern dress, whilst far as ta-- 
eye could reach th etitni re massed to join in doing 

homage. In this scene too there was scope enough for diverse 
reflections. The vast multitude represented the remnants 01 
Empires whose ghay had d-parr-d i: m th. m, distinguished 1 
their time for mighty deeds of arms and wonderful works ot a _ >- 
whilst the progress of advanced civilization was represented i 
that thin stream of British soldiery, who had conquered, but wi 
the intention ot rings to the oppressed mH^ 1 

of their new subjects. How nobly they have performed their <WJ 

nying abstract of i 


canals may in some measure serve to realize to you. ^ 

Having thus briefly pointed out the important relation 
storage reservoirs and canals to the rise, progress, and £«2*J 
of the different nations in the world, more especia 
times, let me invite your attention to a few suggestions ^ 
applying to our own adopted country those great lessons tau„ 


by the experience of ages, which I earnestly trust may not only 
meet with your approval, but may engage your hearty co-operation 
to carry into effect. Asa preface it is necessary to consider the 
river system of New South Wales, which h - peculiarities not to 
be met with in the old world. For instance, the coast district, 
which has a varying width ranging from 10 to 70 miles, is watered 
by rivers which, having their sources in the lofty mountains of the 
dividing range of silurian orig r short courses 

rush down in sv / ■ sandstone .strata into deep 

ravines till they reach within a few miles of the coast, where they 
become navigable. This region seldom requires irrigation, the 
rainfall being sufficiently ample and constant to provide for all the 
requirements of cultivation. On the contrary, _ the rich plains 
which generally extend for some distance near their mouth require 
protection from the heavy floods which sometimes devastate them, 
impoverishing the settled ' the fruits .-t 

many years' labour. TheVm-r-, on the m extern flank of the 
dividing range, however, on debouching from their mountain 
1'asses, how through immense plains which offer every inducement, 
on account of the fertility of tin soil, foi wll-d sign I - - " ' 
"i navigable and irri-'atini: canalization. The principal rivers on 
the eastern flank .-. £aUing into the Pacific 

Ocean, ran-e to the toll ,. ' U'ths 1 . H 
embracing the Ne, u ,, i \\ ,1 .ndilly, 330 miles; the Hunter 
Kiver, 300 miles, tl, s, lhav. , I'tibmihs th Clannu - ' 
nul ™; the Macleay, 190 miles; the Richmond, 120 miles, ami 
^ Mannimr, LOO miles. uiross, Moruya, 

1 • ■ Kan J , \\ . _, |; . L1 e all under 100 miles long, 
ft are only na, i , - 1 -y small craft, owing to 

dangerous bars. 

The entrances to all the larger rivers are more or less dangerous 
•' ll 'V shipping ov in- to their shifting bar-, so that am nihu ■ 
navigation schen * ould commend 

^self to careful investigation. Having travelled but little on the 
c J>ast, and having had but little opportunin for collecting intm-ma- 
tl( f.on it, the only proposition I can at present suggest is the 
•fcfgofanavig ,d Wallis Lakes 

fP along the coa ■"«" J J 

» a direct line w f 100 miles with 

, he ^endid harbour of Port Stephens, whilst a short .railway 

SS 08 t0 Newcasl the Unk J ? nm , Tto 

^ tb - the proposed railway to Sydney. There do not appea to 

Sr^^' ; Ul SUCh 5 S t C lr a 'urn 

*L T' lf Pwperlv matured, it could be carried out *>r a sum 
?f> would shortly be recouped by the high prices township 
^ d would command at the terminus of the navigation in Tort 

The great rivers of the western watershed of the Great 
Phi Hi „ H.ii _< ar t 7 i !' \. and Murrum- 

bidgee. The Tumut, a til is 80 miles long; 

whilst the Namoi 600 miles, the Bogan 4,50 miles, the Gwydir 
445 miles, the Barwon 510 miles, the Castlereagh 365 miles, the 
MTntyre 350 miles, the Macquarie 750 miles, and the Warrego 
100 miles in length, are all tributaries of the Darling, which itself 
flows into the Murray 300 miles in a direct line below Albury. 
The Murray, with its various feeders and tributaries, draining a 
basin of fully 500,000 square miles, may be ranked with the large 
rivers of the world, and must at some" future time exercise the 
most important influence <■. Colony. In itself 

it is 1,120 miles long, of which distance 1,030 miles are navigable 
in ordinary seasons ; whilst the Murrumbidgee, which joins it 
about 2-20 miles below Albury, i- navigabh for over 700 miles, 
and the Darling River is navigable for over 1,700 miles. In dry 
seasons it is estimated that over 2,000 miles are lost to navigation 
between all three rivers, and yet there is a sufficiency of rainfall 
to ensure with proper storage and distribution a much longer 
stretch of navi ■.. Q Ls estimated for 

the most favoured season* now. The large f. rtiie plains of the 
interior which these rivers traverse would, by a well-devised 
scheme of constant irrigation, offer the most promising fields for 
the establishment of a st« ! hid pendent class of yeomanry 
farmers, for which En-hud i, w, h.^t . ( Cited, and who are 
the very backbone of any nati ai. They «-oul I stimulate internal 
trade, which is of far more i,n trade, which 

any war would interrupt and endanger ; and in developing our 
own resources they would render us much more in !■ ; ■■-•'■^ "* 
other nations, from whom we derive now almost all the necessaries 
and luxuries of life. I am I ith the physical 

features of the v. e rs to presume on suggesting 

any design for n- the advantages 

of such a system may 1 ' 

Liverpool Plai 

ratio that the 

lation of 459,000 as by the above scheme, 

would support a populati would i 

profit per annum, at £1 9s. 3d. per acre, of £1 1,025,000. W 

tract of country between the Lachlan and Darling Rivers, wwcu 

is far more extensive, would support over 100 million people. 

Again, for every sheep v. ' b certain amoun 

of risk, on account of frequ | from the expe 

ences of Southern California . ted hi luxuriaw 

pastures regardless of seasons, so that the increase in our wool ^ pro- 
duction would be something enormous, far beyond the capat>m w 

may be justly appreciated, I wall suppose that a 
o the Lago Maggiore could be a\ ; 
, a very fertile tract of 10 million acres. At the 

it would be well to take into consideration the storagi 

at little expense for low dams, could be constructed along the banks 
of the different rivers, and of which Lake Cudgellico offers an 
excellent example. Here a large sheet of water, formed by the over- 
flow of the Lac 1.1 1 i ei\ is i ned 1 i 1 » d i i and, judging 
from the frequent large marshes along the banks of other rivers as 
shown in maps, this instance might be multiplied many times. 

But the high prices claimed for land required for public 
works will be a p< t< it ..1 stacle t > the earryii « out of any system 
of canalization, i ianate the public 

property is stayed, or unless a clause is introduced in the Land 
Act providing : >- .wrnmcnt alienating any 

'and for riilwavs , ■ . . • ds it shall be able to redeem such lands 
for the m din,, pi ;,.,.. ,„ if j n f, , T( 1. by the purchaser, shall make 
good the area required elsewhere in the neighbourhood. But it 
seems to me that in order to secure the full advantages of future 
improvements to the public, it would be preferable to stop land 
sales altogether, and instead to issue long leases for unoccupied 
kads; at the sain- time introducing a sturdy class of labourers on 
them under promise of steadv emplovmeut on j 
s ^h as canals, for n certain number of years, to be followed by 
grants of from 20 to 40 acre - ihe line of sucn 

public works where culm i - condition that 

the cumulative ren ts of such ucted m smaJ i 

their blocks fre. he term of the lease, whilst 

P^ral blocks i <*J h***™* 

fool-growing. Such a disposal of the public property would 
f oster the settlement of a lar-e population in the i t« ] t, * inch 
would Ila , v ,. .1 trade, whilst it would 

f^frfanypul bhout constantly 

™PPmg into the public purse for monstrous land claims, and when 
the lease lapsed the property would revert to the public at a 
fatly enhanced value. My experiences in Southern California, 
*n*g a visit of , d me of the great import- 

°J a co untry and iation. There is a country 

^ Isuppoa - t^Z 

p r ara !u ., r , won d become 

JJremany ,-. ; „Iorado on the 

J* 8 * dope of the Coasi B ' the f "^f 10 * 

to the diw— > ■ 

^ntry wlienI 

One gardener assured me that he realized a yearly profit of 
2,000 dollars off 2 acres, whilst another paid off the whole cost of 
his farm of 40 acres with the proceeds of the first year's crops. 
The value of land increased so rapidly that some of fche irrigation 
Companies realized enormous profits on the purchase price of it, 
and derived besides an unfailing large income from the sale of 
water. In the San Joaquin Valley a tract of 1,000 acres of flat 
sandy country, which would in its natural -rate barely support 
one sheep to the acre, was rendered so fertile with irrigation, 
combined with cultivation, that when sown with alfalfa, a species 
of lucerne, it fed no less than twenty sheep to the acre. In the 
same valley, as noticed above, it was estimated that a large district 
considered previa tillage would, by means of a 

large irrigating ditch, produce 6,000,000 bushels of wheat yearly. 
These are startling figures, and prove undeniably what little 
chance our farmers have and will have in competing with such a 
granary unless we strive immediately to provide some remedy in 
the development of our river system and tax the import of grain. 
Independently of the advantages of irrigation and navigation 
which such development would ensure, our mining fields offer m 
themselves sufficient inducement to encourage us to proceed with 
it. Hydraulic mining has been hardly introduced here, and yet, 
owing to its great economy, it must shortly attain considerable 
importance. According to Professor Silliman's investigations m 
California, it took 17,074,758 cubic yards of water to wash 
989,165 cubic yards of gravel by hydraulic sluicing; at which 
rate 3,486 gallons would wash 1 cubic yard of gravel, or 3$ 
million gallons would wash 1,000 cubic yards, which is about the 
average quantity sluiced away by a first-class hydraulic mine per 
diem. From this calculation some impression may be formed ot 
the grand results which may be anticipated from a skilful appli- 
cation of even a small reserve of the waste waters which rush 
down the Snowy and Tumut Rivers to the deep gravel drifts or 
Kiandra; for supposing the average depth of these drifts to 
only 90 feet, and the average yield only 3 grains per cuDW 
yard, then every 10 acres would yield 9,075 ounces of gold, wortn 
£44,031 5s. These drifts extend for miles on miles along toe 
dividing range of the Tumut and Snowy Rivers and its numerous 
spurs, and I am informed wherever tried have proved ■ *W 
auriferous. Here, therefore, mountains of wealth may be tr ^ 
said to exist, only awaiting the application of a sufficien t» 
constant supply of water under pressure through an y ^^ 
nozzle to be properly developed. Again, gravel drifts ot sl , 
character extend for many miles along the banks of the d 
haven, Turon, and several other rivers, which by the same ^ 
could be forced to disgorge their hidden wealth. In tn ^ 
undeveloped wealth of our mines, and in the immense a 


our rich pastoral and agricultural land, there is therefore every 
inducement, nay, it behoves us as a duty to futurity, to elaborate 
a comprehensive scheme of water storage and distribution. But 
the collection of data for such purpose is a matter of great magni- 
tude, and must necessarilv involve long and patient .study : in 
fact, it should be entrusted to a committee rather than left to the 
limited range of one member's observations and conclusions. It 
will be necessary to examine from carefully compiled maps the 
watersheds of all the principal ri rs, especially noting the 
positions offered by the favourable physical features of the country 
for the impounding of lai-v basins or water at a M.iidl compara- 
tive expenditure ; and these positions should then be personally 
examined and notes taken as to their adaptability for storage 
reservoirs, their probable area, and the amount of water they 
would impound ; to ascertain as approximately a a 

r &e whol< ***■?" (t 
the rivers ; to ascertain from careful observers living on different 
sections of each river its water carrying capacity 

capacity of each river may be increased or floods may be pre- 
vented, which will include its divergence into navigable and 
irrigating canals ; and lastly, to have a 

of the temperature and evaporation of all large reservoirs ; tor 
though Mr. Moriartv. :».]. .] ■' n._: pmUibly the result of observa- 
tions of the Meteorological Society as epitomized by Humbei, 
asserts that on such a deep capacious basin as the prospect 
Reservoir little or no evai vet the carefu 

observations of Mr. Conybeare, C.E., on the actual amount or 
evaporation from the Vehar Lake, Bombay, which is BO teet aeep, 
^d impounds 10,800 million gallons of water, proves that there 
« a clear loss from that source of 1,000 million gallons a year, or 
a J the rate of 6 inches per month, for the eight dry months of 
the year. In view of the great importance of such a scheme, ana 
^ vast influence on the rations, 1 wouia 

su ggest that Government should be petit 

rveytlieposui . m the different 

n ver valleys which could be subjected to irrigation from any main 
«*al, to divide t cte, and to devise a geneial 

^heme for their irrigation fr..m such canal. „i„w„ 

I* » only through reliable information on the above subjects 
^tany one can hope to design and elaborate a F«f?* le gj 
c ^prehensive scheme for water storage and disin .""'■»-. I , 
°Vt of such a scheme must be to combine as far as ^F^cable 
^ng with navi^al le , u d as the advantages of such a 
^bixiation are of the highest importance. An ungating canal 

serves to develop the internal resources of the country, in the 
impetus it gives both to pa •: ill-suits' ; whilst 

si naviiiiilihM-aiisil, 11.vnr.H1n. t>, Mtu-ph. mih, -gives fresh life to 
established man:: 1 i s ] ime nt of new 

ones, by the ease of transporting the materials of manufactures and 
provisions. They invigorate and in many places create internal 
trad,' winch, for its extent and value, is an object of still more 
importance than foreign commerce, and they greatly promote 
foreign trade, am t } ie merchants of the ports 

they are connected with, by facilitating the exportation of produce 
from and the i iut0 the interior 

ports of the con | y on a leve l with 

mantnne ports, or, in other words, the interi. v ports become coasts 
and enjoy the aooommodatioD rhe combination 

ay therefore be justly prog- 
nosticated that a new era of prosperity will dawn on this country 
of much greater endurance t nticipated under 

present conditions. 

ti$\ IIP- 1 111 1 I j Ml 8i,tjH 

|M lllpp if P I IP IIS 

llflfl! IIP- II I PiSflll 

Ujggj |--i k ; sTTrTn" 

is m|n in Si 





Hon. Professor Smith, C.M.G., President, in the Chair. 

About seventy members were present. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

The Annual Report of the Council was then read, a 

"In presenting their Annual Report, the Council a 
!? te that the affau in a prosperous condition. 

V* number of new members elected during the year 
^ too names were restored to roll, the Society lost by death 
^\ members, by resignation seven, and two had to be struck 
°» the roll for non-payment of the annual subscription, thus 
^ the actual i . and the total number of 

Ambers on the 30th April, 1881, 452. 

Une honorary member was elected du 
^ton Hooker, K.C.S.I., C.B., M.D., -._ 
$* Gardens, Kew, thus completing the limited number, twenty. 
^ following gentlemen were elected corresponding members, 

ition, London; 

Sfr^Sir Edward V- J. ^ZT* 

J ^ Honorary Secretaries of the Society, and Mr. F. B. Miller, 
m^ - ' ° f the Melbourne Mint: making the total number of 
^Ponding members four. The Society's Journal, vol. Mil, 

> has been duly distributed to all the members entitl 


,- -- « xs hoped that vol. xiv will be ready shortly. 
Cliv S Uncil llave ^ pleasure to announce that the die: 
e been received from Messrs. , 
, London ; and that, after payment for the same, tn< 
dance of .£209 Us. 3d. standing to the credit or t 

CTl „ u fixe e P - 
^nental Bank, bear in- interest at the rate of 4 per cent from 
l}f December last. At the Council meeting held on March 
* * ** unanimously resolved to award the Clarke Medal for 


the year 1881 to Professor M'Coy, F.R>S., of the Melbourne 
University, for his distinguished researches in the palaeontology of 

During the past year the Society has received 749 volumes and 
pamphlets as donations, amongst the most valuable of which are 
twelve parts of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 
of London. In return, this Society has presented 1,013 volumes 
to various kind' jjlist. Thr r<v ' 

added during tl: i total of 214. The Council 

! - 

has purchased several works of reference, a list of which is also 
appended. Dur iety has held eleven meetings, 

and three of the Sections have held regular monthly m. -u'i :-■ 

During the past year the house of the Society has been put into 
thorough repair, and has been repainted and deconv 
various alterations have been made in the rooms, which it is hoped 
will add greatly to the convenience and comfort of the members. 
The amount thus expend-d is £' Mm 9s. 10d. The amount no* 
standing to the credit of tl,. I'.uiUii.,- Fund is £:\\* !•-■ <•'-..- 
which the sum of £110 5s. has been collected since the last list 
published in June, 1880. The Council has very 
reporting that several members of the Society h. 
■.it-'., annually towards the Building Fund until the present 
debt is paid off. , 

i - 
cash balance is I 

(£l?-2 ir,s. Id. ) ^ hi. 1, it 1 s ),,-n necessary to incur for farnitm 
and ,.Tl„-r similar marr.-rs, consequent upon the changes made 
the building. On the 31st July, 1880, the Academy ot at^ 
tenancy expired, so that the Society has no longer this source 
revenue to look forward to.' , 

The following Financial Statement for the year ending 3 
April, 1881, was presented by the Honorary Treasurer :— 


Receipts. £ »• d - 

To Balance in Union Bank, 30th April, 1880 ... 38 10 3 

„ Subscriptions and entrance fees, from 1st 

May, 1 880, to 30th April, 1881 605 2 1 

„ Proportion..; I demy 

of Art _JL^L- 857 12 l 

„ Hire of hall and rooms to sundry Societies 23 2 

„ Interest on fixed deposit 5 4J> ^ 6 o 

Secretary's salary to 30th April, 

Books 128 9 8 

25 2 9 

23 12 6 

Covering and packing exchanges and pre- 

ties 5 116 


-t rations for Journal 13 10 

Furniture and effects ....°.... ,...'.' 18216 1 

Ditto refreshments, monthly meetings... 15 11 9 

Insurance on books and furniture 1 5 

tgage 120 

■ stage, &c 18 4 4 

Postage, petty cash, &c 35 

36 17 



Receipts £ »• *. 

uionBank ... 300 

Lance in Union Bank, 30th April, 1880 ... 181 15 6 

it of hall to Academy of Art 58 

re of rooms to sundry Societies 31 9 

" : 

Account 23 2 

fixed deposit transferred from 

' laterwt l 
« , General I 

i Amount wf S *° Buildin S Fund : 

5 December, 18S0 ' 


» General 1 

112 11 
110 5 


75 12 

£891 7 1 

By Alexander Dean, enlarging library, &c 38 15 7 


" ^.. '.'."""'''.". Z 2 2 6 

, Amount withdrawn from fix* x I 

, Amount at fixed deposit, 1st Ma*. 1>80 

, ■ Ditto 25th March, 1881.. 

, Balance in Union Bank, 30th April, 1881 ... 

WRIGHT, Honorary 3 

o Balance in Union Bank to credit of Gen 

, Hire of hall due fr< i ciety •• ■ ••• 


-■ •■■' ■■ ; -"-■■ "- i " . .. 

Amount of fixed deposits ,, „ __J"_____— 

£4,935 10 ; 


The Hon. Treasurer reported that the subscriptions to the 
Building Fund up to the 30th April, 1881, amounted to 
£1,187 lis., made up as follows :— 

Original list £1,064 14 

1880 109 4 

1881 13 13 

£1,187 11 
and that the following gentlemen had promised to subscribe one 
guinea annually :— Messrs. W. A. Dixon, G. D. Hirst, Robert 
Hunt, Dr. Leibius, Professor Liversidge, Charles Moore, H. C. 
Russell, C. S. Wilkinson, and Dr. Wright. 

Messrs. P. N. Trebeck and W. J. MacDonnell were elected 
Scrutineers for the election of officers and members of Council. 

A ballot was then taken, and the following gentlemen were duly 
tected officers and members of Council for the current year:— 

Hon. Peofessou SMITH. C.M.G., M.I 

H. G. A. WRIGHT, M.R.C.S.E. 



"■ a. LUXON, FCS G. D. MlKOi. 


r '■ f ,11 ,-,.i llL ,. nr, nit i eim . u were duly elected ordina 
f ae Society ; 

Jove, H. p ercyj Sydney. 

^nffin, T. H. F., Richmond. 

Harnett, Richard, Mossman's Bay. 

Joolman, Fredk. W., Sydney. 

fctarkey, John Thos., Sydney. 
. n e certificates of eight new candidates were read 

' an< * °f nine for the first time. 
tabfe huiulred and twenty-one donations were 

The names of the Committee-men of the different Sections of 
the Society were announced, viz. : — 

Astronomy.— Chairman: H.C.Russell, B.A.,F.RA.S.,F.M.S. 
Secretary: W. J. MacDonnell, F.R.AS. Committee: 
H. G. A. Wright, M.R.C.S., E. ; J. Brooks, F.R.G.b., 
W. J. Conder, and J. Tebbutt, F.R.AS. 
Microscopy.— Chairman : H. G. A. Wright, M.RC.S.E. 
Secretary: P. R. Pedley. Committee: Dr. Morns, 
F. B. Kyngdon, G. D. Hirst, and T. Brindley. 
Medical— Chairman : Dr. C. K. Mackellar. Secretaries: 
Drs. Sydney Jones, and H. X. M ' i ' ; '■ M ' ( , ' 
mittee : Drs. Cox, Schuette, Cecil Morgan, and Alrrea 
Roberts, M.R.C.S. 
The Hon. Professor Smith, C.M.G., President, then read his 

H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S., President, in the Chair. 
About thirty members were present. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 
The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members 
of the Society : — 

Barff, H. E., M.A, Sydney University. 
Helms, Albert, Ph.D., Sydney University. 
Elliott, F. W., Elizabeth Bay. 
Foster, W. J., M.L.A., Newtown 
Reid, William, Sydney. 

Roberts, C. J., Potts's Point. , 

The certificates of nine new candidates were read for the secon 
time, and of seven for the first time. 

Thirty-five donations were laid upon the table. 
It was announced that the sum of £29 18s. had been su> 
scribed to the Building Fund during the present year, a 
Messrs. E. Ross Fairf x. V C Critliths, and the Hon. * 
Smith, C.M.G., had also promised an annual subscription o 

It was also announced that the sum of £20 had 
from members of the Royal Society of 1ST 
lishment of a Biological Laboratory at "W 

The Chai 
on "The Climate of Mackaj, Queensland, 
led " Notes of a Journey on 


>ings. 339 

! JULY, 1881, 

H. C. Russell, B.A., E.R.A.S., President, in the Chair. 
About forty members -were present. 
The minutes of I read and confirmed. 

The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members of 

Delarue, L, H., Sydney. 
Goergs, Karl W., Woollahra. 

Harcus, Lorimer E., Sydney. 
Knibbs, G. H., Sydney. 
Newton, Dr. J. L., Mudgee. 
Rennie, Edwd. H., M.A., B.Sc. 
Smedley, John, Woollahra. 

n, Sydney. 
Wesley, W. H., Randwick. 

7 candidates were read for the second 

Ninety-three donations were laid upon the table. 

Professor Liversidce communicated the following papers, viz. :— 

1. On "SmiLix ^Ivr-vphvlla," by C. R. A. Wright, D.Sc., and 

E. H. Rennie, M.A., B.Sc. ^ r , 

2. On "New Zealand Kauri Gum," by E. H. Resxie, M.A., 

B. Sc. 
TheRev. Peter Macphersox, M.A., read a paper on "Astronomy 
of the Australian Aborigines." .. „,, 

Mr. H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S., read a paper on lie 
t the recent Comet," 
specimens from Cuddy Springs, near Bre .™J na ' 
Presented to the Society by Mr. James Nesbit, were exhibited. 

iIr - H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S, President, in the Chair. 
Between thirty and forty members were present. 

lected ordinary members 
g «e Society :-_ 

Evans, Dr. Thos., Sydney. 

te^14; ft^A Loud., M q— 

Shepherd, T. W., St, Leonards East. 
^•elkeld, L. E., Burwood. 

vv atkm. s , Richard Sydney. 

The certificates of five new candidates were read for the second 
time, and of eight for the first time. 

A letter was received from Mr. Hyde Clarke, London, acknow- 
ledging his election as corresponding member, viz. : — 

32, St. George's Square, S.W., 
My dear Sir, 9 April, 1881 

If I have not before acknowledged the distinction conferred upon 
me by the Royal S Wales, it is because I hare been 

I grettly value bieved ^^jj^ 

the Royal Society. ' .known. 

I hope to send j ' Mootoo and some 

other languages of New Guinea ; they will be of interest to the Society, as 
they throw an independent light on the phenomena of Australian language 
and culture. 

These New Guinea languages have also African relatic 
those of Australia, and with languages belonging to the e; 
which I consider was that of a white race in Africa. 

African relat: 

" e epoch of culti 

These New G 
)f Australia, and no apparent relatic 

"veral'hieas for 

This brings me t 
tm language in tl 

Constantinople I saw something of the gesture language 

to you their valuabl 

At Constanti 
of the Seraglio 

I beg to present my respects to the President and Council ot tne wr 
Society. Yoursfai % U j%E CLARKE. 

Professor Liversidge, &c, &c, &c. . 

The Chairman stated that he had received a letter fron ^ 
United States Astronomer, asking him to make particuaroDse 
tions of the tra . ember next, and he hq>ed 

to have one or t ' ' »* he ™ s ' , 3 

preliminary steps for observi u is m Decern 


Forty-three donations were laid upon the table. -^ 

Mr. W. A. Dixon, F.C.S., read a paper on "The Inorganic 
Constituents of some Epiphytic Ferns." „ ^ e w 

Mr. H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S., read a paper on 
Double Stars and Measures of some of Herschel's." 

H. C. Russell, B.A, F.R.A.S., President, 

i the Chair. 

The minutes 

thirty members were present. 

nutes of the last meeting were read and c 

The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members of 
the Society :— 

Furber, T. F., Sydney. 
Maclean, Dr. L. H. J., Sydney. 
Smyth, F. L. S., M.A., F.RG.S., Ashfield. 
Wood, W. H. O'M., Sydney. 
The certificates of eight new candidates were read for the second 
time, and of three for the first time. 
Eighty donations were laid upon the table. 
Mr. John Tebbutt, F.R.A.S., then read a paper on "Comet II, 

Mr. Charles Moore, F.L.S., drew attention to the extraordinary 
temperatures observable in the County of Cumberland, N.S.W., 
and buir^stiMl that m.-mWrs should make observations of the 


A Conversazione was held in the great hall of the University, 
wider the management of a Committee, composed of t 
Mr. H. C. Russell, B.A., the Hon. Secretaries, Professor Liver- 
sidge, Dr. Leibius, and Mrssrs. Hunt, Moore, and Hirst, members 
of the Council. 

The hall and the approaches were tastefully decorated with 
Pahns, ferns, and rare pot plants, by Mr. C. Moore, F.L.S., the 
Director of the Botanic Gardens. 

The number of guests present was between 600 and 700. 
List of Exhibitors. 
jto-MKe, H. J. -Microscope, showing Trichina spiralis, Ac. 

' is V K '-' [! L \ _ f Australian 

^^^■-^Zltt^ry Battery ft. the storage of ehc 
^'ferBTocular m icrosoope and object, 2. G,apo«eope 
^S^^SS,,-!. A co.leetio. rf ^^-^f^ne 

Spectroscope - 

[. Anatomical models. 5. JNew i 

Fuvet^ 06 - 6 " FourJV "' 
p welle Bros.— Two mic 

Frazer, Hon, John, M.L.C.— Collection of largo phot m v :>. Australian 

Fuller, Francis J.— Two rare old books. 

Goergs, K. W.--1. .V nnive . and language. 2. 

^n\i:ir ■ !' . ■ ■ ,„ £._1. Specimen of the hclioi> ■ as a:>i'i:<: 1 

to wood-engraving. 2. A new mc 

:. . ''>• A I! 

Griffin, T. H. F.— Astronomical work, by°Mercator, a.d. 1676. 
Helms, Dr. A.— 1. Spectrum of chromium chloride. 2. Spectrum of 

nitrogen peroxide. 
Hume, J. K.- T 

res of Tertiary 
F.G.S., &c.-Mic 

i, J. — Indian photographs 
ch, J., M. A.— Portable gi 

Lexej i> If V— i Phot raphs of 1[ u 


. P.— Three mic 
CAN, H. A.-1. Photog 
the Frari, Venice. 2. 
sidge, Prof.— 1. Cut 
Ceylon, fcc 8. C 
Jablochoff electric candle. 5. L 
1806. 6. 
-. Agate dish.-;. &c. 8. Pocks 
Ll. s;e i t'.R.(;.s.-i. loo s-,.r, . views of the \oi 

^-' - !'■ tf olio of engravings. 

Causeway, published February 1, 1743. -■ 
threepence dated Hobart Town, May 16, 1826. 

rystals under pol 

™ light - u Tw 

<Wn by the Australian Diamond Rock Drill Company, at i 

Le of the Harris Papyrus i 

Pntish Museum, date e.g. 1200. 

t.— Mic 

Improved a- ay 

scientific r 

LL, H. C, B.A.-1. A new eelf-registering aneroid. S-JT" 

for determining p« , arel chronograph 

ted clock heliostat, by Tornaghi, of Sydney. 
university.— i. Specimen of c' ' 
Walker, H. 0.— Binocular mi 

Walker, P. B.— 1. Ruhmkorffs coil and vacuum tubes. 2. 
i;1 " ' ■ ' \ sounders. 

F.G.S.— A skull of an aboriginal chief, i 

I. /a, vr„>tat,>h-: fema 

■• ;; :T ~.V ' ■' • ' 

Spring at Lu rrey'a River. 

Mr, Charles Moore, F.L.S., in tbe Chair. 

About tv. enty-five members were present. 
The minutes of the last meeting w«* read 
rhe following gentle] 
we Society :— 

Crummer, Henry, Sydney. 

Ewan, Dr. John Frazer. 

Fiaschi, Thos., M.D., M.Ch. Univ. Pisa, Windsor. 

[{ay, Williiun. _. T 

Jockel, Louis Conrad, LR.C.P., L.R.C.S., Edin., Rich- 

tloyd, Lancelot T., Sydney. 
Mann, Herbert W., Sydney. 
Roser, Karl, M.D., Sydney. 

ites of three new candidates were read for the 
**»nd time, and of five for the first time. 

, -^'•P.X.Tr.V .- t}l( 

:t,M.lbya -" 

H - C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S., President, in the Chair, 
About twenty-five members were present. 
*** minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed 

. gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members ot 

We, Edwin, Jumble Plains. _ . 

Manning, His Honor Sir W. M., Prhnary Judge, 
t- Philip, Dr. Alexander, Sydney. , , r 

The eertifieat. J we re read for the second 

5 and of eight for the first time, 
^enty-eight donations were laid upon the table. 


communication containing the results of original research or 
observation upoi rth in the following circular, 

which would be distributed to all the members as well as to 
ieties : — ■ 


The Royal Society of New South Wales offers a Prize for the best 
communication, containing the results of original research or 
observation, upon each of the following subjects : — 

Series I.— To be sent in not later than September 30th, 1882. 
L— On the Aborigines of New South Wales. 
2. — On the treatment of Auriferous Pyrites. 
3.— On the Forage Plants indigenous to New South Wales. 
4.— On the influence of the Australian climates and pastures 
upon the growth of Wool. 
Series II.— To be sent in not later than August 31st, 1883. 
5.— On the chemistry of the Australian Gums and Resins- 
6.— On Wai rior of New South Wales. 

7.— On the embryology and development of the Marsupial- 
8. — On the Infusoria peculiar to Australia. 
The competition is in no way confined to members of the 
Society, nor to residents in Australia, but is open to all wltho !\ 
any restriction whatever, excepting that a prize will not 
awarded to a member of the Council for the time being J neither 
will an award be made for a mere compilation, however lin-nt'' 
ous in its way -the communication to be successful must be either 
wholly or in part the result of original observation or researc 
the part of the contributor. . ^ 

The Society is fully sensible that the money value of the pr^ 
will not repay an investigator for the expenditure of his tun 
labour, but it is hoped that the honour will be regarded a* 
racement and reward. , * n ual 

The successful papers will be published in the Society s AJin 
Volume. Fifty reprint copies will be furnished to the ai 
free of expense. . eS 

It is the intention of the Society to offer additional p 
should this first attempt to encourage original scientific in>es a 
tion be reasonably successful. 

A. LIVERSIDGE, ) HoK . Secs. 


In reply to Mr. Rolleston, the President said there probably 
would not be any difficulty in the way of adding to the list of 
subjects ; he hoped that the Society would eventually be in a 
position to increase the number of prizes. 

And in answer to Mr. 0. Moore said that he thought it would 
be quite within the powers of the Council to deal with most of 
the subjects ; but when the time came for adjudication, if they 
found it necessary to call in help they would do so. 

He also stated that it was unanimously agreed to by the mem- 
bers of the Counci . oompete, and 
that if they felt disposed to write upon any of these subjects tiny 
should do so as non-competitors. It was felt that as judges they 
should be excluded from competition. 

Professor Liversidge then read the introduction to a paper by 
Baron Ferdinand von Mueller, K.C.M.G., F.R.S., &c, viz., 
" Census of the Genera of Plants hitherto known as indigenous 
to Australia." 

The Hon. Professor Smith said, as the time was early yet, per- 
haps the President would favour the Society with a few remarks 
Q pon the disastro u 1 v swept along our coast. 

The President said he felt some difficulty in complying with 
the lr request, as he had been so much occupied with other matters 
that he had not been able to give the attention he would bked to 
have given to the investigation of the recent storm that had done 
s o much damage on our coast. However, he might ocoupy a few 
Minutes in telling them of some of the suggestions that had been 
^ade for predicting storms. They were aware that a system was 
** force in America by which they could predict a few days in 
advance the approach of a storm. The system at first sight looked 
fftt ^ on]t to manage, yet every t 

^t the weather i 

F , m n ature. All the investigations going on in America, 

^gland, and Europe point to the same conclusion. He mentioned 

^nerican system first, because „ . - 
merica was a large country, and in times of peace the soldiers 

^scattered about the various States, and part of their duty 
as to record observations of the weather and transmit them to 
ashmgton. The military control over the observers thus secured 
Mered theirs the best system for collecting observations in 

a^ ' In almost evei 7 case when tnere was a storm centre ~~ 
barometrical depression— it was first seen at Mexico, and the 
fometers fall around this storm centre. From long experience 
e authorities at Washington know what is going to happen, and 

£ can tell whether the storm is to be severe or not. Having 

E *** 1 ^elf in Mexico, it proceeds along the valley of the 

^PPi, up t 
3 the Atlan 


the lakes find the wamini's of the utmost importance. He had 
heen assured by bat there would be 

a perfect hue and cry if they attempted to stop the storm warnings 
on the ground of expense, although a million and a half of dollars 
are spent upon them annually. They send warnings where rain is 
likely to full, B3 [here is likely to 

be a flood, and of any storm winds worth mentioning. Of late 
warnings of important storms leaving the coast of America had 
been sent to England and the Continent, and it was found that 
some storms actually travelled across the Atlantic, and by exam- 
ining the logs of ih i li ji'. -.■!, ..wis on the way the whole 
course of the storm and its effects can be traced. This must 
ultimately lead to these warnings being of immense value to ship- 
ping. But although the general laws of these storms are known 
very well, the particular characteristics cannot yet be made out 
very distinctly. For msta on two different 

occasions the same barometrical conditions originate in Mexico, it 
did not follow that the storms would be exactly identical. The 
principal condition which affected the character of the storm was 
the place of meeting of the polar and equatorial currents. It 
appeared— although it was not as yet fully made out— that many 
of the storm centres were caused by the meeting of these two 
large masses of atmosphere. A mass of atmosphere going from 
the poles has a tendency to go to the west, and a mass going from 
the equator has a tendency to go towards the east, and as the) 
meet the frier' areolar storms. If these 

meet one of the storm centres, it probably develops itself into a 
serious hurricane. In England and in Europe the same cxpen 
ence had been obtained, though the observations had not been s 
complete. In America they have a much more extended country, 
large enough to contain the whole storm, and so bring ^ f na f 
observation, whereas in England thev could only see one halt oi 
storm, which often envelopes the whole of the island ; but on tw> 
continent of Europe in many places observations of the most vai 
able character are being recorded. . s 

Coming nearer home, until 1879 we were s< 
between the different Colonies at some disadvantage "" 1 
of co-operation. The question was whether tb< 

rule was the same in tit « as ^ 

In 1879, at the first Meteorological Conference, it was a"**, 
to take more united action among the different Colonies, . 
the result had been in part published in the recent report 
the Conference , referred to that they w ^ 

find that we are subject here to almost identically the same c 
tions as obtain in America and Europe. For some tune p^ 
no important storm had reached New Zealand but tney 
sent Dr. Hector three or five days' notice of its approach 

s ression first appears in Western Australia ; then it 
travels along the coast through South Australia and Victoria, and 
then it gets across to New Zealand. In most cases the storm 
yra» ; - ,,; to travel along the south coast of Australia, and 
when the centre was about at Adelaide the weather here generally 
changed northerly or north-west, and then to the west or north- 
west, and the rain extended sometimes as far as the Lachlan. 
The recent storm did not appear on the south coast, and the first 
fj t*W of it was the depression of the barometer along this east 
coast. It had been supposed by some that this was a tropical 
storm, but as far as he had yet gone he did not think it was. 
However, he was not prepared to make any definite statement as 
to where it came from. It was an exception to the established 
rule, and may have been a tropical hurricane, but he did not think 
it was. This storm might have come right across the mainland, 
and coming to the ocean here immediately became intensified, 
vtieh was quite a natural thing. 

One of the decisions arrived at by the Conference was to 
complete a double line of barometers from the south coast as far 
north as possible. When this was done they hoped to be able to 
predict for several days to come what the weather would be, as 
»as done in America and Europe. But the number of dangerous 
forms that come upon this coast was very small indeed. There 
iad been no storm like this recent one since the " Dandeuong 
»as wrecked in September, 1876. He hoped he had said enough 
vindicate to thei 

§°*g on, and that there was a promise of being able to predict 
*!th considerable success the weather in the future. 

T he Hon. Professor S311TH asked whether any unusual solar 
^ta had been observed during the recent storms. 

The President said there was a great outburst of solar spots 
J* »nat time, but the sun was so much covered by the clouds at 
Jj e time that there was not much opportunity of observing them. 
«J>e might expr 1 that the spots on the sun 

Jfe : amply due to some cause acting from without, and similarly 
J^ting the eartl not as was sometimes said, 

" e spots themselves are the cause of our atmospheric disturb- 

E C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S., President, in the Chair. 


thirty-five and forty members were present. 

e minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members of 
the Society : — 

Amos, Robert, Sydney. 
Harris, John, Sydney. 
Poate, Frederic, Summer Hill. 
West, Dr. A. A, Glebe. 
Wright, Frederic, Sydney. 
The certificates of eight new candidates were read for the second 
time, and of five for the first time. 

i resolved that Messrs. W. G. Murray and A S. Webster 

appointed Auditors for the current year. 

Eighth " ' 

Eighty-six donations were laid upon the t 

The following papers were read : — 

" On the Transit of Mercury," by Mr. H. C. Russell, B.A, 

"On the importance of a Comprehensive Scheme of Water 
Storage and Can f the Colony" by- 

Mr. F. B. Gipps, C.K 

"The influence of Australian Forest Trees on the vaporization 
of Water," by Mr. T. W. Shepherd. 

Attention was drawn to some specimens of cretaceous fossns 
from a well on the Dunlop Station, Darling River (lent by Mr. 
Chesney), by Prof. Liversidge. 



The names of the Doaoi 

Transactions, Journals, Rei-okts, , 
-The Aberdeen University Calendar. I SSI 

i Practical Treatise on Tree Cultui 
Brown, F.L.S. 

„ . . rnment Botanist. 
'- ■ " 

1S79. Tin Government Observer. 

Amsterdam :— Yerslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van 
, Wetenschai I X.V, 1880. 

Jaarboek van .!.. happen. 

Iceland .-—Report of the Auckland Institute and Museum for 1880 : 81. 

B-U-Uarat :- Annual Report of the School of Mines, 9 Feb 1881. 

Th 11 , ' ' . U ' ' s > r U > . 

B - VL '"Moi:r: :— Studies from the Biological Laboratory, Nos. 1 and i 
Chesapeake \ suits, IS/ 8 

i he American Journal of Philology. Vol.1. -No. 1. * s ° u - 

American Journal of Mathematics „ a „ J- ; 

] . Nob. 1, 2 .:. and 9. 
W* Wl KeP«, rt of the John, Hooh,,,, U n ■ 3,<>, 1 ? » . 

;:iv : Moaatsbericht der Kiiniglich Preussisehen Akademie der Wis- 

■'-^•v;.. i-.i • . .... ■■ : . . - -■■■■•-•. 


Berne :— Bulletins de l'lnstitut G^ographique International, 

, land 2. 1879. 
"' " ' The Society. 
Boston Mass., U.S.A. :— Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts 

New Series, Vol. VII. ) p„~i. a i anrl 9 m a i «,„ 

Whole Series, Vol. XV. | ^ * ^ % , _, vTlfl Part 
Memoirs of the Boston Society of Natural History, \ol. 111. ran 

Proceedings 'of the Boston Society of Natural History, Vol. XX. 
Parts 2 and 3. „. j - T TTT 

Occasional Pa] ty of Natural History, JNo. ui., 

1880. ™ bocm ' 

Bremen: — Abhandlungen, herausgegeben vom Naturwissenschafthchen 
Verein zu Bremen, Band, 7. Heft 1. I M d0CKiy ' 

Brussels :— Annales Astronomiques, Tome III. New Series. 1880. 
Auuak-s Meteorologiques, Tome I. Part 2. 1881. 
Annuaire, 1880 and 1881. , 1B - Q 

Observations Meteorologiqu. s hlieril&ti ^^J^g^ deBrvxelks. 
Proces-Verbaux des Seances de la So 
Belgique, Tome X. Jan. 8, Feb. ,3, M 

Vol. XLIX.. Parti 

Extra nu: 
Part II. 

c Society of Bengal. 

- Nos. 2 and 4. ^ 

» „ ',', II. „ 1,2,' 3,' and 

Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, Vol. XVI. p^ s O n to T gi» 

"l 1 :-^™-' VoLllL p r, rt i: (w-ri 

Fossil Flora of the Gondwana System. Index to vol. ^ 
Records of the Geological Survey of India. Vol. Xffl. 

and 4. ^ ^ %jVm p« 

The Superintendent of the Geological Survey oj * 
rlseithe :— Programm der Grossherzoglich Badischen Polytechnic 
Schule zu Carlsruhe. 1879-80, 1880-81. 
N ■ 

i 'roceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. Vol 
III. Parts 7 and 8. 

. a of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. Vol .IV. Part ] 

the Books in the Cambridge Free Library. Part ] 
1881. (Reference Depart.) 

- 5 -fifth Annual Reports. 

TheCnmhrl'hj. PuHk Fr> > L!hr»r 

The Editors. 
Norwegian North Atlantic Expedition, 
11. On the Air in Sea Water. 

the water of the 
( Norwegian Sea. 

11. Zoology. Fishes, by Robert Collett. 
UI - „ Gephyrea, by Drs. D. C. Danielssen and J. Roren. 

'" s ■-'SI iv ,., 3 ,le rAcademie des Sciences, Arts et Belles-Lettres de 
The Academy. 

■ XXVI, Heft 1 

V.rwaltimg der Konigl-offenli 
zu Dresden. 1876-1880. . _ 

- • 

iuid )Vi^n--< '■[■■- {>>■• 
Doblk ^Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy— 

Polite Lit Ser. H. Part 2. 

Science „ HI. „ „ 5 and 6. 

-transactions of the Royal Irish 

£ . UteLi: i>:ut4 - m A i - 

Science „ XXVIII. „ 1 to 5. The Aradtm 

Bl asBtB<jH :— Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh- 
Session 1878-79. 
T m 1879-80. 

Vol. XXIX. Parti. Session 1878-79. The Sock 

IwaaStionsS r" 

**" XIV. Part 1. "l88L~ 

A.rchivio per Societa Italian* di Antropologia 

j, Vol. XI. Fasc. 2. iooj 

*****t, A \i. :-!>„ ri :• t itber die s,nckenbergische Naturforschende 
J Aat^n. 18 L 8 d°XII. Heft! and 2. The Society. 

ctingex :— Nachrichten von der K. Gesell 

der Georgia Augusta. Universitat. istv. 

Kdnigliche Gesellschaft der Wissenschafim. 
aklem :— Archives du Musee Teyler. 

K e wSe,II. Vo.,1. Pa rt l. ™ kHMiqmMMT ^. 
Archives Neerlandaises des Sciences Exactes et ]Naturelle». 
Tume XVI. Liv. 1 ai " ~ 

1 Science — .. .... 

Vol.V. Part III. 1880-81. The Institute. 

xle (A.S.) :— Nova Acta Academiae Caesareae Leopoldinens-Carolinae 
Germanicae Naturae Curiosorum — 
„ XLI. Parts 1 and 2. 
Leopoldina. Heft 16, 1880. , .. ,■„,?,, 

Naturforncher :h Halh A-- 
XBVm : -Mittheilungen der Geographischen Gesellschaft in Hamburg. 

Neumayer and Otto Leichhardt. 


iiL'fii . 

• N; VV. 

zu Jtieitlelberg. r . ,,■-,,.; ,/ ,,. 

KF. Band III. Heft 1. The Social 

Hobakt :— Report of the Salmon Commissioners for 1880. Comm i^ongr»- 
Monthly Notices of Papers and Proceedings, and R*p 

Society of Tasmania for 1879. //( ' ' 

Iowa Citv (Iowa) :-Bulletin of the Iowa Weather Service, January, 

February, March, and April, 1881.^ ^ ^ ^ , ,,,,,. 

Jena :-Jenaisclu Zeitschrit't 

Band XIV [ - m, Sockty. 

„ XV. ,, VIII. Heft 1, 2, 3. J/ie 

Lausaxxf :-Bulletind. la ^u f Vaud i > 1. > S-iem-os Xat n 11^ 

Vol. XVII. Nos. 84, 85, 86. V~ 

Leeds :— Seventh Annual Report of the Yorkshire College, 1880£ .^^ 
Sixty -first Annual Report of the Council of the Leeds ^dosoph^ 
and Literary Society, 1880-81. 
Ln i —Annales de la So it te G^ologique de Belgique— 

Vol. VI. 1878-79. 4 Maps, Bassin de Liege. Tke Society- 

Lille : -Annales de la Socio* G<5ologique du Nord— n Soc i e ty- 

Vol. VII. 1879-80. ^ of 

Liverpool :-Proceedings of the Literary and Philosophical *- 

ill. 1878-9. The Society 

„ XXXIV. 1879-80. 

Londox :— The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great B 

The Society. 

leteorological Committee 

Berne, 1880. Non-official, 1,„. --, 

d Council to the Eoyal Society for the year 
ending 31 March, 1880. __ 

Official No. 33. Part I. January— M 

The Meteorological Office. 
Meteorological Society. 
Vol. VI. No. 30. 
List of Fellows of the Meteorological Society. . 

The Annual Address of the President of the Meteorological Societ). 

The Snow^Ssof January 17 to 21, 1881. The Sockty. 

1 Society of London. The Sodd ,j. 

Journal of the Quekett Microscopical Club. ^ ^ 

The Journal' of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain 

.. .",. 4. Ike Sour,;/. 

Vol. XLI. N'os. 1. -J. 3, 4, 5, 6,7,8,9. 

[on of Naval Architects. 
: Ltionsrf the Institution of Naval Architects 

XXI. ™ InMutton - 

oTthe 13th Session. 
alotrue oi th." Library of the Colonial I"= 
Vol. III. N ,. ■ ._,.;:.,. ,-,.,;. 7 s, 

Vol. IX. 

' ; ' ■■"■ 

, '"L IX. i\:-:lil. No. 72. 

- I! . , I 1.2. 3- 4, i,6 ZAe^oc*./ 

Vol. XXIY. No. 108. 

\\ ;■•!, ISS1. 
"oceedinga of the Royal Society. 

d k 

' ns of the Royal Society of London. 
171. Parts 2 and 3. 1880. 


.actions. mS ° Ckt ' J ' 

127'. Ilk \2'.\ 130, l:n. 132, 

133, 134, 135, 136, 137. 1881. 
jciety of Great Britain. 



Pun 1 Grai 
relies. Tome XVIII. 

27, e /w*Yiri/^. 

ester :— Transactions of the Manchester Gsologi 
Vol. XV. Parts 10, 11. 1879-9. ^ .^ 

nua'l Report of the Principal of the Owens College. 24 June, ,1881. 
The College. 
tnoirs of the Literary and Philosophical Society, Manchester. 

„' XVII. " ,', " 1*77-7*." 

y and Philosophical Society. 

;; ~ xix: ;; imm. TheSocl 

Marburg:-!- Chesea. The Univen 

Mf.lyuti^x :— ' nibs, Year 1880. 

„ Religions of the People. 

, 1880-81, Colony of Victoria, Yea* •* 
880. Preliminary Returns, Tables 1 and 2. 

i Year Book for 1880-81. 

toria for 1880. 

I Proceedings of t 

Vols. I and II. 
-Dritter Jahresb* 

) Iron and Steel I 

". May, Juno, and July, 

VII. „ 1 and 2. 1S7S-80. Th Sockt>>. 

• ... • ' 

laud and Durham as proved 

Members, Nov., 1S79. T7ie Society. 

Catalogue of Books added to the Radcliffe Library during 1880. 

The Radcliffe Tnutees. 
UEcole Polytechnique. 


Penzance :— Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall. 

Vol. X. Part III. January, 1881. The Socki 

Philadelphia :— Transactions of the American Entomological Society. 
Vol. VII. Nos. 1-4. 1878-79. . Tht Sat* 

Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 

Vol. XV... 
List of Members, 15 March, 1880. The Socu 

The Journal of the Franklin Institute 

Vol. 111. X, .. i;,;i. <;.,_-. .;,;;;. Wo, 666, 667, 668. 
w . „ 112. ., ii i ;iui7i'. Thelnstitu 

Ninth Annual Report of the Board of Directors of the : 

of Philadelphia, 28 April, 1881. The tioch, 

Pisa :— Atti della Societa Toscana di Scienze Xaturali, Processi Verbali. 


La Nuova Sede delli Accademie dell' Arcadia, d'Archeologia < 

Bollettino R. Comitate Geologico 'dltalia. 
No. 11 e 12, 1880. 

Bollettino della Societa Geogranea^taliana. ' 

Vol. VI. „ 2/3, 4, 5, 6, 7,1881. The Sc 

LEM :-Bulletin of the Essex Institute. 
„ Vol. II. Xos. 1 to 12, 1879. 

I Collections. „_ . 

VoL XVI. Parts 1 
-' ■ ~ v Mo. .1 :- -Transactions of the Academy c 


. L.v.;i=-. 

Pottery "^ The A****- 

St. PETERSBi^-Bulletin de TAcademie Imperials des Sciences. 

° me XXvi. N °'t The Academy. 

I cki -Handlingar (Memoires). Band 14, Heft ^f\ 8TJjJd >aB d 

Atlas Lgardi. 

Bihang (Supplement a, I eft 1 , 2. 

pfversigt (Bulletin) Arg. Part 34-37. is77-18S0. ' 
'--"' - -■ 

The Royal Swedish Acacb rr.v -J -<■ 


Si — Wiirttembergische Jahrbiicher fur Statist* und Landca- 
binde K3 i h-Topographischen 

Bureau. Band II, Halfte 2, 1880 

Band 1, „ l, iooi. 

Jahreshefte des Vereins fur Vaterlandische ] 

n)NEY :-The Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. 
Vol.V. Part 4. The Society. 

Appendix to Benj . Anderson's Journey to Musadu. 
Land Shells Catalogue. Cox. 
Longicorns, List of, Masters. 
LaFosforescenza del Mare. Giglioh. Practical Geology, 

Parts land 2. 
The Iron Ores of Great Britain. Fart 1. 
Mining Records. . _„.«„_ T^le of Wight. 

OnthiT nation, Isle ot » g 

Geological Survey of the Unit. << 
M.nn.iiN.i ' ideL-IV. 
„ V.-VIII. 

B. Barton. 

SSL'S > 

Report of the Trustees of th ,■ , Udn Mu^um. 

Geological Sketch Map of X< w South Wales. ^ ^ ^ f) pay , fmi „,_ 
Wta of Astronomical Observation- at the Sydney dhservatory in 

wesurcs OT K 

Results^of Meteorological 
Thunder 'and Hail Storms in New South .Wales. ^^ RA-> 

Eecent Changes in the Surface of J»P lte ^ 6 goiOT*** ^ronomff. 
ReportYthe' Trustees, Sydney Free Fublic I^g^ti* 
The Australasian Medical Gazette. Nos 1, £>.K\ ( . lUfl ,i Association. 
1 J ' * The Society. 

Vol. VI. No. 1. , . the Mineralogical 

Vol. IV. Nos. 19 and 20. The Society. 

List of Members, Feb. 1881. T , . _„ p j Arti. 

Vol. X. Nos. 8-9. 1880. The Society. 

r Wien, .loi'schen Beichsanstalt. 

Jahrbuch.i.: ^ologucMn 

Vol. XXX. No. 4. The Society. 

' \ 

LXXXI. Etefi 

LXXXI." ," - 

LXXXI. „ ^ 
LXXXII. „ : 

; ;; : 

Kegister zu 

ate der Math.- 




ilr Metcorologie. Band 


i x\ 

77. .v.'' 

' < 

is. Band X 

-Bulletin of i 


>hical Survey of 


.1. VI. N«»s. 1 an. 

;;•■■•:: .. • 

States of America. No. ', . 1 July, 1 

Au. ' 


\ 874. 

lido and Mod 


The Coasts of Lower California 

eets. Nos. 619t" » : - 


»st of Mexico. No. ♦ ,■_>■_» 


The I, 


aShe.i'. Iv: ; . 



Daily Bulletin of Weather Reports. A 
Report of the Chief Signal Officer. IS, it. 
Annual Report of the Director of the Mint. 

Report of U.S. Coast Surv< 1877 

U.S. GeoloL"; ' rv.-yof the LYrnturie* o: h 

ail,1V ,« t .^,i M Vol 1 

Report of the U.S. Geological Survey of the leir^ 


U.S. Geographical Surveys West of : 
First Annual Report of the United 31 


I West of the 100th Mei 

of the 100th Meridian. (Wheeler.) < 
JfcMUlHUU.1 C ** Q i*j 

Zealand Institute. V 01 

The Institute 

a Godina III. Broj. I, % * 

^C.W. . , vertical Angles. 

°a the Calculation of Distances by means of Keciproc. > 
^Complete System of Geography. 2 vols, folio. London, VMy ^^ 

**"*« de Ville-Marie, Vol. II. Li v. 3, *• ^ ' n * re £ M , i(ei _Xa*o«r, JTA 

Vols 76 to SO, inclusive, complete. c 

„ 81 & 82, incomplete. W. J. MwDonndl, J-.h.A.i. 

I Formula, London, 1S27. H. E. Eater. 

The F. 
rlow, Peter. 

Fred. Mansoiu F.L.S. 

Rev. J.E. Tenison-Wood 
Tables, London, 1814. 
\" Pra. K. al Treatise on the Sliding Rule, London, 1822. 
toy, Col. Mark, F.R.S. 

oriments. Vol. I. London, 
J. B. 

ique Experimental. Tome, 

Ki •:; ns d'Algebre. Paris, 1820. 
. ( .M.Z.S. 
- des Uei ' 
Mer Sud. 

lark, H<.,I F P.. Hist. Snc. :- 

f :■■■ 

The Turanian Epoch of the Romans. • TT . 

Hiiiialayanjn-:. ^ ">T ^ ^t 

and Protohistori 

TAe ?ate D. Nic 
vvalque, G. :— 

mite de la Langue G6ologiqu< 
3n and Letters on th 
V r ales. London, 1815. 

logie (Paris). PrqfewL**' 811 ' ' 

Elementary Illustratk 

First. London, 1 
Favenc, Ernest :— 

The Great Austral Plain ; its Past, Present, and Future. ^ ^^ 

Fitton, W. H., M.D., F.R.S. :— iooo 

A Geological Sketch of the v ■ £»» [{ , 

Fleming, Sandford, C.M.G. :— 

The adoption of a Prime Meridian to be common to all ^^J • ; ,. . 

Foreign Scientific Papers. Vols. 1,2, 3. 

Foreign Scientific Tracts. 1 vol. £ g^^ 

Gibson, George A., M.D., D. Sc, Edin., F.R.S.E. :- 

The action of Duboisia on the Circulation. The Author. 

^Tral^mentairede Physique. Tomes 1 et 2. »*»* 'j^ 

Herschel, J. F. W., M.A., : 'V : 1QOS 

Observations., Stars. London, 18S. ^ ^ 

Herschel, J. F. W., A.M., F.R.S. : . , ,„__ 

The Calculus of Finite Dill", reiiees. Cambridge, 1820. ^ ^ ^^ 

Information for intending Emigrants to Tasmania. Hugh M. Hull. 

"V.- ,;■:'",:: - ;,\ ,■,,„,„,, ^to,. w Sk ^- onaoll , 

o Astronomical ^ 
\n iS'unt << the „ i traction and verification of a copy of The 

d'Algebre. Paris, 1825. 
^iSLSST&JglL to Mta-a and !^a> Calcu,u, 

London, 1825. 

' Elem, nt's de ( ;, ometric. Paris, 1823. 

uldGeognosie. Heidelberg, 1S3L. & ^^ 

TabBfor Qx ! >'^> arranged ^^^hor. 

^tof Premiums offered by ' ' A * odeiy > & °" ' 


■^•oMheihgantic Land-Lizard O^;;' 
Prucu, Uwen). 1'ai'ts 2 ami o. 

Peppercorne, Fredk. S., C.E. 

On Rainfall and Water 
Project of an Irrigation Canal in t 

Register of Medical Practitioners for Lv*2. Medical Boon! of X.S. W. 

Report on the Pendulum Experiments made by the late Captain Henry 

Foster. E.N. London, 1834. II. K KtHef. 

Report of Select * 1877," Tasmania. 

» >, ,, Mini i: ! - W. st ('oast, „ 


Reports. Boat E .... 1815-16 and 1824. 

Requisite Tables for Nautical Ephemeris, London, 1802. 

Zinn. Eine Geologisch-Montan 
Rules and By-laws, Sot 
Sabine, Capt. Edward, R A 

Pendulum Experiments'. London, 1825. 
' P., C.E. 

On Rail Sp , . ct i n in Europe. 

Scientific Tracts. Vol. I. 
Simpson, Thomas, F.R.S. 

TheDoetn:. , %I „ US . London, 1 

Star Tables. London, 1827. 

Sur FUniformite de la Nomenclature des Grandes Dimsi 

Terrestre. (Bologne, 1881.) Prof 

s/l ' ] l<- • ill from 1 Jan. to 31 Dec, 1881, inch 

Tate, Professor Ralph, F.G.S i 
On the An < 
0a *he J of the Pulmoni 

.«■ Xl-w Spec ic - 

-The Annt ve r.s •. 1 he A ul,it " 

Trig ^-^ ietricaI Survey of England and Wales. Vols. 1 and 2. /°* 

: "■■■■■ '", ■ . . ■.: 

The Ee s 

i Antkju; ri m. Vol. IX. Xos. 

II. E. Katt\ 

'Major L. A. IIugmi-Latour, M.A 

fines, Ben Lomond and St. Paul's River, Tasmania. 
„ „ "\V< -t < ' i;i>t. Ta-mania. 

„ ,, Gladatoi ..-house, Tasmania 

Hugh M. Hul 
oods-Tenison, Rev. J. E., F.L.S., F.G.S..&C : 
Geology of Northern Queensland. The Anthoi 

On Public Clocks, and Supplement. London, 1828. II. K Kata 

a des Chimie et Physique. 

goer's Polytechnisches Journal. 
English Mechanic. 

■i rift fur Analytiscl 
ie Chemical Society. 

of the Photographic Socie 

Huxley's Introduction to Classification of Animals. 

Nature. Vols. 1 to 12. 
Palseontographical Society. Vol. 35. 

" " Silver and Gold. Parti. [£':' 

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, from 1801 to 

Rankin's .Miscellaneous Papers. 

Rassegna Semesti, ' fcalia. Vols. 1—8. 

Report of the li 1S71), 1880. 

Report of the Scientific Results of the Exploring Voyage of H.M.&. 

"Challenger," l<:, 7(5. / .' ... \ ols. I, II, HI. 
Wagner's Jahresbericht der Technischen Chemie, 1880. 

is J. R. Engraved by C. H. Jeen. 
Airy, Sir George B., K.C.B., F.R.S. By T. H. Maguire. 

!. Maguire. 

B..werl».iuk. J. [ , fj. M lu „ Vn 

Beche De la, Sir Henry Thomas, s'.i'.ILS. I by H. P. Bone. J»- 
graved by W. Walker. 

-., K.LS. BvT. H. Maguire. ... p A 

. ( 'has. Fox. 

• m -ir ■ TLA 



Engraved I 

C.B., M.D., LL.I 

Photogr. ; 

Darwin! D,CharF,F.F.S..M.A..F:,:, 
Darwin, Dr. " " 

C. H. Je 
Dechen, Dr. 

i'..s'.. Y.L.S., &c. En^avi 
C. H. Jeen. 

Doubleday, E. By T. H. Maguire. 
Dumas, Jean Baptiste, F.R.S. Engraved by C. H. i 
„ ,, By T. H. Maguire. 

Henslow, J. S., F.R.S. By T. H. Ma-uire. 

K.C.S.L, M.D., C.B., I 

Joseph Dalton, K.C.S.L, M.D., C.B., 1 

Huxley, Thomas Henry, F 
graved by C. H. Jeen. 

-& ByT. H.Magmre. 
•hn, F.R.S. >» » 

Engraved by G. H. J een. 
Murchiaon, Sir n &., F.R.S. Engraved by W . 

"" fr ^fV -M A -^T.H.M aff uire. 


om a paii 

Hack, 1848. 

, F.R.S. Engraved by W,_J5 

i-;. \u.-. 

.. F.C.S. By T. H. Maguirc 

LL.D. By T. H. 


Thomson, sir Willia. 

? es Cnvier. 

l . . von HumboltH 

V • dossil p dmt-ns from Cndd: S^rii^ , 




1. Albany.— *Kew York State Library, Albany. Nos. 1, 2. 

2. Allliapolis (Md.). -Naval Academy. No. 1. 

3. Baltimore— * Johns Hopkins' University. Nos. 1, 2. 

4. Beloit (Wis.) — *Chief Geologist. Nos. 1, 2. 

5. Boston- 'American Academy of Arts and Scien • -. Nos. 1, -• 

6. „ *Boston Society of Natural History. Nos. 1, 2. 

7. Buffalo— *Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences. Nos. 1, 2. 

8. Cambridge.— The Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard 

College. Nos. 1, 2. 

9. „ 'Editor of "Psyche." Nos. 1, 2. 

10. Chicago.— Academy of Sciences. Nos. 1, 2. 

11. Coldwater.— Michigan Library Association. Nos. 1, 2. ^ ^ 

12. Davenport (Iowa).— *Academy of Natural Sciences. Nos. L - 

13. Hoboken (N.J.).— The Stevens' Institute of Technology. > os - 

14. Minneapolis.— *Minnesota Academy of Natural Sciences^ ^ 

15. Newhaven (Conn).— 'Connecticut Academy of Arts. Nos. 1, - 

16. New York V J \ v-k 

17. „ *Ameri( r >eW 

College. Nos.: 

*Franklin Institute. Nos. 1, 2. 
,, *Zoological Society of Philadelphia. 

• Salem. (Mass.)— Peabody Academy of Sciences. ] 

: ■■ ■ : -titution. Nos. 1,2. 

• St. Louis-— * Academy of Science. Nos. 1, 2. 

• Washington.— *Commissioner for A^riordturo. X 

*The Secretary , „ 

w 1 Viiai'tv.eiiti. X..-. 1, 2. 
:,uy (Department of the Interior). Nos. 

Department of the Interior). 
Nos. 1, 2. 

•Bureau of Education (Department of tl 

'Office of is .' the Interior). 

7ax Department). 
iation, Pennsylv 

snare, i>o. i. 
*Geographische Gesjellschaft. No«. 1. 2. 



t. No. 1. 

*Acai. i des kttrea, et des Be 

6I - ^ege.— Sooi.'.t.-" ,.'■■/•>.. ...,,'...' ~N.w. I, 2. 
g.-, T » 'Society Geologique de Belgique. Noa. 1, 2. 
"' ^emhoiirg.— »Institut Royal grand-ducal de Luxembourg. 


63. Birmingham.— The Midland Institute. Nos. 1, 2. 

-*The Philosophical Society. Nos. 1, 2. 

*The Public Free Library. Nos. 1, 2. 

The Union Society. Nos. 1, 2. 

„ The University Library. Nos. 1, 2. 

68. Dudley.— Dudley and Midland Geological and Scientific 

69. Leeds.— k PMk Society. Nos. 1, 2 

70. „ Wl, 2. 

71. „ Journal of Conchology (Office, St. Ann Street). 

72. Liverpool.- .xal Society. Nos. 

73. London. — B kxdia. Nos. 1, 2. 

7-1. - 

v.-, ■. :-• 

:■ . 

77. „ *The Admiralty Library. No. 1. 

78. „ The Agent General (two copies). Nos. 1, 2. 

Ireland. No. 1. 

Society. Nos. 1, 2. 
.• Entomological Society. No. 1. 

The Geologicaf Society. 
The Museum of Practical 

Geology. Nos. 
Naval Architects. Nos 


y of Literature. I 


*Lord Lirfdsa 

:v,:wrfat Britain. iNoa. 

•Pharmaceutical Society o 


114. Manchester. — * Literary and Philosophical Society. Nos. 1, 2. 

115. „ The Owens College. Nos. 1, 2. 

116. „ *The Geological Society. Nos. 1, 2. 

117. Middlesboro'.— *Iron and Steel Institute. Nos. 1, 2. 

118. Newcastle-upon-Tyne.— *Natural History Society of Northumber- 

land, Durham, and Newcastle-upon- 

119. „ *Chemicai Society. Nos. 1, 2. 

120. , , *North of England Institute of Mining and 

Mechanical Engineers. Nos. 1, 2. 
j :. . Nos. 1, 2. 

12-2. „ Xos. 1, 2. 

-:■• Xos. 1, 2. 

- ; ,. V . !. 

125- Penzance.— "Royal Geological Society of Cornwall. Nos. 1, 2. 
126. Plymouth.— "Devon and Cornwall Natural History Society. Nos. 

'27. Truro— "Miners'' Association of Cornwall and Devon. Nos. 1, 2. 
12 3- „ *Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. ISos. 

*». Windsor— The' Queen's Library. Nos. 1, 2. 

13 0. Aberdeen.— *The University. Nos. 1, 2. 

• tciety. Nos. 1, 2. 
d Society. Nos. 1, 2. 

'No^l, 2. 

harden. No. 1. 

,„ Lm,,' i ,lm Bnt«n '. Messrs. A. and C. 
Black. No " ~ 
:oiogical Society, hob. i, 

*TheUm. :; : - 

l f- Dublin- I of Ireland. N 

41 - ,. *Royal Irish Academy. Nos. 1, 2. 

l42 - Cape Town.— *The Philosophical Society. Nos. '. 

Thb Dominion of Canada. 
U3 - Halifax (Nova Scotia)—*Nova Scotian Institute 

!£ Hamilton (Canada West).-Seien'tific Associate 

,!?• Montreal. -*Geological Survey of ( 
m - „ 'Natural Hi 

'• Ottawa,— Academy of Natural Sciences. Nos. 1, 
48 - Toronto.— 'Canadian Institute. Nos. 1, 2. 

The Geological Mui 

, Calcutta.— *The Asiatic Society of Bengal. Nos. 

*The Geological Survey of India. 

154. Sydney.— The Australian Club. No. 1. 

155. „ *The Australian Museum. No. 1. 


!-:... - 

158. „ *The Mining Department. No. 1. 

159. „ *The Observatory. No. 1. 

160. „ The School of Arts. No. 1. 

161. „ The Union Club. No. 1. 

162. „ The University. No. 1. 

New Zealand. 

163. Auckland— * Auckland Institute. Nos. 1, 2. 

164. Christchurch— Philosophical Society of Canterbury. 

165. OtagO— Otago Institute. Nos. 1, 2. 

166. Wellington— The Philosophical Society. Nos. 1, 2. 

167. „ *Colonial Museum. Nos. 1, 2. 

168. „ *Ne\v Zealand Institute. Nos. 1, 2. 

-*The Observatory. No. 

Hobart Town— *The Royal Society of 1 

Melbourne.— *Th e Gov. 

tory. No. 1. 

■ i.artment. Nos. 

■>■■■■■■ ■ " -■ 


. Nos. 1, 2. 


186. Bordeaux.— Academie des Sciences. Nos. 1, 2. 

1ST. Caeil. A ■ Nati 1-- i Science. Nos. 1, 2. 

1». Dijon. - \ "■ - Sciences, Arts et Belles-Lettres. Nos. 1, 2. 

bO. Lille.— 1 Suciete Geologique du Nord. Nos. 1, 2. 

190. Montpellier.— *Acadt5mie des Sciences et Lettres. Nos. 1, 2. 

191. Paris— Academie des Sciences de l'Institut. Nos. 1, 2. 

192. „ The Editor Cosmos. Nos. 1, 2. 

193. „ *Depot des Cartes et Plans de la Marine. No. 1. 

- iiences de la Sorbonne. Nos. 
,tes. No. 1. 
The Editor Leu Mondes. Nos. 1, 2. 

iete lie Biologic No. 

Nos. 1, 2. 
S M6teorologique de France. Nos. 1, 2. 
d iralogique. Nos. 1, 2. 

... technique. Nos. 1, 2. 
Societe de Physique. Nos. 1, 2. 

21 "• Saint Etienne.— Soci6t • Na 1 » 2 - 

218 - Toulouse.— Academie des Sciences. Nos. 1, 2. 

; 19 - Bremen.— Natui w i >< n . haftli her Verein zu Bremen. Nos. 1, 2 
$• Berlin.— Chemiscke Gesellschaft. Nos. 1,2. 
C „ :. Nos. 1,2. 

**■ Bonn.-*Natiulii s torischcr Verein dor EVeu^schen Rheinlande x 

s in Bonn. Nos. 1, 2. 
fiir Natu 


231. Franifurt a/M.— *Senckenbergiache Naturforschende Gesellscliaft ir 

Frankfurt a/M. Nos. 1, 2. 

232. Freiberg (Saxony).— *Die Berg Akademie /n Freiberg X.-. 1. 2. 

234. Gottingen.—*Konigliche Gesellschaft der Wiss< nschafh u 

e.«_Tai iii-.-ln- ( ;.-rllscliaft in Hamburg. 

239. Heidelberg— *Natuv I ,,-ellschaft zu H 

berg. Nos. 1, 2. 
Jena.— *Medicini- ; she Gesellschaft. Nos. 

Konigsberg.— *Die Physikalisch-tikonomische Gesellschaft. 
Leipzig (Saxony).— University Library. Nos. 1, 2. 
Metz.— *Verein fur Erdkunde zu Mete. Nos. 1,2. 
• Marburg.— *Ges _ der Gesammten £ 

*The™v n ersity. ^Nos! l^!**' 


d.2. ™' 

- . .. 

Stotteart Noa. 1. 2. 

:U:' .. . . :■-" • .-'-■ 

31. Zagreb (Agram) — *Societe Afc 



52. Bologna.— Accademia delle Sciena 

54. Florence— ■- 

36. Genoa— Museo Tn i L o di Storia X 

"7. Milan.— I'cale Istituto Lombardo 

li Keienzc 


39. Modena.— *Academie Royale des 

SO. Naples.— Societa'l^ale Accademia dclle S- ;c 

Reale Istituto Technico. Nos. 1 

265. Pisa.-*Societa Toscana di Scienze Natural!. Nob. 1, 2. 
2Rf>. Bome.—* Accademia Pon1 Xos. 1, 2. 

267. „ •Societa Geografica. Nos. 1, 2. 
26s - ». Crn : a. Nos. 1, 2. 

269. „ Oast: maao. No. 1. 

270. „ *R. ' Xos. 1, 2. 

271. ^ „ *R. Comitato Geologico Italiano. Nos. 1, 2. 

272. Siena.— R. Accademia de Fisiocritici. Nos. 1, 2. 

273. Turin.— Reale Accademia delle Seienza. Nos. 1, 2. 

274. „ Regio Osserratoi ba. No. 1. 

273. Venice— *Reale Istituto Veneto di Scienze Lettere ed Arti. Nob. 

276. Yokohama.— * Asiatic Society. Nos. 1, 2. 


277. Amsterdam.— *Academie Royale des Sciences. Nos. 1, 2. 

278. Haarlem.— *Socicte Hollandaise des Sciences. Nos. 1, 2. 
" 9 - „ *La Bibliotheque de Musee Teyler. Nos. 1, 2. 


idericks Universitet. Nos. 1, 2. 

f~- MOSCOW— *La Society Imperiale des Naturalistes. Nos. 1, 2. 
•^ 3 - St. Petersburg.— *L'Academie Imperiale des Sciences. Nos. 1. 2. 

*•■ Madrid.— Instituto geografico y Estadistico. Nos. 1, 2. 

If- Stockholm— *Konrficr a Svenska Ventenskapo-Akademie. Nos. 1, 2. 
-^ „ The University. Nos. 1, 2. 

'■ HeuchateL- 
Number of Pu 

India and tbe Colonies 

A. LIVERSIDGE, | Hon> , 





11 APRIL, 1881. 
Mr. J. Brooks, F.E.G.S, in the Chair. 
It was resolved that the following members he appointed . office- 
bearers :— Chairman : Mr. H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S. Sec- 
retary : Mr. W. J. Maodonnell, F.R.A.S. Committer : Messrs. 
J. Brooks, F.R.G.S., \V. J. Conder, J. Tebbutt, F.RA.S, H. 
& A. Wright, M.R.C.S., and that the meetings of the Section 
be held on the first Friday in each month. 

Rbsolved, that the Hon. Secretary he requested to send notices 
to all the members of the Royal Society of N.S.W. likely to interest 
themselves in the Section, asking their co-operation. 

G MA r, 1881. 
Mr. H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S., in the Chair. 

Mr. Brooks exhibited a Henderson's " Mensor," containing in a 
y e ry compact form a number of philosophical and mathematical 
instruments xm ' : q-lorations and 


Mr. Brin-dly exhibited a series of drawings of the planet 
luring the 
| Mr. Macdoxbtell exhih 
Galileo s Siderius Nuncius, 
scope discoveries is given. 

Th <? Chairman- informed the Section that a plan for a series of 
continuous self-registering barometer readings was discussed at the 
^pcent Meteorological Conference, held at Melbourne, and he men- 
ded a pl an of his own by means of which the desired object 
could be cheaply and effectively obtained, using only an ordinary 
Ceroid barometer and small clock. 

- 1 he Secretary was requested to prepare from time to time 
^ort notes of subjects of interest to the Section. 

3 JUNE, 1881. 
Mr. H. C. Russell, B.A., F.RA.S., in the Chair. 
The Secretary read a paper by Mr. Tebbutt, F.RA.S., on the 
^et discovered by him, 22nd May last. 

The CiiAiitM \ apraph of part of the sun's disc, 

on a scale of 17 in. 1m- m ii. • -mi's diam - -v. -.Lowing the remark- 
able group of spots now visible. Mr. Eussell remarked that he 
had lately bee the early morning, and that 

he noticed that the planet still showed a continuance of the 
dfetttrfaed state of the northern belt noticed at the last opposition. 

Some discussion took place on the various methods adopted in 
limiting and controlling the exposure of solar photographs. 

Mr. Trevor Joxes gave some particulars of the means he 
employed to ensure a continuance <,f the water supply at the 
Bfltaay swamps during the late drought. 

1 JULY, 1881. 
Mr. H. G. A. Wright, M.E.C.S., in the Chair. 
Mr. J. Tebbutt, F.B.A.S., tvad a paper on the star Lacaille 
2145, and E. Corona?. 

Mr. Bbindly read a few notes on the conjunction of Venus and 
Saturn, G June, 1880. 

5 AUGUST, 1881. 
Mr. H. C. Eussell, B.A., F.B.A.S., in the Chair. 
The Chairman exhibited a Plante-Faure cell for the storage of 
electricity, and made some experiments with it, showing its 
dttinum, steel and copper wires. 
Mr. Brooks read a paper by Mr. Conder, of the Trigonome- 
trical Survey, on the longitude of Mount Lambie, obtained by 
independent observations of i .rained by means 

>rtable instruments. 

ietary read a paper by Mr. J. Tebbutt, F.E.Afc., 
on the Orbit-Elements of Comet II, 1881. Mr. MacdonHEI* ■» 
exhibited a small Harlow lens, by Wray, copies of Holden's Lite 
of Sir Wm. Herschel, and the new edition of Smythe's Celestial 
Cycle, revised by G. F. Chambers. 

2 SEPTEMBER, 1881. 
Mr. H. C. Eussell, B.A., F.E.AS., in the Chan. 
A discussion took place on personal equation, and the Chairman 
stated that he had constr 

variation of thl > , Is, which he proposed show- 

ing at the approaching conversazione of the Society. , 

Mr. W. J. Macdoxnell, F.E.A.S., exhibited a first surface 

reflecting solar eye-piece ; he also read a list of a few soutneru 

by his 3"-65 refractor. 

4 OCTOBEB, 1831. 

Mr. H. G. A. Wright, M.EC.S., in the Chair. 

The proceedings were of a conversational nature. 

of C* 

On the Star Lacaille 2145. 
By JoHJf Tebbtttt, F.E.A.S. 
[Read before th> A 7/ qfS.S. W„ 

1 July, 1881.} 
As I know our Chairman ; I in that depart- 

ment of astronomy which relates to double stars, I desire to draw 
his attention, and likewise that of the other members of the Sec- 
tion, to the star numb, ml 2145 in the Catalogue of Lacaille. This 
star is interesting both as a double and as a variable. It is to be 
found in the catalogue contained in (' m,-,l ,,. (thdhill, A- Wilson's 
Handbook of Double Stars, but no hint is there given as to its 
variable character, although both components are set down as of 
the eighth magnitude. The earliest record I can find is that of 
Lacaille, who observed it as a single star of the sixth magnitude. 
The next record is that in the Brisbane Catalogue, where it is 
numbered 1137, and, d to b. of the same magnitude. In the 
Handbook just cited, there is given a list of measures, by Dunlop, 
J. Herschel, and Jacob, from which 1 select the following as show- 
ing the change in angle and distance of the components in the 

Dunlop 182600 3290 J 3W 

Herschel 1835-02 342'5° 386" 

Jacob 1S46 94 348-5° 3-22" 

Jacob 1858 17 3547° 2-18" 

My attention beins direi te.l to this star, both by the recorded 
change of angle and distance, and by the statement of its magni- 
Jn<*e, I turned tl i it in 3 Larch last. Owing, 

however, to the small p ^r of the instrument, the fact that it 
^as not driven by clockwork, and the closeness of the components, 
I found it a difficult object for measurement The following are 
tne results :— 

1881-214 S11 ° n i2r 9 2-50 5 

1881-219 101° 12 2 42 4 

JJe a*tan«S is probably somewhat too great, but it ^ -quite 
has passed the me:'" 

% own estimates of the magnitudes of the components were S£ 
501(1 8§, and it is quite certain that Lacaille's small telescope could 
j*ot have exhibited either of them under such conditions. The 
^r is therefore certainlv a binary, and 

jnder these circumstances I think it would be an inte 
** the large equatorial of the Sydney Observatory. 
. 1SS1 

On the Variable Star R. Carina?. 
By John Tebbutt, F.R. AS. 

[Read be/ore fh • '• ty o/N.S. W. ' 

Uuly, 1881.1 
My attention was first directed to this star by the Uranometria 
Argentina, a copy of which magnificent work was presented to me 
by the Director of the Argentine National Observatory in the 
autumn of 1880. Perceiving from the remarks of Dr. Gould 
that it must prove one of Jfoe triable stars south 

of the equator, I at once placed it in my list of objects for regular 
and systematic observation. The earliest record that I can find 
of the star is in Lacaille's Catalogue of 9766 stars in the Southern 
Hemisphere, where it is numbered 3932, and is put down as one 
of the 7th magnitude. It was observed three times with the 
mural circle at Parramatta, between May 2nd, 1822, and March 
2nd, 1826, and i jbane Catalogue as No. 2551, 

with a magnitude of 6-7. It is next to be found in a Catalogs of 
■'■>.' 'ed Stars, on page 
448 of Sir J oh , I Observations at 

the Cape of Good Hope. Sir J. Herschel's observations were made 
on this star some time during the period 1834-8, and assign 8-0 
as its magnitude. It is des omer as a "very 

intense sanguine star, between scarlet and carmine red." It was 
thrice observed at the Melbourne Observatory in 1867, namely, 
on March 31st, April 3rd en the first two 

dates being estimated at 6-5 and 6-0 respectively. It finds a place 
inthe First JI - r.« reduced to toe 

epoch 1870-0 and mean magnitude 

of 6-2. Its mean position for that epoch is R A. = 9L 28m. o8v3- s - 
N.P.D. = 152° 12' 49-4". Xo suspicion, however, seems to fcave 
crossed the minds of the Melbourne observers as to the true 
character of tli was not till the extensive 

examination of the southern heavens by Dr. Gould 
ants that its variability was discovered. The following quotation 
from the Uram rate what has been done y 

the Cordoba observers in the matter : — i jn 

» The region in which this star is situated was mappe 
December, 1870, and the magnitudes of stars in the ^fT flt 
vicinity were estimated 1871, February 19th and June »wj» 
this star was not remarked on any of these occasions, a ^ 
noted by Mr. Rock, 1871, June 20, as 6-5 magnitude, but w 

new scale had not yet been ate represents a 

much fainter magnitude. I identitied the star as L 3993, which 
corresponded almost equally well with the position as plotted, and 
which was noted by Lacaille as 6| mag., while this one, L 3932, 
was called 7 mag. fce, July 6, showed the magni- 

tude to be about 5 7, wh entl auilied andsyste- 

matic observations at once begun. A careful and valuable series 
of observations made by Mr. Rock show the maximum to have 
occurred on July 17 of that year, its brightness being then inter- 
mediate between that < L <) and L. i',>rl,»>. but nearer to the 
former. Between 1871, November 18, and 1872, March '29, it 

was nearly equal to J/. ( "/.' Co December 9, its 

"was not above 10. The comparisons in 1873 give the maximum 
brightness as 4-7 ma,g. on April 12, and ibr several days it sur- 

>tod i 

It is No. 2551 of th 

e Brisbane' Catalogue, 

■i <J:, ; it is included in 

the list of red stars 

: his Cape Observations, by Herschel, v.dio 

I was observed by Ell 

■ ,,-i 

mag., and April 3 as i 

5 mag. The intervals 

11 th 

as thev result from 


and 32G days. The 

ly more than half a 

period later than the 

dation of light at that 


), its change is quite 

3 of about one unit m 

onthly, and the dura- 

is very brief. Its red 

colour is perceptible 

le at the 10th magni 

tude. Following the 


lown, I have denoted i 

;he star by the letter 


aware if 

the Cordoba or any 

other observers have 

.11, w , 

ations of this truly ren 

larkable object. My 

lenced on Mav 11th, 

1880 and have been 

8 from that time dow 

n to the date of this 

i fact made on sixty-i 

line different nights, 

in- <>■ 

>d of nearly fourteen 

months. It was for- 

rison work commence< 

1 while the star was 

aimum, for I was thereby enabled to deter- 

Ins i 


point in its light-cur 1 

re. Almost all the 

r was telescopic we 

■Miiparisons were made by 
i t i h + i t i VI! t 1 ! ( [HI f ,1 

' ''/"'']■ "''' iif;iinin','a list of the telescopic com pa i i- ■ stars, 

ltheotherthe< . , for the whole 

■iod embraced by th papei Hi. eo rdinates of t m pari 

,!sfi,ls aiv - iwn ^ ith reference to the variable itself, and were 
ennined from observations with the tilar-micrometer of the hi- 
ll equatorial. Some of the stars wore excessively faint under 

identiti -ation. The com] ; 

variable were made with the utm ,st . are. From aLn 1 1th to the 
close of November the teh- s were employed. 

Owing to the j , m November 14th and 17th 

the variable could not be seen with the unassisted eye, but not- 
withstanding her presence on the 20th it could be readily seen 
without optieal aid. From this time the comparisons were made 
] >}' ii<:.---hr,..l vision with a selection* f stars fn m the VriuK metna. 
So early as 1), , ,< vr0 entertained that the 

star had attain. « I .=, recanted as certainly 

diminishing on December 26th. At its maximum it was esti- 
mated to be precisely equal ■ Unworn tri«, 
which is synonymous with Xo. :,7.~-"> of Laca die's catalogue. At 
the close of January I examined the smallest comparison stars by 
the method of In those marked 2, 
4, 6, and 7 could just be seen v, ith th. 1 ' in. h telescope with its 
aperture diminished to one inch, so I adopted their ma-nitud * ^ 
9-2 and the magnitude of 12, or Lacaille 3993, which was the 
bright* s* in the held of the comet eve-piece before mentioned, was 
assumed from the r,->,. ■,, Vw to be of the 6-9 magnitude. 
Adopting thes, tally estimated 
the relative ma- mltinu' magni- 
tudes are com:. , n f the table. The ac- 
curacy of the* b med on March 30th by a 
carefol exan -scope of a selection of stars 
from O U-j , s f, h„„i ,.■„ z, /, / r lltl 1.5° to 31° Sut 
Dec. fur 1*50. It will now be seen from the tal te of concluded 
magnitudes of L>. <.<< tt .i ull that the variable attained its minimum 
about July 5th and tl ■ folio \ .■ _ „ - ,., about December 1 6th. 
Tin. uji ill its ,fiys t ] > v t. I t - »<u!I -o Y l 
telescopic, and its appeal m " it of a red hazy 
ill-defined star. It at this ti . • disc than Sg 
** +l ^ compariso- ras also red. » 

remarkably brilli the close of the 

month recourse was again had to the 44-inch telescope. On 
March 1st, although the- sky was heautifully clear and the moon 
absent, no trace of the star could be detected without optical aid. 
I ■■■ some tame, but during the past few 
weeks its rate of decrease has become very slow ; indeed there is 
every reason to I i a again attained 

and that the star's light is again on the increase. Its progress 
towards a second maximum will be watched with considerable 
interest. It wil :<>■■. als at which 

the comparisons have been made that we get a pretty accurate idea 
of the form of the light-curve during the period from minimum to 
minimum, and that there are no evidences of any secondary maxi- 
mum or minimum during its progress. 

3 the 

between the maxima during the period 1871-4 were 329, 306, 
and 326 days. These give a mean period from maximum to 
maximum of 320 days, but the magnitudes actually attained 

star appear to have been so conspicuous as at the last maxi- 
. »nm on December 16th. Adopting the Cordoba maximum of 
July 17 ) 1^71^ as a we u Jetined one. and my maximum just 
referred to, tin resul ii „ m m p< od on Id 1 Ho days, on the 
ls *ump | ,} liL ^ eleven periods had bee-,) accomplished in the 
interval. Wh on tit p. riod mines to be ascertained more 
accur ately by a connected a shall be able 


■ -■ changes must be on a stupend - 

*n<>w that our own sun is subject to periodical variations of It 
and heat, but the < naturallv su-g. -- itself to our mi 

lg . The quest 
■ eadlv answered. There can be no doubt ab 

rli! 'i-<-Hdt. ■ Ml from these 

■* st , " !» ppears u < u from ih rem i ks wl ich I hav« m; 

I Carina is a remark 
FOttiLses to be highly interesting ' 

• • ■ • ... • ^ •:. 

. Way. Our celebra 


time ago, are bo its of tMs region. It was Sir 

John Herschel, I believe, who first pointed out this tendency in 
the grouping of th. va i tble stars, but I think after all it is only 
due to the circumstance that the stars in general are far more 
numerous along this zone of the heavens. It is to be regretted 
that we have not an amateur astronomer in the southern hemi- 
sphere who, like Dr. Schmi s himself to this 
highly useful but not difficult department of astronomical 
research. The first paper which I had the honor of readingbefow 
our Society, in ti th e title of the " Philosophical 
Society of New South Wales " was one on the " Desirability of a 
systematic search for and observation of Variable Stars in the 
Southern Hemisphere." Thi \ j in August, 1862. In that 
paper a list was given of the number of variables discovered in 
each decade of the present century, but during the last two 
deeadi-s the pi gone on with aceetewjtefl 
rapidity. Can no amateur b h Wales to work 
in this field which promises to be so fruitful ? Not only is it 
desirable to discover new objects of this character, but it is like- 
wise necessary.. to follow u] parison of tho-e 
already known to be variable. *We hear a vast deal about 
furnishing the Colony with Ian.- t -1. -<• ,],■ -. but it will, 1 think, be 
time enough to talk about su the telescopes we 
have are fully avail.- 1 of. IVtanv of the small instruments of 3 
inches aperture and upwards, already in the bands of private 
persons, might be rendered extremely serviceable by their employ- 
ment in the search for and observation of variable stars. It 
would seem scarcely necessary to impress on the minds ot those 
who talk much about large telescopes, but do little else, the truth 
of this maxim, namely, that as the body without the btct-/x«, or 
animating spirit, is dead. ,- ■ in the world, it 
it be without an the observer is, in fact, the 
life and soul of his telescope, and the existence both of himsett 
and Iris instrument is made known to future ages by the results 

Differences of the K. A. and KP.D. of R Carina and the 
Comparison Stars, together with the adopted magnitudes of 
' l Stars. 



Co-ordinates in 

R.A [ N.P.D. 

No. 1 


9 2 
9 1 
6 9 


T 31-4 E. 
1 32-1 „ 
1 52-0 „ 

3 52 6 Z 

4 30-0 „ 
6 49 „ 
6 46-2 ,, 

6 46-8 „ 

7 8-7 „ 

7 23-5 „ 

8 2-2 „ 

9 34-7 A 
10 8-0 „ 

45 S. 

10 8 S. 

„ 8 

14 41 N. 
3 52 S. 

„ 13 ,.. , 

6 54N. 

,, 15 .. 

3 33 N. 

Concluded Magnitudes of £. Carina. 





Date. | «* 

















4 9 



Jan. 26 


» 12.. 


■> 28 


,, '26 


t" 2S "- 

% 5 .. . ' 



.. 20 

" 24"".'". 
April V. "'.".".' 


," 26 

» J| 


— . 1 

May "i :.'.".'".' 

Jan. 1 

„ 16 

v-» 30. 

„ / 


„ 8 

„ 15 

„ 19 

" it ■..'.'.'.'..'. 

" ^ 


On some observations for Longitude at Lambie. 
By W. J. Condbr. 

[Read before the Atfronomirol Section of the Royal Society of N.S.W., 

In submitting to the attention of the Members of Section A of 
the Royal Society the results of some observations for Longitude 
which were made in July and August, 1878, at Lambie, an 
important Station on the Trigonometrical Survey of this Oolony, 
and of which the difference of longitude from the Sydney 
Observatory has been carefully determine! bv star Transits ami 
clock .signals, recorded by means of the electric telegraph, 1 wish 
to explain that the observations were made as an experiment, or 
perhaps I should say an amusement ;l1 an\ rate they were not 
intended for actual use on tin Trigoi ma ideal Survey. I was 
anxious to knov. «-e the measure or 

precision in longitude whieh might be obtained by a very few 
independent ium ', portable instruments; and 

having an opportunity for testing the results, by comparison with 
the known posi dned by telegraph from the 

Observatory, I thought it as well to place them on record, as they 
may possibly be of interest to others, and this is my reason for 
tr« - .i-i - on yea r time with this paper. 

Papers marked A, H, and (.! contain in tabulated 
reduction of each observation ; it will I presume be unnec 
read them now, as they consist of figures only, which can only oe 
useful or interesting for reference. * 

Referring to p.-i^r A : tie- tirst column gives the dates o 
observation and limb of the moon observed; column 2, the nam ^ 
of the star used for reference, taken from the Nautical Am. W ■;' ; 
column 3, the resulting R A. of the moon's limb, after W 1 ?* 
the observed diff 

moon and each star separately to the star's registered R. A. 
may be noticed that out of the thirty-one values of the ni< j> 
R.A. given in thU 

rejected, viz., one on the 9th July and one on the 6th A*gȣ 
this has been done in accordance with the criterion of *J° r f~ 
Pierce for the rejection of doubtful observations. Column ± sn 
the number of seconds (leaving out the hours and minutes, 

of the place of observation. This E.A. has been deduced from 
the tabulated positions at the upper and lower Greenwich transits, 
regard having been taken of differences of the third and 
fourth order when requisite. To the tabular B.A.'s in this column 
there have been applied the corrections obtained from the published 
Greenwich observations of the same date. Column 5 contains 
the computed hourly variation of the moon's R.A. at the assumed 
meridian. Column 6 gives the resulting longitudes. At the foot 
of this paper the mean of ti shown to be '.Hi. 

59m. 56-86s. ; by telegraph from Sydney it i.s f>S-99.s., and 1-v the 
observed occupation of Antares, 6049s. 

Paper B is the computation of the longitude from an 
observation of the occultation of Antares. Both phases of this 
phenomenon, immersion and emersion, were observe,], Mel the 
results differ from each other, as shown at the foot of page 2, by 
i'508 seconds. ] re-appearance 

"■' re record, ,1 \,\ pv« -sinu the i mm cting key of an electric chrono- 
graph in the usual immner : and (as mentioned in my notes of the 
<<Wnation) 1 was di.stim.-rh sensil-h of tin existence of a small 
the act a ■! to the 

had witnessed and the performance of the 
i of pressing on the key. I believe this to 
I interval, and estimated it in my notes as 

■ ■'■■■ 

too small, and also it is probable that the 

i from the ' the moon's 

•"sc, although it was predicted l.v preliminarv computation with 


■ ] i the fa.-ts of the case, the obser 

- J phenomena of the occultation. This appeared to 
? e an interesting practical test of the precision to be obtained 
tt( Mn each of the two kinds of observations, occupations or 
j-uhninations. & ■■ .f the longitude only differ 

f 6 seconds, verj I i ither system 

T m this example. I prefer the method of culminations, becaune 
JJ® eye and hand I beforehand by noting the 

F^ual approach of the obj "tieal observer 

* enabled to make the electric connection coincident with the 
"5*0*1 contact with the thread in the telescope, besides the 
Vantage of bavin* the mean of several threads instead of a 



single observation. I also think that the observations are less 
liable to error from, what may be termed the accidental irregu- 
larities on the moon's surface, the contact is more likely to be 
observed when the thread i ial to the average 

surface; whereas the star at an occultation may happen to 
disappear behind the top of a lunar mountain or at the bottom 
of a valley ; this certainly could produce but a very small error, 
but should be considered when the number of observations of this 
kind is limited. 

b from the published Greenwich c 

paper shows that there exists t 
siderable amount of u tat correction t 

be applied ; for instance, on the 16tli July the value by the t 
iii>trin.H-iir differs just £ a second from that with the altas 
This discrepancy means "very nearly 15 seconds wheal ttdvmfiM 
*— ^itude. The correction adopted for these observations is the 
1 of the two groups taken separately as the most 
probable value ; it is a rather strange coincidence however that 
by using for each day the & identical in time, 

a great reduction would be made of the range of errors in the 

3sulting longitude. I ha-\ 
-Directions of the RA. fi„^ . 

tones to combine with the Greenwich values. In the event ot 
my obtaining them in a short time, I will with your permission 
take an opportunity of making an addition to these papers in the 
shape of a small table showing the results as deduced from sacn 
additional data. • wh 

For many years hence there will be instances m ***■ j* 
requirements for settlement as well as important - 
gations, such as the transit of Venus, &c, will necessitate tne 
determination of longitude by lunar observations, either by W 
method of occultations, culminations, or the similar P^f* ^ 
lunar distances as practised at sea, and consequently the e ^ or ~L t 
practical astronomers and surveyors may still be useful for v» 
purpose j but the network of i " 
distant and otherwise isolated parts c 

incalculable benefits, supplied astrono 

rate solution of the otherwise difficult problem < ' 
and it is to be hoped that the time has now nearly arrive \1 
by this means, such important positions as our Sydney Observ ^ 
and the others in the Australian Colonies may be fixed ^ 
Map of the World with that minute precision which tne m« 
of electric signals only can achieve. 

ange ot e 

resulting longitude. I have not as yet been able to procure 1 
corrections of the R.A. from Washington or any other Observa- 

! may till be u a * "" 
, which now connects the nj* 
of the globe has, among other 
tomers with an easy and _ acw 

Longitude J 
Moon culri 
Assumed longitude = lOh. 






Observed. '' Tabular. 1 "*' 



83 ir ^ mS 

85 n ..! 

13 40 26-73 



I 9 59 


13 40 26.855 | 87110 

139-62 53-43 s 

July 9 

Mc727 ... 

a Libra? 

B.A.C. 4923 

14 37 4209 1 42-828 
(.60) -'437 

14 37 42-107 , 42-391 



^ 2 Sagittarii 
p Capricomi 

b.a.c.7209 ;;; 

19 Capricorni 

20 38 1-43 2358 
1-69 - "437 

2-01 j 
1-87 j 

20 38 1-725 1 1,921 j 129-42 


Jiilr 16 


Capricomi ... 
29 ,, ... 

« Aquarii ::: 

21 27 55-82 


-■m : 

21 27 55.900 

55-947 j 12046 



20 Libra 1 

B.A.C. 4984 ...| 

B.A.C. 5197 Z\ 

15 19 24-36 24-888 
2451 - "634 

24-29 I 



su . 

Observed. 1 Tabular. 




M Herculis ."" 

16 20' 4226 

- -634 

/, * 

16 20 42235 




Mfc. Lambie, August 7, 1878. 

4. = 33° 28' 25-37" S. 


£™stl | « 5 

rf. A. 

6 20 

- 63 

h. m. a. 

" 26 6(52 
16 21 5941 

26 19 IIS 
„ 23 262 
„ 27 416 
„ 31 471 

57 44-949 

„ 43510 


" 40635 


7 - - •-: 


20h . 



2 3h. 


52° 28' 51-0' 

33 161 

37 315 

41 37-0 


9 11-2 

13 36.3 

17 517 

21 57.2 

Cos. a - A 





Cos. 2 o - A 













Log- 1 








+ 7-553012 

+ 7953696 

Sin. a - A 













j*&2 ... ;:: 




■ - r 



+ •161560 




296 -074312 

+ 16 


L °g- -, 9-9971014 
tan <p 9-8203499 


15 40 3864 =. 6 d 20 h ■ 

■ 41 2077 - - 10° 20' 11-55" 
59 48 80 (- 35-86) 




immersion, j Emereio n. 


. - -411052 + "343160 
. + -208237 1 + -305281 
. 9-9216783 9-9216783 
) -9-2538943 9*2087466 



Cos. M". ... 

jog.» ... 


. -9-1755726 

+ '135028 






— -261231 
+ -078194 



Extract from the 


corrections to the Moon's K.A. for 1878. 

1878 ' j Ul" LnSnt 




July 6 

+ -49 

+ 33 





„ 7 

1 16 .■".'.'.*.'.'.*.'.*.' 

„ 13 


___ • 


... + 0-437 

Aug. 3 

I | 

+ SI 


H 1 

•75 j * 

AUg 8 

-.. ! + -71 ! 

" 1 



... + 0-634 


The Orbit-Elements of Comet II, 1881. 
By J. Tebbutt, F.RA.S. 
[Bead before the Astronomical S- ■■ , -. I'- <1 > ■< Uj of N.S. W., 
5 August, 1SS1.] 
Havikg before reported to you the appearance of the recent large 
comet, I have now much pleasure in presenting to you an approxi- 
mate determination of the orbit elements of that body. Owing to 
ill health and the pressure of other avocations foreign to astronomy, 
I have been obliged r<> defer the calculation of the orbit. The 
paper which I am now about to read is a brief one, but it contains, 
nevertheless, the results of a large amount of calculation, and 
the results themselves will, I am assured, be of an exceedingly 
interesting character, I have then deduced the following ai .proxi- 
mate pai l.olafi mi vm o - ' Lti< > nM y 22nd, the evening 
of discovery, June 1st and 11th. The residuals for the middle 
place are very large, but I am unable in the limited time which I 
nave at my disposal previously to the meeting to reduce them 
within the limits of errors of observation :— 

Perihelion passage 1881, June 15"63318d. G.M.T. 

Longitude of the perihelion 2«W 34' -0 I M . Elluinox> ISSI'O 

Longitude of the ascending node 270 37 ~2 I 

Inclination of the orbit 63 1 5 -6 


Motion ... Direct. 

ft was supposed by some persons previously to the calculation of 
*9 orbit thai &a Comets II, 

1 81 9, II, 1861, but I believe I explained satisfactorily in the 
Herald of 9th June last that such identity could not be possible, 
ft appears, however, from a *• elements with 

tjose of the recorded comets that it is more probably a return of 
tl »e Great <\„u.-t «.f |,-()7. This cim-t « a> di-overetl by Pansi, 
^ Augustine monk, at Castro Giovanni, in Italy, on September 
•J* of that year, and some days afterwards by Pons at Marseilles. 
-Tne observations extended over a period of nearly seven months, 
jnd the orbit was I by several computers. In 

<ili mb . I hha ... » Cometen, Encke's edition, 

i8 *7, there are no fewer than fourteen sets of elements, all of which, 
^cept two, are parabolic. Readers of astronomical literature will 
JN to mind that this comet is rendered interesting from the fact 
*** ^ was subjected to examination by the powerful reflectors of 
8lr William Herschel, and also from the "*— 

! the subject of a classical memoir by the illustrious 
Bessel. Delanibiv. in lii» .Utmoomb Th>'<>rbpi, rf Pratique, tome 
Hi, says that the period lies between 1403-6 and 2157*4 years, and 
that the perturbations will produce great changes in the elements, 
principally in the time of revolution. In fact, the length of the 
assigned period is almost the only circumstance that militates 
against the supposition of the identity of this comet with that 
which visited ns in May and June last. We must, however, bear 
in mind that observations taken in the beginning of the present 
century are not so accurate as those now made by astronomers. 
In support of m (UX late visitor 

with the Comets II, 1819, II, 1861, and on its probable identity 
with that of 1807, I here give the orbit-elements of the three 
comets for corn i i re deduced. The elements 

of Comet II, 1819. ami of ( 'omet 1807 are by Brinkley and Bessel 
respectively, and those of Comet II, 1861, are from Dr. Heinrich 
Kreutz's definitive investigation, a copy of which elaborate work 
he kindly sent to me some months ago. 

The longitudes are roughly corrected for the precession ot the 
equinoxes since the respective epochs. Remarkable as our late 
visitor is in connection wit 1 i y with the comet 

of 1807, it is perhaps quite as remarkable in another respect. 
The fact is the earth has had an exceedingly narrow escape 
from being enveloped in the matter of the comet's tail 1 ™ a 
that on the evening of aiseoverv. May 22nd, the distances ot tne 
comet from the sun and earth were respectively eighty-two ana 
seventy-one millions of miles. For .some days the earth ^ come^ 
as I at the time pointed out, were rapidly approaching each otne • 
On the morning of June 12th, when my last reliable observation 
was taken, the respective di &«J to sixty- wn 

and thirty-two millions of miles. At sixteen minutes past 
o'clock in the afternoon of June 16th, Sydney time, the com 
passed through perihelion at a distance of sixty-nine mUU ? nS tIie 
miles from the sun, and at eighteen minutes past 7 o'clock m ^ 
afternoon of the 19th it reached the plane of the earths oro 
the ascending node. On looking at the elements before giyei 
will be seen that the longitude of the node is 270° 37 , and 1 ^ 
that the heliocentric longitude of the earth at the same tarn 
268° 9', so it follows on the assumption that the comets 
pointed directly from the sun that the earth, had she been 


two and a half days more in advance in her orbit, would have 
been exactly in the prolongation of the axis of the tail and at a 
distance of twenty-five millions of miles from the comet's nucleus. 
A similar result would have followed had the comet been later by 
the same period in coming up to the node. In fact it is not at all 
improbable, when the orbit comes to be investigated from the 
whole assemblage of observations, that the earth was really in- 
volved to some extent in the diffused matter of the tail. 

I shall now take my leave of this interesting subject, m the 
hope that I may be spared to return to it at a future opportunity. 
I may mention that my reports of the comet's appearance have 
now probably reached Europe, and that I am about to send all 
my observations fully reduced. In conclusion, I find from JN o. 
UU of the Asi i dweovered.fciy 

Swift, in the United States, on the 30th April, and that according 
to elements by Dr. Oppenheim, in No. 2376, the latest date to 
hand, that comet must have come into the southern hemisphere. 
Lord Crawford, ot the 

Dun Echt Observatory, and he promised at the May meeting of 
the Royal Astronomical Society to telegraph to Australia. L iuu e 
not heard, however, it the promise w :l * earned into ettect. 1 
myself was not aware of the comet's discovery till the 19th July, 
and it was then too late to search for it. According to Oppenheim s 
elements this comet passed its perihelion on May 21st so that the 
comet of which this paper expressly treats will probably be No. 11 



Dr. Wright was voted in the Chair. 

It was decided to hold the meetings of the Section on the 
evenings of the second Monday in each month. The following 
gentlemen were elected office-bearers for the ensuing session:— 
Chairman : Dr. Wright. Secretary : Mr. P. R. Pedley. Com- 
mittee : Dr. Morris, Mr. F. B. Kyngdox, Mr. G. D. Hirst, 
Mr. T. Brindley. 

9 MA Y, 1881. 
Dr. Wright in the Chair. 

The Chairman exhibited a new Tolles' - r V inch objective, the 
performance of which was remarkably satisfactory on a valve ot 
A. peUv.cida mounted in the bisulphide of carbon and phosphorus 
medium. In ordering this objective Dr. Wright suggested 
that the front of the setting should be constructed of gold, as 
being the metal least liable to be chemically acted upon by the 
various fluids used for the immersion of the lens. Mr. Tolles 
considered that a . .u id unnecessary, 

and had had the front u ilt in^ad. Mr. H. O. Walker exhibited 
a Sv\ diVs A-inch objective, with which he successfully resolved r. 

13 JUNE, 1881. 
Dr. Wright in the Chair. 
Dr. Wright read some notes on the comparative performances 
of two A-i 

Zeiss's lens was more achromatic than those ot Mr. loW>, 

that in the Tolles objectives the correction for spherical aberratio 

was more perfect use of deeper W^T,; 

Dr. Morris and Dr. Wright exhibited the powers oi ^ 
lenses in question on some exceeding 
rhomboides, the stri* on which were remarkably faint an« 
bered about 90,000 to the inch. . - h{n( r 

Mr. J. IT. C. Colyer read a note from Capt. Trouton descn ^ 
a remarkably luminous appearance of the sea m lat. •<- ■' 
long. 51° 53' E. (off the coast of Aden, 100 miles west ot bocwg 
apparently occasioned by n ■ xhic }} P rV ohoS - 

a snowy white sheen altogether differing from the ordinary y> 
phorescent appearance of the tropical seas. 
11 JULY, 1881. 
Dr. Wright in the Chair. ^ 

Dr. Wright exhibited A. pellucida, dry, resolved by 
homogeneous A -inch objective. 

Rev. Mr. Martin called the attention of the meeting to the 
beautiful black ground illumination to be obtained from the 
ordinary Webster condenser, in conjunction with Ross's new 
swinging tail-piece. 

8 AUGUST, 18S1. 
Dr. Weight in the Chair. 

Through the kindness of Mr. L. Briick, the Secretary was 
enabled to exhibit a variety of new and interesting microscopical 
apparatus. Am, *e two large and completely 

furnished microscopes, by Messrs. Hartnack of Paris, and by 
Messrs. Schmidt and Haensch of Berlin. Considerable interest 
was taken in the trial of Prof. Abbe's new condenser, winch it 
was found could be worked up to an extremely high angle. A 
Loewe's microtome, and Hartnack's improved stereoscopic ocular 
with two eye-pieces and adjustment for position of eyes, received 
a great amount of attention, and were much admired. 

Dr. Wright exhibited two samples of fossil diatoms the one 
from Victoria, and the other from Gunnedah, New South Wales. 

Mr. Pedley exhibited sections of brain and spinal cord. 

Owing to the inclemency of the weather the meeting lapsed for 
want of a quorum. 

12 OCTOBER, 1881. 
Dr. Wright in the Chair. 
The Chairman exhibited two of Tolles' solid eye-pieces. With 
these ey< pieces— 1 and finch— Dr. Wright was able to obton 
greater amplification, with equal definition, and with proport on- 
ately less loss of light than with Huyghenian oculars of like 
P °Mr rS p EDL EY exhibited a series of histological preparations. 

14 NOVEMBER, 1881. 
Dr. Wright in the Chair. 
The Chairman exhibited Dr. J. Edwards Smiths Y-shap^ 
diaphragm, and the last edition of Dr. Carpenters [J^*g£ 
scope." Dr. Wright also exhibited the scales of a hairless poour- 
from Mr. Sharp, of Adelong. This podu^ . in *£™g* 

^spherules by Tolles' ftft^ J*™3^ 


iction of the Royal Societ; 
meeting, April 29th, 1881, at which the following o 
appointed : — Chairman : Dr. Mackellar. Secretaries : Dr. Jones, 
Dr. Maclaurin. Committee: Dr. Cox, Dr. Schuette, Dr. 
Roberts, Dr. Morgan. 

Seven general meetings were held, at which numerous papers 
wore read ami . . . ■x.hibiteil. 

A paper read by Dr. Manning on the question, " Is Insanity 
mweasmgl" was recommended to the Council of the Society for 

Is Insanity increasing? 

By Frederic Norton Manning, M.D., 

Inspector General of the Insane, New South Wales. 

[Read before the 2Mir„l Section of th Uo t iM Soekhj of N.S. W., 

September, 1881.] 

In two former papers read before this Section of the Royal Society 

of New South Wales, I have set forth the proportion of insane 

persons to the gei * ™ untnes > and 

discussed at some length the ' ^f ^ 

question is one n : i!l Wfflety, it is from time 

to time discussed in the public Press, and is of great social and 

,,, t , ;; ,,i ■„„,„.,, ,.., The occurrence of the Census year appears 

to be a speeiallv fitting time for its discussion, because it 

us, so far as our own Colony is concerned, an opportunity of dealing 

with accurate returns, and eliminating errors which might arise m 

_ - 

The following short return dee,, the population of New bout* 

Wales, the number of insane and the proportion of. insane ^persons 

per thousand of the population, on Dec. -1st. l!>ol , .Dec dist, 

Ki md \pril !rd (Census da; I 1-M tie numb" oi i« 

tVra.K 1 , ni di.tu _w4e 1 r,e-e - r.t ^H .puUnunl an 

in,M,t,dt.,t ...n.raL.h-eU.^ee. 

that those for 1 881 are subject to the minor corrections which may 

he necessary in the final revision of the Census returns. 

|*^ these figures it appears that, whiLrt the ff^P^£ 
J*» in twenty yem. in. s I m, per cent, the *^ ^^sen 

4 per 1,000, c 

Taking tin 1 decennial periods, it will be seen that from 1861 to 
1871 the increase of population was 45 per cent., and of insane 
, l>.") per cent. ; tin' proportion of insane to population rising 
" " > 2-67 per 1,000; whilst from 1871 to 1881 the increase 
of population was 44 per cent, and of the insane 54 per cent.; the 
proportion of insane to population rising only from 2 67 to 2 '85 
per 1,000. 

Turning to the neighbouring Colony of Victoria, we find that the 
increase in the number of insane during the last twenty years has 
been even greater than in this Colony. In 1861 the populai k» ol 
Victoria was 541,800, and the number of insane persons 702, or 
1-29 per 1,000. In 1881, the population, as ascertained by Census, 
was in round numbers 855,000, whilst on Dec. 31, 1880, the 
number of insane had risen to 3,065, or 3-58 per 1,000 j so that 
whilst the population had only increased by 57 per cent., the 
number of insane had more than .piadrupled. and bore a proportion 
to the population nearly three times larger than in 1861. 

The increase in the proportion of insane to population was much 
more marked during the period from 1861 to 1871 than from the 
latter date to 1881, being from 1-29 to 2*71 per 1,000 during the 
former ten years, and only from 2-71 to 3"58 per 1,000 during the 

In South Australia the population in 1871 was 186^26, fee 
number of insane persons 32 kxa of insane to 

population 1-74 per l.non. whilst at the close of 1880 the popula- 
tion was 267,662, the number of insane 587, and the proportion 
:ion 2'19 per 1,000. 

The increase in Queensland and Kew Zealand, with the details 
of which I will not trouble you, has been equally marked. 

Going now to older countries, we find that in 1844 there were 
in England and Wales 20,611 registered insane persons. In lg* 
the number had risen to 41,129, and in 1 879 to 71,191. In W* 
there was one insane person in every 800 of the population , in 
1861, one in about every 550, and in 1879 one in every 3b0. 

The Commissioners in Lunacy for Scotland, in their report tot 
the year 1879, state that when they entered on their duties in 
* ■* j number of insane persons officially knownt" *** 


ne per- ' ""T, . „- 

>d that there EL been ,n increased :■.-!--- 

that date. The insane under their jurisdiction hav 
increased 65 per cent, in I j«- pop*™— - 

only increased 20 per cent, during the same period. 

From the returns made by the Inspectors of Lunatic 4 S -^ 
in Ireland, it appears that from 1846 to 1861 there was an mere* 
of one-third in the number of insane, whilst the population,^ 
emigration at ised by 3 millions durm » 

same period. And taking the period since 1861, the Inspec* 


the number of i 

state m their report for 1879 

nearly douhh-d, whilst the ] 

From a report hy 31. Lunier, Inspector-General of the . 
ih.>* Allr,„'s, published in LN70, it appears that from 1 .*:;:» to 

from K> i»(. t<» - »i i ul <[ .i h'l whiUthoprnj 

to population tripled. From recent returns it appears that 

tion every year since 1870, but the rate of inarefta 

I have not al other European 

from German, Belgian, Dutch, and other pnblicati 

be gathered. In 1875 Professor Livi, at Reggio, 

that the increase had been most marked in Italy. 
I have prepared a return showing the proportion 

sons to every 1,000 of the population in England, £ 
South W 'ales, and Victoria, in each year since 1861, 

Dumber of Insane to 1,000 of th 


~ | .** j ,-* | >afe- 



lSti? 236 t 2-11 2-58 
1S6S \ 2-43 2-14 1 263 

1872 |^56 1 22S **»? 

1S74 2-66 1 229 272 
1S73 2-6S 2-31 2-80 

1879 ! 0.79 ! *■% 2-74 
1SS0 2-58 | 2-72* 

2 27 
2 40 


1 S9 

* Or corrected by Census of April 3, 1881, **>. 

the Colony of New South Wes, so grt 

1 been the increase in the proport! 

population for some years past that, on reeeivm, 


Registrar ('Viic-raVs estimate* of population for 1879 and 1880, 
and especially for the latter at, calculated on 

these, the prop. ; instead of increas- 

ing, I at once fe! ■ >ul>t as to the accuracy of 

the estimates. That these doubts were not unreasonable is proved 
by the Census sho . populat u t be less by about 22,000 
than the estim t. t ' - il i,.p,.i n »f ms„ ha then 

fore increased from 2-:3-l to 2'S.l, ami not 2'72 per 1,000. 

. during the I 


^.-(.tVh <*„iii]id->i. 

. that for 1^79, 

state : 

"The incr. ... 


e have t\ 

d'diM^."- and 

hWpo,_- ri >r-, in 


Sport, also fo; 

r 1879. "see no 

1,1 Mipp^o thai I 
Lockhart Rober 


■r',.. 1 . 

i'. in.w o'i 

le of the Lc 

>rd Chancellor's 

s in Lunacy, ha^ 

..- . -■; •: 

.ular t'lllarv." :>m 


-Psychological 8. 


, ISO-'.' 

reasons for this 


reasons generally 


en for the 

> cn-eat increa 

se of recognised 

»n made for the 


That more stringen 
protection and re 


of insane p 
ally heard of 

many who we: 


now duly com 


ed in Enc 

jland obliging 

[ the counties to 

history of insanity, and since this date the whole machinery of 
the Lunacy Commissioners has had its origin. In ISoll an'Act 
ordered a quarterly return of lunatics not in asylums, and in 1861 

an Act rendered lunatics chargeable to the Lnion instead of the 
parish funds, : a fear of biirthening their 

own parish rates, and led to the placing of many idiots, formerly at 
h ! county asylums. 
In 1874 a grant of -is. a head per week w as made from the 
ConsolidatedRevenuetothe com i [mi i nf.-r ever) lun itic, 

and this has caused the shifting of no inconsiderable number of 
^B aged a] iper to the lunatic list. 

here have been 
similar enactment- i i S •. tland. h. l.u .1. Vm u-.-. and other countries. 
In the Austral i afforded easy 

modes of admission to Institutions for the insane, which the 
authorities of Benevolent A - have not been 

alow to take advantage of, so as to rid themselves of a huge number 
of demented cases, and e-i e, „iiiv ot ;dl v h , i .pure the slightest 
extra care, food, o watching Tins Lis been markedly the case 
since a closer scrutiny has been made of the expenditure of these 

2. The accumulation of incurable cases and the lower rate of 
Formerly the insane succumbed in large numbers from neglect 
or cruelty, whilst now unde] • " t0 a fair, an ^ 

To show the effect ofa low death rate on the increase of insanity 
hy causing an accumulation of old and chronic cases, and by way 
°t illustrating . .'. more rapid increase of the 

proportion of insane persons in the Australian Colonies than in 
Great Britain, I won! I , d mur . f at on to the difference made 
.: ui death rate. 
The number who are di>l-l ■' *> far wel1 as 

*° he able to lea " greatly differ in the two 

countries, and may be set down as 60 per cent, of the admissions. 
Thl - English .;• : per cent., the Australian, 

r resident. In 
pBW B, itai . an average number resident 

f 1,000, and an admission rate of 300 per annum, we have 100 
dea ths and 180 discharges, a total of 280 per annum, leaving an 
annual increase of 20 only; whilst in an Australian asylum, or 
tfl e same capacil me number of new cases, 

* e have only 7 250 per annum, 

ieavmg an annual increase of 50, or loi' per cent, -renter than 
^at Britain Ih reas is for the smal rm diry in A ralian 
as ylums heretofore are, tir- ■ :1U )' of whom 

^r young, have not had time to grow old with the asylums ; 

3. The improved management of asylui 
'ormerly they were objects of dread, in 

ami did not place the insane of their i 

• eonsidered tit homes for the perturb* 

te very increase in the number ot asylum 

,;l' rtl ., 

.-eak in 

s has > 

. .rved t. 



c pati.--.! 

>m the immediate neighbourhood of an a 

proportion to population than from 

|,!e- . 

more ' 

uated, and every new asylum attracts to 


'• pivju 

e tlie es ablishnient of the Newcastle Asylum, in 
1, the number of idiots under care has exact! 

increased only M pfer 

It cannot be supposed that there has K-en thi 

ii its tV.ii, ih ke} t it hoim oi in b. nevoh id 

have been sent thither. On one oeeasi<»:: 
at once from the Sydney Benevolent Institution, some 
tad been for a long time inmates. 
i alteration has taken place in the standard of what 

todem science has discovered new realms 

; ' • • • . , : ■ 

hey hanged him if he committed a murd r. i ' " "' ' '" !~ 
roni the quaint literature of former days, they 
>ooks if his mania took a literary instead of a ho 

v ->' '■ -• '-:■'■•-'■ . ■ . :_■':'■ : 

t absolutely consigned t 


These are the causes given for the increase in the amount of 
registered insanity which has taken place, and it must at once be 
admitted that they do account for a large share of it. Whether 
they account for all is, J think, very doubtful. 

A suspicion arises that some of these causes ought, at all events 

operative. Ti antic life under 

asylum care should long ere this have been reached in England, 
and in all parts of Great Britain asylums of every kind have long 
since been brought within easy reach of the whole population. 

been called the " annual incidence of fresh cases," is a better guide 
to the prevalence of insanity than the number existing, because 
the increase resvi ' •- ia .-liminated, but the 

following return shows that theratio of admissions to population is 
increasing, -,umew'uai Jowly indeed in England, but more rapidly 
in this Colony and South Australia 

i Kii^laml, Xew South ~\ 

South Au>; • 



New South W ale , 

South Austria. 


1 in 2,026 
1 „ 1,973 

1 „ 2,260 



1 in 2, J 82 


1 „ 2,141 

1 „ 2,050 

1 '„ 1,779 
1 „ 1,638 

1 „ 1,886 


1 „ 1,895 

I " i'?S 

1 „ 1,51* 

1 ,, 1,273 


1 „ 1,636 



. Again, we are well aware that th.-iv has I n a marked increase 

' a morn than m forty years, but 

* e cannot point t.» .-.nv - ' less f re q uent - 

-* n *ral |, ir , !.. ; ., , f H ] ;..,. [ i 1;ut 

si „kv 

1,034 cases of it, or upwards of 7 per cent, of the total admissions, 
were received into English asylums in 1879 ; whilst in France we 
have the statement of Si. Lunier, the Inspector-General of Asylums, 
that " it appears to increase not only in the large towns, but in 
the smaller centres of populat i i dug rapidity, 

There is trood reason to think that epileptic insanity is also on 
the increase. 1,226 eases of this affection were admitted into 
English asylums in 1^79, funning upwards of 9 per cent, of the 

If you will, as e dl y..ui own exp< n>'U< ' • 

or consult the literature of the subject, vou cannot, I think, tad to 
percehe that the - , 11. d i . uroti. di .t m -. v. huh, though distinct 
from, are allied to insanity, have greatly increased in these later 
years. The different forms of spinal affection and paialy^, 
locomotor ataxia, neuralgia, hyst ria. ehort u epilepsy, habitual 
headache and n n, are to be seen 

in every consulting room, are the subjects of a Luge and increasing 
literature, and are treated in special hospitals. Between tlie 
sufferers from these diseases and insanity proper, between the inner 
circle of insane ;> nie, as has 

pointed out by Dr. Crichton Brown in a charmingly written pap. r 
in the Journal of Psveholoun d Medicine for July. 18MJ, ^ 

u c o c z folks forming the middle of three & a 
These believers in perpetual motion, in squaring the circle, m 
spiritualism am i ' separated front 

the insane by arbitrary and somewhat shifting lines, and wei 
surely never so numerous as at this time. , 

I need not tell you how t o outer o^tnese 

concentric circles pass from time to time into the inner o , 
how the neuroses lead up to or develop into insanity ma sec oncio 
third generation. " The neuroses of one generation are indeea 
rarely the insanke of the next.' and if U 

are enlarging out of proportion to the increase of population, 
insane circle to which they act as feeders is probably increasing 

a ^the^uTeTof the increase of nervous diseases I do not now 
propose to speak, except to indicate that it appears largely ^ 
the pressure and competition, the restlessness and social uplie^ ^^ 
modern life. The condition of the poorer has changed niuc 
than that of the monied classes, and they have entered into ^ 
political and educational life, with its special exciteme ^^ 
struggles. Can it- that the in eased amount of ne ^? U Uectua l 
and insanity is one of the penalties of this social and im* ' ^ 
progress, this greater brain activity and strain, which nas 

12 per cent, whilst the number in pauper 


per cent." (Report of Lunacy C 

In England from 1858 to 1875 

) the number of 

increased from 4,980 to 7,620, or 53 per 

hilst the pauper 

patients 1 from 31,782 t 

, 03.57: 

per cent. For 

several years past there has been 

Private patients, but this propo 

rtion of 


patients is still 

Dr. George M. Beard, of N 

c, whilst 

of novel symptoms and forms of i 

->-.;; J 

of the cost of liberty — it is a tax 

Liberty implies responsibility, re 

3 to worry, and 

worry is attended with uisappoinl 


and govern ourselves, thousands : 

down in 

On the whole, then, looking a 

jidence of fresh 

cases, at the increase in special forms of i 

neurotic mischief, and at a con 


g proportion of 

insane to population, I think the 

question propoui 

ided at the com- 

mencement of this paper must 
There is good reason to believe tl 

be ans^ 

the affirmative. 

■ - 

s is some 

real increase of 

It is, however, to some extent. 


ting to ki 

low the increase 



nliY, SYDNEY. 

temperature Highe 

^reaes ™ •» ^. Q on t] 

Number of Days 18 rain and 5 

Total Fall (^ " 

^BCWlcity ... Number of Days Lightning 5 

^y Sky.., Mean Amount 7-fi 

W. dumber of Clear Days... 

^ <j, was recorded at 350 i 
I?? " whi «a passed Euel 
•lie averae 
*«h. the avera S e 5 ^ the country-the northern si 
^ west parts of the Colony had an abi 

b'passed Eucfa on 29th December. .The mean shade I 

^twX 8 than the . ave r a s e J 


FEBEUAEY, 1881.— General Abstra 

Barometer ... 

At 32° Faht. 

Highest Reading... 
Lowest Reading ... 
Mean Height ... 

(Being 0'038 g 


. Greatest Pressure 
Mean Pressure ... 
Number of Days Calm 
Prevailing Direction 


iling direction during the same 


Highest in the Shade 
Lowest in the Shade 
G-reatest Range ... 
Highest in the Sun 

Mean Diurnal Range 
Mean in the Shade 

30-204 inches on the 14th, at 8-30 a.m. 
29271 „ on the 13th, at 2'40 p.m. 

Evaporation Total Amount I 

Electricity ... Number of Days Lightning 4 
ClondySky... Mean Amount 5 

!, -100-5. At the 
light general i 

u ram *<,~~ 
Colony. The totals for the month indicate a supply of rain less than the require- 
ment, of the season. A few places, for 

had heavy rains-at the for*, >g that the to£ 

~ ' below the average of th 

the total for January and lebruarj 



. 50*1 


' 37" East. 

MAECH, 1881.- 



wometer ... Highest Reading .. 

At32 Faht. Lom 

Mean Height ... 

30191 inches on the 2 
29-396 „ on the 8 



(Being 0-020 greater than that in the sam 

on an average of the preced 

"= - 1 


ind Greatest Pressure 

Mean Pressure ... 
Number of Days Ca 

13-0 lbs. on the 5th. 

Mean Diurnal Rang. 
Mean in the Shade 

Total Fall... 

/ 1-007 „ 65 feet above ground. 


*% 2£ ::: 

Total Amoun 


.. 3-663 inches. 
ig 11 

Number observed 


APEIL, 1881. GrEIS'EEAL Absteact. 

Highest Reading 30-351 inchea on the » 

Temperature 86-9 on the 9th. 

Lowest in the Shade ... 507 on the 30th 
Greatest Range 24- 1 on the 9th. 

■ut of i:>,7 station* i ■• sill, and only ZU a 


MAT, 1881.— General Abstract. 

Humidity ... Greatest Amount 
Mean '.'.'. '.'.'. 

r^mcity ... Number of Days Lightning 

Meteors ... Number obs erved ^ '.'.'. 

JTTXE, 1S8L— General Abstract. 

Greatest Pressure 
Mean Pressure ... 
Number of Dajrs Calm . 
Prevailing Direction 

Temperature Highest in the Shade ... 661 on the 1st. 
Lowest in the Shade ... 39-6 on the 28th. 
Greatest Range 20o on the 28th. 

Evaporation Tota: 
Electricity ... Nam 
Cloudy Sky- Mem 


JULY, 1S8L— Genebal Abstbact. 

>379 inches on the 19th, at 1 

Greatest Pressure ... 135 lbs. on the 12th. 

Mean Pressure 08 lbs. 

! Dajs Calm ... 

Prevailing Direction 

Highest in the Sun 
Lowest on the Grass 

r of Days 13 rain and 4 dew. 


Cloudy Sky... Mean Amount ... 

Number of (. ! ■ i'.i^- .. 

j°*«t shade down to 400, on the grass to 338 in £ 
iZ' il 804 b ? low . the nrora g e - Generally the wea 

65 ft. above groun< 

*° re Macquarie, over part of which heavy rain fell; it was hardest about re 
»ens, where 116 i-tle, with 795 inch* 

2* extreme dryness of the xoonl &* '** that out of 1 

^ong only 13 received more than one inch, while 11 had no rain at all, and 


AUGUST, 1881.— Gemtbbai 

Temperature Highest in the Shade ... 77-0 on the 27th. 

Lowest in the Shade ... 41-2 on the 7th. 

fiivut.-.-i Range 263 on the 7th. 

Highest in the Sun ... 122-1 on the 27th. 

Lowest on the Grass ... 320 on the 11th. 

Evaporation Total Amount 

Electricity ... Number of Days Lightning 

Cloudy Sky- Mean Amount 

Number of Clear Days . . . 

light, omy 45 stations 
12*1*.. Inland the 


SEPTEMBER, 1881.— G-ekekal Absteact. 

Barometer ... Highest Beading 30-355 on the 7th, at 12 p.m. 

At 32° Eaht. Lowest Reading 29'3','S on the 3rd, at 223 a.m. 


Temperature Highest in the Shade 

Lowest in the Shade 

Greatest Ran-e ... 


evaporation Total Amount ... 
Electricity ... Number of Days Light 
flondy Sky ... Mean Amount ... 

Number of Clear Day. 
*Cteors ... Number observed 

and 1 dew. 

iches on the 16th. 
„ 65 ft. above ground. 

: - ; 

OCTOBEE, 1881.— Geotsbal Abstkact. 

Highest Reading 30239 o 

At32°Faht. Lowest Reading 29215 o 

Mean Height 29"813 

Wind Greatest Pressure ... 40 5 lbs. i 

Mean Pressure ... ... I/O lb. 

Number of Days Calm ... 

Temperature Highest in the Shade ... 85-8 on £ 

Lowest in the Shade ... 460 on tl 

Greatest Range 27"0 on tl 

Highest in the Sun ... 1490 on t 

Lowest on the Grass ... 40*7 on t 

Mean Diurnal Range ... 14*2 

Mean in the Shade ... 59"8 

Evaporation Total Amount ... 
Electricity ... Number of Days Lightnir 
Cloildy j3ky... Mean Amount ... 

Number of Clear Days . 
Meteors ... Number observed 

I going dowr 

i temperature, reaching its minimum 477 
falf 1ms betn light andTnwme^rts no" 

S W8S2 C 
NOVEMBER, 1881.— Gekjebai, Absteacx. 

Lowest on the Grass 
Mean in the Shade 

17 rain and 1 de^ 
( 0-879 „ 65 fl 

^Oration Total Amount 31 

Efectricity ... Number of Days Lightning 5 
Mean Amount 64 

J** the average. The rainfall this month has been generally ligbj 
^»te along the coast and northern districts; at Sydney it was 1872 

*5t The °™ ln has fallen u z hil ?' m may be seen by the number of days on 

DECEMBER, 1381.— General Abstract 

3-reatest Pressure 
dumber of Days' Calm '. 

Temperature Higha 

Humidity ... Greatest Amount 

C 1-060 „ 
t 1-613 .. 

Evaporatiou Total Amount 4768 inches. 

Electricity ... Number of Days Lightning 5 
Cloudy Sty ... Mean Amount 5'5 

ill! Ir? i ill Nilf rK- i I 


NOTE The; diameters (not areas) of Black Spots are proportional to the amount of r 
Incomple,te>returns are, shewn hy cu Black Circle, round, the Spot. 
For cfvuzntiiijes for each month aruL for fhe>year see, altcLchecL tables. 
BeechaZ is 25 miles ¥. of the; position plotLeJL. 



SOUTH WALES, 1862-181 
On the Vertebrated Animals of the Lower Murray 

- - ■• 

On Snakes observed in the neighbourhood of Sydney 
''' ■ • 

numerousnew Theorems andPorisms,and complete 
Solutions to celebrated Problems. Paper No. 1... 

n'gons. Paper No. 2 

the second degree. Paper No. 3 

Researches eoncernmj n .'. ,b m>. n'-td m >uvt i. < > 

i Stars in I 

Meeting of 7th 8 

and their antidotes ... 

On - 

the Civil Service i 
; of 1864 
£ Profits in Mutual 

On the Wambeyan 
On the Fibre™ 

, Wales'gSd^ 
the Prosp< 

On the Defences of Port Jackson 

On the Transmutation of Eocks in Australasia 

On the Oologv of Australia 

The Theory of Encke's Comet 

On certain possible relations between Geological 

Changes and Astronomical Observations 

The_ present state of Astronomical, Magnetical, and 

On the Ma, 

b Aborigines of 

Martin Gardiner, C.E. 
Martin Gardiner, C.E. 
Martin Gardiner, C.E. 

Charles Moi re, F.L.S 


Vol. I. 

Inaugural Address, by the Rev. W. B. Clarke, M.A., F.G.S., 

rident' of tlie Queensland Philosophical 

I.— On Non-Linear Coresolvents, by the Honorable ( 

TL— Remarks on a paper by S. H. Wintle,) Gerard Krefft, Curator 
Esq., on the bones found in a cave at V of the Sydney Mu- 

Glenorchy, Tasmania J seum. 

IIL-On the Auriferous and other Metal- W w B clartej 
.m Queens- > M ^ &c 

IV ' _0n iL 1 .l"wTrvTce Ce ^ ^^ ^ ^ } E " Bedford ' M.B.C.S. 
V.— On the Be t:i- ") M. B. PeU, B. A., Pro- 

tion of Life in New South Wales, as f feesor > ■: 
compared with England and oth r 

countries J of Sydney. 

VI.— Note on the Geology of the Mary River ( K °-^ ^'gj^' ClaT ' 

TIL— On the Mutual Influence of Clock Pen-7 G. R. Smalley, B.A., 

dulums ) Govt. Astronomer. 

Vol. II. 

•ge R. Smalley, B.A, F.R.A. 
: Earth Temperatures ... I 

ouern f Gerard Erefft, F : 
Museums in EuropTand Australia ^ the Sydney : 
)n the Hospital Requirements of "> Alfred Roberts 
Sydney ) M.R.C.S, 

II.— On the Improvements effi 

_ Phenomena of) Rev. W B. Clarl 
ntoS MA., E.G.S., & 
strata ) V.-P. 

- of Sydney ... Professor Smith, M. 
£ Wheat Culture in New South"! 

„ VII.— Remarks on the Dry Earth System of ') Edward Bedford, 
„ VIIL— On Pauperism in New South Wales— "i Alfred Roberts, 


WALES, 1869. 

Vol. III. 

Opening Address, by the Rev. W. B. Clarke, M.A., F.G.S., Vice-President. 

(G. K. Holden, Senior 
Article I.— On the operation of the Real Property Act j Examiner of Titles, 

Article II— Am : ' lamilton's ) 

Problei i i sed [ Martin Gardiner, C.E. 

N'ponsinnm quadri. ... ) 

„ IIL-New Theorem in t he ( Geometry of three J Martin Gardiner> c K 

„ IV.— Exp Method ofi 

Levelling for Sections. The supe- 
riority to the English and French ' artin Gardinerj CE< 

5. C. Cracfa 

the Australian Colonies with the tele- \- intendent of Tele- 
graphic systems of Europe and | graphs for N.S.W. 

rotes on" the Geology of the country } A M ^ Sc . D . 

around Goulburn ) r 

in the Origin and Migrations of the) 

Polynesian Nation, demonstrating f ^ ^ L M-P 

.—Improved Solutions of Problems ™ ) Martin Gardiner, C.E. 
, IX.-On the Water Supply of Sydney from j Qh rf M 

George's River and Cook's River ... j J 

, X.— On the K fcami-) ^^_ 

nation of Waters for the Sydney V Professor Smith, M.D. 

Water Commission ) 

, Xl.-On the Refining of Gold by means of j p R MiUer> p c g 

' m ~° n *°n?7 Apparatus "for Reducing j A Leibiu8 pML Do(J 

Chloride of Sdver ) 

,XIIL— Remarks on Tables for Calculating | H c Bussell, B.A. 


Vol. IV. 


Opening Address, by the Rev. W. B. Clarke, M.A., F.G.S., Vice-President. 

Article I.-On Post-office Savings Banks, Friendly ) a Rolleston> Auditor 

, especially -mtli reference > 
ge' s River scheme ...J 

i Auriferous Slate and") 
ins of New South Wales j 

Opening Address by Professor Smith, M.D., Vice-President. 
Article I. — Eemarks on the Nebula around Eta 1 jj ^ R usse ll B A. 
„ II.— Magnetic' Variations at Sydney" '.'.'. H. C. Russell, B.A. 
„ IIL-Eemarks on the Botany of Lord Hope's j Charleg Moore> y t,S. 

IV.— New Guinea—ah 

Vol. VI. 

Opening Address by the Rev. W. B. Clarke, M.A., Vice-President, 
icle I.— On an Improved Method of Separating) 

Gold from A - Dr. Leibius. 

II.— Remark< tain) 

method of Assaying Antimony Ores > Dr. Leibius. 
given by some Manuals of Assaying ) 
In.-R*marks r onjin Ore, and what may J Dr LeiW 

( George Milner Stephen, 

£ Chris. Rolleston, Esq. 

VI.— On the Coloured Cluster Stars a 

Kappa Crucis 

VIL— On the Deniliquin Meteorite . . . 


WALES, 1873. 

Vol. VII. 

Article I.— Anniversary Address, by the Key. W. E. Clarke, M. A., Vice 
P 1 t 

j Address, by the Rev. W. B. Clarke 

. K ■ -. 

WALES, 1874. 
Vol. VIII. 

bticle I.— -Duplex Telegraphy E. C. I 

A. Rob- 

. n. 

— Appendix toth 

M.A., Vice-President. 

, in. 

—On the Soluti 

. IV. 

, VL— On our Coal and Coal Ports 

, VII.- 

Ports" ... 

, VIIT. 

-On our Coal and Coal Ports 

, IX.- 

of Australia 

Clarification. Parti. Orn 

c .- ;: : -• 

iption of Eleven new species of ) 
Terrestrial and Marine Shells, from > John Brazier, C.M.Z.S 

Pyrites J. Latta, Esq. 

", VII.' 

-■ ' ■ - 

Professor Lirer 


„ VIII. 

-Iron Ore and Coal Deposits at Willera- 

Professor Liversidge. 

„ IX. 

_.-, ..,. • ,' : ■ :■■■•• 

H. C. Russell, 


of the Transit ..f Venus in N.S.W.... ) 

„ X. 

Eden J 

Rev. Wm. Sco 






(Edited by Professor Lirersidg 

Article I. 

-. Fundamental Rules, By 
List ,f .Members 

laws, and _ 


» II.- 


„ m. 

-Additions to Library 


. V,, sir 

Article TV — Anni Rer.W. B. Clai 

M.A.. L'.U.S.. rue-President 

V.— Notes on Deep Sea Soundings. By Eev. W. 
~ }.S. 

. II. Wintle, Hoi 

„ Till— Permanent Wat. • Supply t > Sydney by Gravita- 
tion. By James Manning 

„ DL— Metrop James Manning 

., X.— Water Supph to Sydney by Gi i 
BvJame- ■ 

„ XI.— Scientific Note?. By II. C. Russell, B.A., Govern- 

„ XII.— Examples of Pseudo-Cry stnllization (Ilht t rated) 
„ XIII.— The M : «.' By Professor 

Vol. X. 

(Edited by 1 

Article I.— List of Officers, Func 

List of Members., 

„ II. — Anniversary Address 

M.A., F.E.S., Vice 

III.— Notes on some Remarkable Erro] 

By H. C. Rui 

„ TV.— On the Origin and Migrations of the Poly 

Nation. By Rev. Dr. Lang 

„ V.— On tbe Deep Oceanic Depress* 

By Rev. W. B. Clarke, M.A., F.R.S. ... 
„ YI.— S* I tug bis Oppositic 

G. D. Hirst 

„ VIE.— On tbe Genus Cteuedus. Part? I t • IT. 

plates.) By W. J. Barkas, M.R.C.S. ... 
„ VIII.— On tbe Formation of Moss Gold and Silvei 

Archibald Liversidge. Professor 

„ IX.— Recent Copper Extracting Pr 

„ X.— On some Tertiary Australian Pc 

By Rev. J. E. Teni, " 

Article XII.— Effects of Forest Vegetatio 
W, B. Clarke, M.A., F.H 
„ XIII. — Fossiliferous Siliceous Deposit, Eichmond Eivi 

Example of Contorted £ 

„ XV.— Proceedings . 
„ XVI.— Additions to 
„ XVII.— Donations . 
„XVIIL— Keportsfrom 

2. Transverse Sec 

tion of Fnng of Human Tooth, 
jstosis. By Hugh Paterson ... 

3. Notes on two 

Specie of h 
,tl <LY>]onv. IU J.l.'.C.L'oher 

i, 1 ! " _- IE' elicit E3_\ E. L. Montefiore ... 

„ XIX.- 

act of the Meteor 

rations taken : 

H. C. Eussell 

[, B.A.," F.R.A.S , Government 

„ xx.- 




(Edited by Professor Liversidge.) 

Article I.— List of Officers, Fundamental Eules, Bv-law3, 

and List of Members " ... 

IL-Aaniv C. Eussell, B.A., 

III.— Tli- Forest' I and Norti orn 

Xew !■: . 

Influences, Bj W. I 
IV.— On D -v fbssfl gigantic 

Bit- 1 of Vu i . ilr.i. 1!'. H R, v. W. B. Clarke, 

M.A.. I- 
» V.— Or. tl • Operoulmn, and 

supposed Ear-Bones of Ctenodus. On the 

Bcapula,< -of Ctenodus. 

Bt W. J. Barkas, M.E.C.S 

VI.— On the Tertiary Deposits of Australia. Bv the 

» VII.— On so ■ . </>" «•"<-"!- 

mts.) I foods, F.G.S., 

F.C.S " 93 to 111 

X -- ! ■ ■- 

tiary Formations By the Eev. J. E. Tenison- 

Woods. F.G.S.. F.R.Cr.S 113 to 128 

„ XL— A - Tertiary Polyzoa. By 

K. Eth?ridov. iunr., F.G-.S 129 to 143 

,. XH.— Ctenacanthus, a Spine of Hyboclus. By W. J. 

Barkas, M.R.C.S 145 to 155 

„ XIII.— A - ■ aining to 

Students.: | ,hb. By the 

Hon. J. Smith, C.M.G., M.D., LL.D., M.L.C. 157 to 163 
XIV.— Notes on the Meteorology, Natural History, &c, 

A. Dixon, F.C.S ' ... 165 to 181 

XT.— On some \ » Y - . Corals. (Two 
plates.) By the Eev. J. E, Tenison- Woods, 
F.G.S., F.R'.G.S ... 183 to 195 

Coiuri F.E.A.S.... 197to202 

. XVII.— On a Dental peeuliarily of the Lepidosteidre. 

By W. J. Barkas, M.R.C.S 203 to 207 

e, M.A., F.R.S 209 to 212 

By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S 213 to 218 


. XXII.— Lis* ions 245 to 251 

, XXIII.-Reports from the Sections 253 to 278 

Papees bead beeobe Sections. 

1. Remark^ ,.ii t ,,'..■.„- of the Cape Mul- 

2. Notes on Diatomacese. 
ByG.D. Hirst 272 

„ XXIV.— Appendix : Abstract of the Meteorological Ob- 
servations taken at the Sydney Observatory. 
ByH. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S., G-ovem- 

„ XXV— List of Publications by the Society ".'.". '.'.'. 295 to 302 
„XXVL— Index 303 to 30o 


vol. xn. 

I by Prof. Liversidge and Dr. Leibius.) 

Address, by Christopher Rolleston, 

)rests ; their Botany and Economical 
aJue. By Rev. J. E. Tenison- Woo, Is . FM.S., 

a'.' By' 
i Tertiaiy Fc 
_ plate, i Bv t 

■ ' 

r .— The Molluscan Fauna of Tasmania. By the Re 

J. E. Tenison-Woods, F. G. Sw, F. L. <... 
.—On some Australian Tertiary Fossil Corals ai: 

Polyzoa. (One plate.) By the Bev. J. J 

- \,F.L.- 

f.b,a.s. ..: ... .:: ~*.~ ... e 

s Meteorology of the Coast of New Soul 

-Proposed Correction to the assumed Loni 

desirability o 

ings, by telegrams to the various Ports, trom 

the Observatory. By 

of the ship "T. L. Hall" 

„ VIII. -Storms on the Coast ot Nov South Wales. 

(Four ,/:., 

F. B. A. S. , Government Astronomer 

„ IX.— Some Fa ! Wave, May 

1877. ( (Three diagrams.) By J. P. Joseph- 
i, X.— Some'],', /J Experiment on 

theBlu< M arm.) ByH. 

C. Russell, B.A., F.E.A.S., F.M.S., &c. 
„ XL— On the I i lobalt By 

W. A. hi-., :i . I'.r.v.. ,.-.,.,■ * 

•■ XIL— The D ,. By W. A. 

Dixon, F.C.S., F.I.C. ... ... 

, XIII. — Note on Huan Island Guano. By YV. A. Dixon, 

F. C. S. ,1 istry, Sydney 

f XIV.— The Rise and Progress of Photography. By 

' XV. — Proceedings 

-: ais to the Library 

, -XVIII.— List of Exchanges and Presentations 

, XIX. — Reports from the Sections 

5. Notes on the Observatories in the United 

States. By W. J. MacDonnell, F.R, A. S. . . . 

6. Clark's Companion of Sirius. By H. C. Russell, 


7. The Triangle Jiicr. 

B.A., F.R.A.S 

8. Notes on Jupiter during his Opposition, 1878. 

ByG.D. Hirst 

«). On Star-discs, and the separating power of 

Telescopes. By W. J. MacDonnell, F.R.A.S. 

..: Results of the Transit of 

Venus. By H. C. Russell, B.A., F. R. A. S. . . 

Notes on the Geocentric Conjunction of Mars 


M.., ., 

; of Large l 

6. An Apology for the Introduction of the Study 

of Photography in our Schools of Art aud 
Science. By Ludovico Hart 

7. Ou Music. By Moiis.. Jules Meilhan 

-Appendix: Abstract o 

H. C. Russell, B.A., 
XXI. -List of 1 

XXII.— Index ... 

::.>:! t. 



Vol. XIII. 


(Edited by Prof. Liversidge.) 

at of Officers, Fundamental Rules, By-laws, 



V. Tb Watei of Svdn ■. Itarl - < 

Hey Sharp, M. A.. 

VI. — On the Anatomy of D 

graph i Rev. J. E. 


compared .. By James 
Hector, M.D., C.M.G., F.B.S 

Africa. By Hyde Clarke, A". P. A. I., London 

By°KH £ 

K.C.M.G., M. 

. Hawkins, M.A. 


ilia praterita, F. v. M. By Baron 

Catalogue of L 

s. r ■• 

H. C. Russell, B.A. 

14th. By John Tel 

3. Note on the conjunction of Mars and Saturn, 

July 1st, 1879. By H. C. Russell, B.A., 

4. The River Darling, the water which should 

pass through it. By H. C. Russell, B.A., 
F.R.A.S.. ... 

5. Notes on some recent object i- 

by Carl Zeiss, of Jena. By G. D. Hirst ... 

6. Notes upon Tolles' duplex front one-tenth 

immersion objective, and of a comparative 

one-eighth (No. 18), by both oblique and 
central light. By H. Sharp 

7. An improved Dissecting Microscope. By T. 

'by L. 

Hart during a tour in Germany in 1861 

10. Art Instruction. By John Plummer 

11. T d years at Gladesville. By F. Norton 

Manning, M.D 

[.—Appendix: Abstract 

Sydney Observatory. 
By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S 



Vol. XIV. 


■' ■ 
F.L.S., Vice-President, (Diagram) 

III.— On the Longitude of the Sydney ( »1 

By John Tebbutt, F.RA.S 

IV.— On the Opposition and Magnitudes of Uranus 
and Jupiter. By John Tebbutt, F.R.A.S... 

VII.— A new method of printing Barometer and 
other Curves. By H. C. Russell, B.A., 


: Scale for correcting Barometer Read- 
ings. By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S. 

,_ _0 Diagrams) 
XI.— Remarks on the Colours of Jupiter's Belts, 
and some changes observed thereon during 
the Opposition of 1880. By G. D. Hirst ... 
nt- <■< lie. tnl during Mr. 
Alexr. Forrest's Geographical Exploration of 
North-west Australia in 1879. By Baron 


Ph.D., F.E.S. {Map) 
On Ring*— ** ^ si- 

XIV.— Notes on the Fossil Flora of Eastern A 

and Tasmania. By Dr. Ottaker I 
XV.— On the Acids of the Native Currant. By E. 

H. Bennie, M.A., B.Sc 

XVI.— On Piturie. By Professor Li versidge 
XVIL— On Salt-bush and Native Fodder Plants. By 

W. A. Dixon. F.( .S 

X V LIT. - Water from a Hot Spring, New Britain. By 

Professor Liversidge 

XIX. W t . m H,,t Sprin-. Fiji Islands. By 

Professor Liversidge 

XX.— The a acted upon by 

Sea-water. By Professor Liversidge 
XXI. — On the Composition of some Wood enclosed 
By Professor Liversidge 

XXIL— The Composition of Coral Limestone. By 

Professor Liversidge 

XXILL— The Inorganic Constituents of the Coals of 

New South Wales. By W. A. Dixon, F.C.S. 

XXIV.— On the Composition of some New South Wales 

Coals. By Professor Liversidge 

XXV.-On some New South Wales Minerals. By 
Professor Liversidge 

Article XXVI. -Notes on Xew Cale- 
donia. By Professor Liversidi_'e 227 to 246 

XXVII.— Notes on a C m the 

Paheozoic Rocks of New South Wales. 

■idge, junr., F.G.S. {Plate.) 247 to 253 
Prospect ana 

ydney. By F. B. (imps. 
Wells in the Liverpool 
Abbott, P.M. (Map). 

By T. 

XXX. — Proceedings 

XXXI.— Additions to the Library 309 to 323 

XXXII. — List of Presentations made by the Royal 

Society of New South Wales 324 to 331 

Paper read before the Medical Section. 

The Causation and Prevention of Insanity. By P. Norto 

Manning, M.D 

Appendix : Abstract of the M 

the Sydney Observatory. H. 0. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S 

0. H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S 

List ot Publications 

Vol. XV. 

(Edited by Prof. Liversidge.) 

Article I.— List of Officers xi 

Incorporation xiii to xvi 

III.— Rules, a 

IV. — Anniversary Addrejss. By Hon. Professor 

Smith, C.M.G., a .. &c, President 

V.— The Climate of Mackay. By Hy. Ling Roth, 

F.M.S., &c. (Diagram) 

VI.— Notes of a Journey on the Darling. By W. E. 

Abbott, Wingen, N.S.W 

VII. — Astron. 1 1 1 ' : 'origines. By 

the Rev. Peter MacPherson, M.A 

rill. —The Spectrum and Appearance of the recent 
Comet. By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S. . 
IX— On Comet II, 1881. By JohnTebbutt,F.RA.S. 
X. — New Double Stars, and Measures of some of 
those found by Sir John Herschel. By H. C. 
Russell, B. A., F.R.A.S., Government Astro- 
nomer. (Six dlni/nt/nx) 

XI. — Transit of Mercury, November 8th, 1881. By 
H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S., Government 

Inorgfiic Constituents of some Epiphytic 
as. %W. A. Di.xmi. F.I.( ., F.CV 

[.—On the Inorgjpic Constituents of s 

3 Genera of Plants hitherto k 

as Indigenous to Australia. By Baron Ferd. 
von Miu-ller, K.C.M.G.,M.D.,Ph.D., F.R.S. iOU 
totesonWocL 301to307 

.F.R.S. 185 to 300 
importance of a Comprehei 

of Water 

future welfare of this Colony. By F. B. 

Gipps, C.E 309to 329 

,, XVI.— Proceedings 333to348 

„ XVII.— Additions to the Library 349to365 

„ XVIII.— List of Present ■-. al Society 

of New South Wales 366to373 

Proceedings of the Sections 377 to 407 

Papers read before the Sections. 
On the Star Lacaille 2145. By John Tebbutt, F.R.A.S... 379 

On the Variable Star R. Carina;. By John Tebbutt, 

By W. 

J. Conder 386 to 392 

The Orbit-Elements of Comet II, 1881. By John Tebbutt, 

T F.R.A.S '. ; 3 93to395 

Is Insanity increasing ? By F. Norton Manning, M. D. . . . 399 to 407 
Appendix : Abstract of the Meteorological Observations at the 

witory. H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S 411 to 422 

Ku-sell. H.A., F.R.A.S. 

List of Publications 493 to 436 

lnde * '"■■■"■ "" 437to440 

Abbott, W. E., Notes of a Journey on 

the Darling 

Aborigines, Astronomy of the 


of New South Wales 3 

Abstract, Meteorological Observa- 
tions, Sydney Observatory 4 

Act to incorporate the Society : 

Additions to the Library c 

Address by the Hon. Professor Smith, 

C.M.G., President 

African Languages in relationship to 

those of New Guinea I 

Analysis of ash, Casuarina wood and 

Ash of Plati/ctrium grand? ] 

Asplenhim nidus, ash o 

Results of 

Astronomy of the Australian Aborigi- 
nes ; by Rev. Peter Hacpherson, 

Australian climates and pastures, 
influence of, upon the growth of 

— Indigenous Plants, Census of 

von Mueller, K.C.M.G., F.R.S..'. ! 

Barwon River 

Biological Laboratory for Sydney ... 

g — — donations to... 

Began rich in minerals 

Brooks, J. Report on Transit of 


Cabinets, donations to the Society's 
Canalization for the future welfare 

of this Colony 

^nals, Indian, Statistics of 

Cape List of Double Stars, Sir John 


Carinae R., Variable Star 3 

of ash 1 

Catalogue of 1,227 Stars, Melbourne 3 

Census of the Genera of Plants 

hitherto known as Indigenous to 

Australia; by Baron Ferd. von 

Mueller, KC.M.G., F.R.S 1 

Change — real or supposed (23 stars) 
in magnitude of stars 1 

Chemistry of the Australian Gums 

Clarke, Hyde, v.p. Ethnological 
Inst irution, London, elected Corre- 
sponding Member 3 

Climate of Mackay ; T'by Hy" Ling 
Roth, F.M.S., &c 

Colony, "Water Storage and Canali- 

Colour of stars, change in 3 

Comet, Spectrum and Appearance of 

the recent ; by H. C. Russell, B.A., 

F.R.A.S :. 

II, 1881 ; by John Tebbutt, 

F.R.A.S 87, S 


Conder, W. J. On some Observations 

for Longitude at Lambie I 

Report on Transit of Mer- 

Conjunction of Venus and Saturn, 
6th June, 1880 I 

Constituents, Inorganic, of Epiphytic 
Ferns ; by W. A. Dixon, F.I.C., 
F.C.S 1 

in dried plants ] 

Cuddie " bad water " spring 


Darling, Notes of a Journey on the ; 
by W. E. Abbott 

! Dixon, W. A., F.I.C., F.C.S. On the 
Inorganic Constituents of sonic 
Epiphytic Ferns ] 

! Donations to the Library 5 

Macrotoma podura ; 

Magnitude of stars, change in ] 

Manning,Dr. Islnsamtvincn.wn.r? . 
Map, Eain ; by H. C. Russell, B.A., 

Mara Crock 

Marsupials, Embryology and de- 
Measurement of -wool « 

Measures of Double Stars ; by Sir 

John Herschel 

Melbourne General Catalogue of 

1,227 Stars i 

Meteorites, occluded gases in 

Meteorological Observations, Sydney 

Observatory 4 

Mercury, Transit of; by H. C. 

Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S ] 

Miller, F.B.,F.C.S.,Melb< urneMii !. 

elected Corresponding Member ...8 
Mud Spring, fossil specimens from a £ 
Mueller, BaronFerd. von., KC.M.G, 

M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S. Census of 

the G-enera of Plants hitherto 

known as Indigenous to Australia 1 

Murrillo conglomerate 

Mythology, Australian 


Namoi River 


New Double Stars, Measures of some 
of those found by Sir John Herschel : 
byH. C. Russell 

New Double Stars, Sydney Obser- 

New Zealand Kauri Gum '.......'.'... 3 

New Guinea 3 

languages in relationship to 

Ob8ervation 8 ,Astronomical,HerBchel's 
Results of 3f 

- for Longitude at Lambie 31 

Meteorological, Sydney Ob- 
servatory *...... 4: 

Observatory, Sydney-Table of 
Double Stars 1( 

Occluded gases in met* rites t 

Vrbit-Elements of Comet II, 1881... 3J 


page, indigenous to New 

indigenous to Australia, Census 

of the Genera of 1 


Podura macrotoma ..." ..." 2 

Presentations made by the S< i iety . 
Pyrites, auriferous, treatment of 2 

by H. C. Russell, B.A., 

F.R.A.S... . 422 

Eennie, E. H., M.A., B.Sc, on 


Researches, original 344 

Resins, Australian, chemistry of 314 

New South Wales, and South 

Roth, Hy. Lingi Climate' of Mackay j 

by 21 

Rules, Index to xvii 

Russell, H. C, B.A., F.R.A.S. On the 
und Appearance of the 

New Double Stars,' and 

Measures of some of those found 
by Sir John Herschel 93 

Transit of Mercury 159 

■ Report on Transit "of M 

Rain Map 422 


Saturn and Yenus, Conjunction of, ' 

6 June, 1880 378 

Sea, luminous appearance of the ... 396 

„ „ Medical 398 

» „ Microscopical 396 

Address by 1 

Philosophical Papers 

Spectrum and Appearance of the 
recent Comet ; by H. C. Russell, 

B.A., F.R.A.S 

Statistics of Indian Canals 2 

Star R. Carina;, Variable i 

Lacaille2145 i 

Stars, Double— Table of 1 

New Double, and Measures of 

some of those found by Sir John 
Herschel ; by H. C. Russell, B.A. 

Melbourne General Catalogue 

of, 1227 i 

Storage of Water for the future wel- 
fare of this Colony ? 

Supply, water, 'in the interior of New 

South Wales I 

Sydney Observatory, Abstract of 
Meteorological Observations 4 


Table of Double Stars ] 

Tebbutt. John, F.R.A.S., on Comet 

On the S I ,. u 

On the Variable Star R. 

Cari»i£ I 

Report on ■ 

B.A., F.R.A.S ] 

Trebeck, P. N., Notes on Wool, by.. 301 
Trouton, Capt., describing luminous 
appearance of the sea 396 


Underground drainage system ..... 65 

R. Carinas 380 

Venus and Saturn, Conjunction of, 
6 June, 1880 , 378 


Water storage for the future welfare 

supply i'n the inferior 314 

• ■ j 

K.C.MG-., RE, elected Corre- 

„n ; by P. N. Trebeck 301 
Wright, Professor, spectrum of comet ^ 
\ . ]..<,., on > iUu- ^ 
glycyphylla 339 


Zealand, New, Kauri Gum 339